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URBANA 



CA 



ILLINOIS STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 




3 3051 00000 1242 



J 



Illinois 



State Geological Survey 



BULLETIN NO. 14. 



Year-Book for 19a8. 

H. FOSTER BAIN, 

DIRECTOR. 




URBAN A: 

University of Illinois. 

1909. 



SPRINGFIELD: 
iLLiiroiSiSTATE Journal Co,, State Printers 

1910 



c. v 



STATE GEOLOGICAL COMMISSION. 



Governor C. S. Deneen", Chairman. 
Professor T. C. Ohambbrlin, Vice-Chairman. 
President Edmund J. James, Secretary. 



H. Foster Bain, Director. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://archive.org/details/yearbookfor190814illi 



CONTENTS. 



List of illustrations VI 

Letter of transmittal VII 

Administrative report for 1908; by H. Foster Bain VIII 

Report of the Co-operative Topographic Survey of Illinois; by W . H . Herron 31 

Studies of Illinois coals 183 

Coal deposits and possible oil field near Duquoin, 111.; by Jon. Udden 254 

Casts of Foraminifera in the Carboniferous of Illinois; by Rufus Mather Bagg, Jr 263 

Natural gas in the glacial drift of Champaign County; by Carl F . Knirk 272 

Artificial silicates with reference to amorphous silica; by W . S . Williams 276 

Paleobotanical work in Illinois in 1908; by David White 293 

Proceedings of the Illinois Fuel Conference 296 

List of publications 383 

Index 386 



VI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 

Page. 

1. Map showing progress of Topographic and Drainage Surveys 18 

2. Map showing Upper and Lower Coal Measures 188 

3. Harrison Street Electric Station— Commonwealth Edison Co. Smoke-Proof Furnace in full 

operation < 230 

4. Structure at Duquoin 250 

5. Enlarged views of Endothyra baileyi 264 

FIGURES. ' 

1. Ideal view and corresponding contour map 42 

2. Illinois Shipping Mines— Yearly output of coal, also daily capacity for a period of 10 fiscal years . 213 

3. ■ IlUnois Shipping Mines— Days in operation, average value and pick-rate, yearly, for a period of 

10 fiscal years 214 

4. Improved form of boiler, served by Smoke-Proof Furnace of the kind used in electric stations, 

shown in plate 3 229 

5. Diagramatic section showing relations of wells which penetrate sand pockets, forest beds, 

and bedrock 274 



VII 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Univeesity of Illinois^ March 31, 1909. 
State Geological Survey, 
Governor C. S. Deneen, Chairman and Members of the Geological Com" 
mission : 

GENTLEMEi^r — I submit herewith material forming the year book ol 
the Survey for 1908, with the recommendation that it be printed as 
Bulletin l^o. 14. It includes a review of many activities in geology, 
topographic mapping, and educational work. Of especial interest are 
the papers on Studies of Illinois Coals, many of which were contributed 
by investigators outside of the survey corps. The report of the proceed- 
ings of the Illinois Fuel Conference is also included, although it was ac- 
tually held early in 1909. To this meeting is to be credited the interest 
which resulted in the organization of a department of Mining Engineer- 
ing at the University, and also the strong support for the Mine Eescue 
Station established at Urbana, in cooperation with the U. S. Geological 
Survey. The year has been one of great effort and considerable ac- 
complishment. 

Very respectfully, 

H. Foster Bain, Director. 



VIII 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT FOR 1908, 

(By H. Foster Bain, Director.) 



Contents. 



Page 

Introduction 1 

General 1 

Organization and personnel 2 

Co-operation 3 

Geological section •. 4 

General stratigraphy 4 

Coal 6 

Clay 10 

Cement materials 11 

Quarry products : 12 

Water resources 12 

Oil and gas ". 14 

Educational bulletins 15 

Miscellaneous mineral resources 16 

Mineral statistics 17 

Bureau of information 18 

Topographic section (by W. H. Herron) ; ". . 19 

Drainage section 21 

Organization and work 21 

Surveys for 1908 (by E. W. McCrary) 24 

Publications ' 26 

Reports printed 26 

Reports in preparation 26 

Expenditures 27 

ecommendations 28 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 



Introduction. 



General. — Illinois ranks third in mineral production. Complete fig- 
ures for 1908 are not available but probably tlie total will not differ 
greatly from that for 1907 when the value of the mineral output 
amounted to $152,221,284.00. Omitting pig iron, produced in Illinois 
but made mainly fromi imported materials, and a part of the zinc pro- 
duction for the same reason, the output was $93,415,404.00. This total, 
large as it is, is small in comparison with our possibilities. For exam- 
ple since 1902 the Portland cement output of the State has remained 
nearly •stationary despite the increasing use of such cement and the 
presence of abimdant material within the State. In the meantime many 
new plants have been built in neighboring and competing states. In 
many lines of clay goods we import rather than manufacture. Silica 
and certain other materials, occur abundantly in the State but are so 
little known or so little appreciated as to have been very slightly used. 

To assist in the economical development of these and all our other 
mineral resources, the State Geological Survey was created. Its func- 
tions are" broad and it has a part in the solution of all public problems 
into which a knowledge of geology enters. The finding of limestone 
suitable for use on acid soils, the regulation of our rivers and the recla- 
mation of undrained lands, the location of materials for use. on the 
public highways, the bettering of conditions in our coal mines, the find- 
ing of adequate public water supplies, the better direction of exploration 
for gas, oil, and other buried resources of our commionwealth ; with all 
these problems the State Survey, either alone or in cooperation with 
other State bureaus, is concerned. Its work is educational — the collec- 
tio2i and dissemination of as accurate knowledge as possible regarding 
our mineral resources and our geological environment — of the great 
natural platform on which our civilization and our industries depend . 
Its methods involve field studies, laboratory tests, library research, and 
comparison with other areas and with industrial development in other 
states. The investigation is necessarily continuous since conditions 
change and new knowledge renders necessary and valuable a re-interpre- 
tation of old observations. The present State Geological Survey was 
organized in 1905, no appropriation having previously been made since 
1875. There was in a sense thirty years of back work to do, since dur- 
ing all that time drill holes had been put down and changes had taken 
place which needed to be made a matter of record and study if they 



2 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [BULL. NO. U 

were to be used. A new organization was tO' be created, and methods 
adapted to tliis particular field needed to be developed. Much of this 
has now been done. The various steps so far taken are detailed in this 
and the preceding administrative reports. 

The work is now organized and the methods determined. The rate 
of progress will be measured largely by the funds available and with 
much of the work the sooner it is done, the sooner the people of the 
State will get the benefit. The work is of cumulative value. One 
topographic map has an important but still local value; a complete set 
of maps of a river valley permits the economical and wise planning 
of the regulation of the river for power^ navigation, land reclamation 
and water conservation. A single map in an oil field is of some value; 
but complete maps of the field, or better still, structural maps of the 
whole area, permit very accurate determination of the areas favorable 
for prospecting. A single sample and analysis of coal means little; 
but a complete set of analyses and samples for a field or a State may 
mean the entry of the coal into a wholly new market. It is important 
therefore tO' keep steadily at the work and to do it on as generous a 
scale as the revenues of the State will warrant. That the work now 
being done answers a real need is shown by the hundreds of requests for 
specific information which come to the Survey ofiice and the thousands 
of requests for reports. Indeed the demand for reports is so great that 
it has been necessary to increase the number printed and also to' print 
in one case a second edition. It will probably be necessary to print re- 
peated editions of several of the bulletins. 

Organization and Personnel. — ^The organization of the Geological 
Survey in 1908 remained substantially the same as in 1907. Three 
sections we re recognized: (a) geologic; (b) topographic; (c) drainage. 
The first was administered hj the director, aided by Assistant State 
Geologist DeWolf. The second was in charge of W. H. Herron, Geol- 
rapher in Charge of the Central Section for the U. S. Geological Survey, 
The third was directed by Mr. Herron assisted by E. W. McCrary, en- 
gineer. 

Within the year comparatively few changes occurred in the personnel. 
On July 1st E. S. Blatchley Joined the corps and was assigned tO' the 
duty of making a detailed study of the Eobinson oil field. At the close 
of the field season he assumed in addition the duties of chief clerk. Miss 
Opal Lockwood began work as clerk on July 1st and G. M, Wood left 
the survey to take up' private work in November. In addition to the 
regular corps as given below Messrs. F. E. Layman, C. E. Knirck, A. J. 
Ellis, W. E. Deuchler and a number of others served for short periods 
of time in the field or ofiice. The general organization, exclusive of 
certain temporary emlployes was as given below : 

Commissioners. 

Governor C. S. Deneen, Chairman. 
Professor T. C. Chamberlin, Vice Chairman. 
President E. J. James, Secretary. 



BAIN.] ADMINISTEATIVE REPORT. 6 

Administrative Woek. 
H. F. Bain, Director. 
R. S. Blatchley, Acting Chief Clerk. 
Samuel Abrams, Clerk. 

Geological Section. 

F. W. DeWolf, Assistant State Geologist. 
R. D. Salisbury, Consulting Geologist. 

U. S. Grant, Consulting Geologist. 

C. W. Rolfe, Consulting Geologist. 

S. W. Parr, Consulting Chemist. 

Edward Bartow, Consulting Chemist. 

Stuart Weller, Geologist. 

T. E. Savage, Geologist. 

J. A. Udden, Geologist. 

A. V. Bleininger, Ceramist. 

E. F. Lines, Assistant Geologist. 

R. S. Blatchley, Assistant Geologist. 

Jon. Udden, Field Assistant. 

G. H. C'ady, Field Assistant, 
J. C. Jones, Field Assistant. 
Opal Lockwood, Clerk. 

TopoGEAPHic Section. 

W. H. H'erron, Geographer. 
W. J. Lloyd, Topographer, 
M. Hackett, Topographer. 
E. W. McCrary, Assistant Topographer. 
A. T. Fowler, Assistant Topographer, 
C. B. Kendall, Assistant Topographer. 
W. A. Gelbach, Junior Topographer, 
O. L. Gross, Junior Topographer. 
Lee Morrison, Junior Topographer. 

Deainage Section. 

W. H. Herron, Geographer. 

E. W. McCrary, Engineer, in charge of Kaskaskia River Surveys. 

W, J. Lloyd, Topographer, in charge of the Big Muddy River Surveys. 

P. E. Fletcher, Engineer, in charge of Primary Levels. 

G. M. Wood, Clerk. 

CodperaUon. — iVs in previous years the State G-eological Survey lias 
worked in close cooperation with a number of other organizations. AVith 
the TJ. S. G-eological Survey there has been formal cooperation in the 
topographic work, the study of the coal fields, and the collection of 
mineral statistics, and informal cooperation in the drainage work and 
the study of clays, of cement materials, and of water resources. The 
special work of the State Committee on Water- Ways Eeclamation has 
continued with the active cooperation of the Internal Improvement 
Commission and the U, S. Department of Agriculture. The chemical 
studies of coal have been carried on as heretofore in connection with 
the Engineering Experiment Station, the Graduate School and the De- 
partment of Applied Chemistry of the University of Illinois. The ar- 
rangement covering exchange of information with the State Water 
Survey has continued, Angus tana College has furnished official facil- 
ities for J, A. Udden in his work of collecting and studying drill records 
and the University of Chicago for the men writing educational bulle- 



4 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

tins. In the State Conservation Conimassion, organized by the Governor 
in December^ the State Surve}' is represented by the Director. It is 
expected that through tliis commission an even better coordination of 
the State work and closer cooperation with the various State bnreaus 
will be brought aboiit. 

Acknowledgment shonld be made to the nnmerous firms and individ- 
uals who have supplied the Survey with drill records and other notes 
often of a confidential character. The response to our requests for such 
information has been everywhere instant and hearty and the records 
now being collected and correlated will be of the highest value in the 
difficult task of working out the stratigraphy of the deeply buried por- 
tions of our OT'eat coal and oil fields. 



&-■ 



Geological Section. 

The administration of the geological section of the Survey has been 
in the hands of the Director and Assistant State Geologist DeWolf. 
The principal work of the year has been directed toward : 

(a) The collection and compilation of drill records with a view to the 
making of a preliminary structural map of the State. 

(b) The study of the coal fields of the State as a whole with a view to 
the preparation of a general report in advance of the detailed mapping. 

(c) The completion of the investigation of the Portland cement ma- 
terials of the State, including the sampling and testing of the clays and 
shales. 

In addition the usual work of the bureau of information^ that of 
collecting mineral statistics^ and the studies of stratigraphy and of 
mineral resources were carried on. The details are given in following 
pages. 

General Stratigraphy. — The principal work of the year has been in 
connection with the coriection and study of deep' drill records. In a 
State such as Illinois^ in which outcrops are relatively rare and over 
which there is quite generally a thick drift cover^ the careful preserva- 
tion and study of deep drill records is especially imiportant. Only by 
this means will the geology of much of the State ever be learned. Deep 
holes are usually drilled in this area in search of water, coal, or gas and 
oil. The methods of drilling for these differ materially. Expert drillers 
for one may be quite inexpert when looking for the other. The men in 
one industry are seldom in touch with those in either of the others. On 
this account the work has been organized in three sections : F. W. 
DeWolf being in charge of the collection and study of coal test drillings, 
E. S. Blatchley looking after oil and gas well records and J. A. ITdden 
collecting and examining drillings from wells |)ut down in search for 
water. In each case the general purpose has been to collect and corre- 
late the records of as many deep borings as possible. This is being 
done both by correspondence and personal visit. Each l)oring is located 
as accurately as possible and its elevation above sea level determined 
])y reference to railway grade or to actual surveys where necessary. For 
convenience in reference a map has been prepared with a tack bearing 
a key number in each township for which records are available. At 
present there are nearly 5,000 records in our files. These are fairly 



iBAiN.] ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. O 

well scattered o^'cr the State though there are considerable areas in 
which we have none. In others the records are incomplete and inaccur- 
ate and it will be necessary to secure better ones. This^, and the study 
of those at present available, is the work now being undertaken. The 
details are given under the separate subjects. 

The study of these records can not prove of great value except in 
connection with corresponding studies of the outcrops of the rocks. The 
general work on the stratigraphy of the State is therefore being pushed 
forward rapidly, Stuart Weller of the University of Chicago remaining 
in general charge of this phase of work. He has devoted his personal 
attention to the Mississippian rocks, being assisted by Jon Udden. The 
Mississippian system is one of the most important in the State. In 
its upper portion are found some of our most productive oil sands. In 
lower beds are limestones and shales suitable for making Portland ce- 
ment, stone for making lime, for building, for road metal, for use on 
soils, and for other purposes. In the same rocks are found the fluorspar, 
lead and zinc deposits of Pope and Hardin counties and certain minor 
occurrences of zinc not as yet found to be of commercial importance in 
the western part of the State. The Mississippian rocks, over much of 
the State form the base upon 'which our Coal Measures rest and from 
both the scientific and practical points of view they constitute one of 
the most important formations in the State. It is of first importance 
inat their stratigraphy be understood and Dr. Weller is therefore devot- 
ing his main attention to them with a view^ tO' the preparation of a 
general report upon the subject. 

The rocks below the Mississippian including the Devonian, Silurian 
and Ordovician, outcrop over considerable areas in Southern Illinois 
and are capable of yielding large amounts of stone of various kinds. 
In them also occur the silica deposits which are becoming more and 
more important. The stratigraphy of these rocks has been in some 
confusion and T. E. Savage has been assigned to work them up. He 
has spent parts of two field seasons in the area and has done his labora- 
tory work under the direction of Professor Schuchert at Yale University, 
Important results have already been reached and a full report on the 
subject is in preparation. In the northern portion of the State the first 
steps have been taken toward a much needed re-study of the Niagara 
rocks. A. J. Ellis, acting under Messrs. Savage and Weller, has under- 
faken the collection of notes and specimens along the Xiagara-Ordo- 
vician contact with very interesting results. 

The general study of the Coal Measures has been carried out in con- 
nection with Mr. DeWolf's studies of the coal. The principal strati- 
graphic work has been done by David White, kindly detailed to that 
work by the U. S. Geolo^gical Survey. Upon the basis of correlations 
made by him, Mr. DeWolf and the various members of the State Survey 
w^orking in the coal fields are preparing a wholly new map of the coal 
fields. Messrs. White and DeWolf spent some time in a general recon- 
naissance through the western part of the State studying the relations 
of the Coal Measures to the Pottsville and lower rocks. This trip' was 
followed by one through the sonthern counties by Messrs. White, DeWolf 
and Bain, for similar work. At the close of the work in Illinois, Mr. 



6 YEAE BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

White spent some weeks in similar studies in Indiana^ very greatly to 
the advantage of the work in our own State and it now seems probable 
that a satisfactory correlation of coal beds and a uniform nomenclature 
for the whole Eastern Interior Coal Field will be developed. 

In the extreme southern part of the State is a limited area covered, 
by rocks of the Cretaceous and Tertiary age. In 1906 a reconnaissance 
of this area was made by Mr. DeWolf, but since then it has been im- 
possible to spare any one for further work on these rocks. Fortunately 
the Federal Survey is engaged in a, general study of the rocks of the 
Mississippi embayment and will be able shortly to send some one into 
this area. There are important fire clays, shales, and road materials to 
be derived from them and better knowledge of their stratigraphy is 
much needed. 

Above the hard rocks over most of the State is a variable thickness of 
sand, gravel, and boulder clay resulting from the action of great ice 
sheets which in Pleistocene times covered so- much oi the State. Despite 
the great scientific and practical interest of these beds the Survey has 
been unable to spare any one to take up' their systematic study. During 
the season just passed, J. C. Jones, acting under the supervision of E. 
D. Salisbury, made a study of the Pleistocene deposits of the New 
Haven- Gralatia area. W. C. Alden, for the U. S. G-eological Survey, 
spent a short time in the study of the: older drift sheets of northwestern 
Illinois. In the studies for educational bulletins., the glacial deposits 
of several areas have been studied, but there is room and need for a 
thorough general study of these deposits. In the Pleistocene are found 
the water supplies of most of our villages and towns ; the gravels needed 
for road construction and for railway ballast; the sands for concrete and 
other building construction; clays for brick, drain tile, etc.; important 
local sources of natural gas; and the distribution of the deposits con- 
trols, primarily, the character of our soils. Fortunately a general study 
of these deposits is available having been made some years since for 
the U. S. Greological Survey by Frank Leverett.^ Much new data is 
iiowever now available and many gaps remain to be filled. A map show- 
ing the distribution and character of the gravel beds of the State may 
be mentioned as one of the pressing needs which might be met by a 
study of these deposits. 

Coal. — Illinois ranks second among the states in the production of coal. 
In 1907, 51,317,146 tons, having a total value of $54,687,382.00, were 
mined. The figures for 1908 are not complete but preliminary esti- 
mates indicate that Illinois was almost alone among the states in hold- 
ing its production. While in the country as a whole the amount mined 
fell ofl: from, 15 to 20 per cent, Illinoisi mines produced nearly as 
much as in 1907, a record year. Despite this gratifying fact it 
remains true that our mines are not working to anything like 
their capacity. In 1907 the average number of days worked was 
218. It would probably be fair to assume 300 working days a year as 
possible. On this basis there was a loss of thirty per cent of the possible 
working time and this is not an unusual per cent of loss in our State. 



i The niinois Glacial Lobe, Mon. 38, U. S. Geological Survey. 



BAIN.] ADMINISTRATIVE KEPOKT. i 

The reasons for this are complex. In part they lie in the nature of the 
coal which prevents its storage withont spontaneons combustion ; in part, 
in the general ignorance as to correct methods of firing and the real 
value of the coal; and finally in part, in the present organization of the 
industry with excessive competition in selling. The net results are bad 
for the industry and therefore for the State as a whole. Cheap coal re- 
duces manufacturing costs but allows wasteful burning. It also entails 
wasteful mining and even prevents the introduction of methods of safe- 
guarding the men in the mines. It is a. serious question whether we are 
not paying, in loss of life in the mines, in loss of efficiency in our plants, 
and in loss of interest and capital invested in the industry, more than 
the cheapness of the coal is worth. 

A better understanding of what our coal resources are and the best 
methods of utilizing them will contribute largely to the solution of the 
various problems of the co^al industry. To that end the work of the 
Survey has been organized so as to cover both field and laboratory inves- 
tigations. They have continued to be under the immediate superAdsion 
of Assistant State Geologist DeWolf. The field investigations are for 
the purpose of acquiring exact information regarding the distribution 
of our coal beds, their number, thiclaiess, character of floor and roof, 
the dip', any faulting which may be present and, in brief, all data neces- 
sary to an exact inventory of the workable coal of the State and the 
natural conditions which influence the methods of working. This work 
is being carried on in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey 
which bears half the expense. The method is to make exact maps locat- 
ing ail natural outcrops or available drill holes, to determine their eleva- 
tions, and tO' correlate the various coal beds with a view to making 
structural contour maps such as already have been presented in the 
year books of the survey. In final publication these maps are to be ac- 
companied by reports discussing in detail the mineral resources of the 
areas. This final publication is to be made by the Federal government 
which assumes all the expense of the necessary printing and engraving. 

The work so far completed includes reports on the Peoria quadrangle 
by J. A. U'dden, of the Springfield quadrangle by T. B. Savage, on the 
Belleville-Breese quadrangles by J. A, TJdden and on the New Haven, 
Eldorado and Galatia quadrangles by F. W. DeWolf. The survey of the 
West Frankfort quadrangle by Messrs. DeWolf and Cady is complete 
and a report is being prepared. The Herrin quadrangle was surveyed 
in the season just closed by T. E. Savage but a report will probably not 
be prepared for some months. A strip six miles wide extending from 
south of Marion to south of Harrisburg, and covering a portion of the 
area of coals I^o. 5 and !N'o. 6 was surveyed this season by W. E. Deuchler 
under direction of G. H. Cady and the report is in preparation. Level 
lines were run to all known drill holes, and, while this area is outside 
the region topographically surveyed, it is believed that it can be satis- 
factorily mapped on this basis. It is proposed to extend similar surveys 
over the entire coal fields as rapidly as funds will permit and to execute 
them in such detail as the data available will allow. Something over 
700 drill records have been collected and the holes located and leveled to,, 
in the course of these detailed surveys. 



8 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [hull. no. 14 

Aside from the surveys ineiitioned, and in advance of tlie topographic 
mappings Messrs. DeWodf and Jon Udden have been engaged in a study 
of the coal fields as a whole and the collection and correlation of drill 
and shaft records. These, in connection with the work of David White 
on the correlation of the coal beds will affoird the basis for a general re- 
port npon the coal fields as a whole. In this connection Mr. DeWolf 
has made a special study of the Danville district and its relations to the 
Indiana coal fields and Mr. Udden, a careful study of the structural 
features of the Duquoin area. Practically all the coal producing coun- 
ties of the State ha,ve been visited. 

The field work included the careful sampling of all coal beds ex- 
amined. There are now available satisfactory face samples of the coal 
in 148 mines, representing probably all seams worked. Less satisfactory 
samiples of 129 mines are also available. Of this earlier series forty-one 
have been checked by later work and are included in the first figure 
given. The others are being checked as rapidly as possible. 

The laboratory work on coal is directed toward the determination of 
its composition and heating value both in the mine and as actually 
marketed, and the solution of various chemical problems bearing on its 
better marketing and utilization. This work is being done in coopera- 
tion with the Department of Applied Chemistry of the University and 
the Engineering Experiment Station. It is under the direction of Pro- 
fessor S. W. Parr who in 1908 was assisted hy W. F. Wheeler, J. M. 
Lindgren and for part of the year by C. K. Francis and Perry Barker. 

A large volume of analytical work has been carried on within the year. 
Preliminary reports on part of this work have been published.^ During 
the year 1908 face samples fromi approximately one hundred different 
mines were analyzed by Messrs. Wheeler and Lindgren. In addition a 
great many duplicates were taken for checking purposes and seventy 
samples of the collection of 1906 were analyzed for ash and moisture. 
Studies of field and laboratory methods were also carried on. These 
included comparison of samples from different parts of the same mine, 
comparison of samples obtained by quartering and in the laboratory, 
studies of m;oisture absorption by samples ground respectively by ball 
mill, discs and bucking board. A study was also made of accuracy of 
moisture determinations when based on coals of various sizes. These 
results will be published in a report by the Engineering Experiment 
Station. 

Weathering tests commenced a year ago have been finished and the 
results are nearly ready for publication. The samples include coal 'of 
two sizes fro'm each of three mines and smaller samples stored under 
water. -Weathering tests in cooperation with W. L. Abbott of the Com- 
monwealth-Edison Company, Chicago, are also under way. Studies in 
spontaneous combustion have been started by Mr. Wheeler for the Exper- 
iment Station. The preliminary results indicate that coal stored in 
heaps takes fire much below usual combustion temperatures. This in- 
creases the difficulties in the way of coal storage but does not necessarily 
preclude success. 



i Trans. Amer. Inst. Mining Engineers, Chattanooga Meeting 1908. 



JBAiN.] ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. \) 

In the reiO'Ort of 1907 the following regarding tlie clesirahility of cer- 
tain investigations in mining technology was printed : ^^It has been 
found impracticahle at the present time, mainly owing to limitations of 
funds, to undertake certain hilghly desirable studies of the technology 
of the mining industry and of the geographical distribution of markets 
for Illinois coals. It is believed that much good would result from in- 
vestigations along these lines and that certain portions of the work are 
well within the proper field of the State Geological Survey. It is now 
well known that there is, under present commercial conditions, an enor- 
mous waste in the mining of Illinois coal. In individu.al districts it has 
been estimated to amount to as much as sixty per cent, though of course 
such losses are not general. It would, however, probably be safe to say 
that in very many places forty per cent of the coal in the ground is left 
unmined or is ruined in the process of mining. In addition, the methods 
of mining introduced in recent years have greatly increased the produc- 
tion of fine sizes and have also, seemingly, increased the danger to life 
and property in the mines. The causes for all these losses are complex, 
and it is not to be supposed that either operators or miners willingly sub- 
mit to them. Neither is it to be expected that the losses of life and 
property can be entirely done away with. At the same time experience 
has abundantly proven that careful and impartial investigations of such 
conditions will point the way to the remedy for at least some of the 
abuses, and in view of the enormous importance of the subject to the 
State and the public at large, such studies are believed to be amply war- 
ranted. Fortunately it now seems likely that the United States govern- 
ment will take up a general study of the miost co^mplex of the problems — 
causes and preventions of explosions and other accidents in mines. This 
still leaves, however, many important local problems to be investigated ; 
problems that are in no way national, and it is hoped that the State 
Survey may be given the means of taking them up. 

^^The expansion of markets for Illinois coal is a matter of vital im- 
portance to the coal industry and indirectly to the people of the entire 
State. One of the most important means of promoting this expansion 
is by removing certain misapprehensions as to the quality of the coal 
and the pointing out of better means of burning, so as to increase its 
efficiency and decrease the smoke produced. This work has been taken 
up vigorously by the Engineering Experiment Station, which has pub- 
lished excellent bulletins on ^How to burn Illinois Coal Without Smoke,' 
and other similar subjects. In addition to' this valuable work, there 
should be investigations of the actual markets for the different grades of 
coal and of possible enlargements of these markets. There are large 
areas to the northwest within which Illinois washed coals might profitably 
supplant eastern coals now being sold. There are other areas to the south 
and west where, with proper organization of transportation agencies, 
even in advance of improvement of the rivers, trade territory could be 
gained. Any widening of the market would be of large benefit to the 
local industry, particularly if the summer market could be increa,sed. 
For this reason the studies now under way relating to weathering of coal 
and coal storage are especially important." 



10 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Since the above was written the study of mine accidents has been taken 
up by the Federal government and a branch station has been established 
at Urbana for the demonstration of apparatus and methods of rescue. 
It is believed that this will do much to' decrease the number of accidents 
and of fatalities. The general problems.^ however, of regular under- 
ground work and of better markets for our coal remain untouched. The 
last is peculiarly a local problem and it is believed riiuch good would be 
accomplished by collecting and dissemiinating correct information re- 
garding it. IvTo elaborate investigations are called for but one or more 
men should be employed for so long a time as may be necessary. 

Clay. — The clay-^vorking industries of the State are in satisfactory 
condition. In 1907 the total output was valued at $13,220,489.00. In 
1908 the outpu.t was as large, but owing to lower prices the total value 
may prove to have been less. The principal business is as yet the manu- 
facture of low priced products ; building and paving brick and structural 
materials. These industries have grown with the population until Illi- 
nois now ranks fourth in total output of clay wares. It is to' be expected 
that with increased wealth and leisure, the per capita consumption of 
these and higher priced lines of manufactured goods will increase. 
With our wealth of raw material and fuel it is possible to^ manufacture 
to advantage miuch that is now imported and at some future time it can- 
not be doubted that this will be done. In the meantime as evidence of 
the satisfactory economic basis of our brick industry it may be mentioned 
that one of the larger plants now ships standard building brick into 
territory extending from New York to St. Paul and that despite the 
business depression many of our plants ran full time and some even re- 
fused orders in 1908. 

Within the year the report upon Illinois Paving Brick and Paving 
Brick Clays, prepared in cooperation with the Department of Ceramics by 
Messrs. Rolfe, Purdy, Talbot and Baker was published. This report is 
based u.pon careful studies not only of our paving brick and clays but 
also of those with which they come in competition and which are nuar- 
keted in Illinois. The results of elaborate studies show that Illinois 
clays and paving brick compare favorably with those of neighboring 
states. In addition Mr. Purdy^s tests show a relation between the spec- 
ific gravity of the test pieces burned at different degrees of heat, and the 
qualities of the resulting brick, sO' that a way is now open for testing at 
comparatively slight expense and with considerable security as to results, 
tlie various clays believed to be suitable for manufacture into pavers. The 
other important results of the work may be summarized as below : 

(1) The origin of clays and their relation to the parent rock and the 
processes by which the rock is changed to clay, are discussed in detail. 

(2) It is shown that by suitable treatment it is possible to make satis- 
factory pavers from a large number of clays that were previously held to be 
unavailable. 

(3) It is shown that suitable clays occur widely distributed throughout 
the State and that probably no considerable area is wholly destitute of satis- 
factory clays. 

(4) Many analyses and physical tests have been made on type clays with 
interesting advances in scientific and technical knowledge. 



BAIN.] ADMINISTEATIVE EEPOET. 11 

(5) An accurate series of comparative tests of a large number of paving 
bricks are described and valuable suggestions are given for the improvement 
and refining of the methods of testing, 

(6) The methods of constructing and caring for brick pavements are 
presented in simple statement suitable for general use and methods of 
cheapening the cost of such pavements are pointed out. This is of partic- 
ular importance in view of the large number of cities and towns which will 
always use brick paving. 

The report as a whole is a very valuable addition to the rapidly grow- 
ing series of bulletins. 

The new work for the year involved the collection and study of clays 
of the State available for use in making Portland cement as detailed 
elsewhere. Since the sampling and analysis of these clays has involved 
considerable expense, and since they are representative of considerable 
bodies of clay well situated for development, it is proposed to continue 
their study by miaking general burning tests and other experiments de- 
signed to determine their range of usefulness. E. F. Lines has been 
assigned to this work. 

The general study of the clays of the State involves the difficult prob- 
lem of adequate sampling of the undeveloped deposits. G-rab samples are 
worse than useless and samples of weathered outcrops give results which 
are deceptive. We are frequently called on tO' furnish data regarding 
the occurrence of clays suitable for special purposes, such as convertor 
linings, retort-making, and other refractory wares. The data at hand 
do- not often permit of an adequate answer to these inquiries and the 
specimens sent in by land owners are not often serviceable because of 
defective sampling. Illinois contains much good clay. The preliminary 
general studies of the stratigraphy of the deposits and of methods of 
testing have been carried out. These should be followed by more detailed 
field studies accompanied by careful sampling and laboratory tests 
which are beyond the means now at the disposal of the Survey. It is 
hoped that some suitable provision may soon be made for this work. 

Cement Materials. — In 1907, the State produced Portland and natural 
cement to the value of $2,725,326.00. The investigation of the cement 
materials of the State begun in that year was continued with the special 
object in view of determining the location and quality of deposits of 
clay and shale to be mixed with the limestones already analyzed. This 
work was under the immediate direction of A. Y. Bleininger who was 
assisted by F. E. Laymian. Mr. Layman visited all the localities where 
the work of the previous summer showed the occurrence of limestone 
suitable for making Portland cement, and collected samples of the clay 
most available for mixing with the limestone. This involved careful 
work since it was necessary to get an adequate quantity of unweathered 
material from a deposit suitably situated for development and large 
enough to furnish a supply for some years. About 100 pounds of clay, 
representing a much larger quantity of material collected in the field, 
were shipped to the laboratory for each locality. This was quartered 
down and subjected to analysis and test. The result of the work as a 
whole will, it is believed, furnish an accurate guide to our verv im- 



12 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

portant dej)osits of Portland cement making material, though no attempt' 
has been made to sample every promising ontcrop. The report is being 
prepared for the press by Messrs. Bleininger, Layman and Lines. 

Portland cement is one of the most widely nseful of modern building 
materials. 'The growth of the industry from 42,000 barrels in 1880 to 
48,785,390 barrels in 1907 is one of the great industrial developments of 
America. In the opinion of many competent judges the future develop- 
ment will be even greater than that of the past. The exhaustion of our 
forests, with the natural desire of an older and richer people to build 
better, the wide increase in the variety of uses for cement, the desira- 
bility of conserving our iron and steel, and the fact that our permanent 
improvements both public and private are still largely to be built, all 
l^oint to an increasing demand for cement. Illinois with its favorable 
situation regarding raw materials, fuel and transportation ought to look 
forward to supplying not only its own needs but those of much of the 
territory to the north and west. It is a pleasure to be able to state that 
our investigations show an abundance of material of . suitable quality in 
situations favorable for development and to predict that a successful and 
ex|)anding industry will follow. The excellent plants now in operation 
will necessarily not only be increased in size but supplemented by others 
to meet the future demands of the market. 

Quarry Products. — Within the last season no attempt has been made 
to carry forward the special studies of quarry products. In 1906 and 
1907 a number of quarries were visited and in cooperation with the State 
Highway Commission the availability of the rock for highway con- 
struction was determined. Many miore quarries and natural outcrops 
remain to be sampled, but with the force now available it is impossible 
systematically to carry forward this work. The importance of these 
studies is large since in many parts of the State it is extremely difficult 
to get local materials for road making. Aside from this is the fact that 
large sums of money are annually sent out of the State for the purchase 
of building stone. If our own materials were thoroughly understood 
and completely utilized much of this money would be kept at home. The 
Survey has already bronght to light considerable bodies of oolite and 
other building stones which are apparently well situated and of suitable 
grade for quarrying. A special investigation of them with adequate 
sampling and complete tests is much needed. At present the largest 
local use of stone is for concrete. It cannot be doubted that the de- 
mand for this purpose will rapidly increase and with this in view it 
is highly important to determine as promptly as possible the locations 
and character of all our stone resources. 

Water Resources. — Water is our most important mineral, the one most 
vital to our health and prosperity, the one without which life itself 
would become extinct. The importance of property regulating the supply 
was well shown in 1908 in the southern counties of the State, where, 
following a period of unusual flood, came a period of unusual drought. 
Then streams ceased to flow. The ordinary wells and other sources of 
supply were taxed to the limit, and in many cases failed altogether. Coal 
washers and factories were shut do^\Ti, street and interurban cars ceased 



BAIN.] ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 13 

to run, and in places the supply was barely sufficient for tlie actual neces- 
sities of liealth and sanitation. The whole industrial machinery of the 
region was disarranged. If such conditions follow a, drought in this area 
now, it may be well asked what will happen as the population increases 
in density. It is estimated that in the next century from three to four 
times as many people miust be accommodated in our present territory 
and with that population a drought such as occurred this year would en- 
tail great suffering, despite the fact that Illinois lies within the area of 
abundant rain fall. It is not that the total supply of water is inade-. 
cfuate but its distribution is not satisfactor}-. With increasing density 
of population also, the difficulty of procuring uncontaminated drinking- 
water is rapidly increasing and often the problem of securing adequate 
and suitable water for industrial purposes in favorable locations is a 
severe one. 

With many of these problems the Grcological Survey has no direct con- 
cern, the responsibility resting rather on the State Water Survey, the 
Internal Improvement Commission or the Board of Health. As relates, 
however, to the problem of distribution of water in the rocks below sur- 
face, the Geological Survey has direct concern. To the study of this 
phase of the general problem of water supplies J. A. Udden has been as- 
signed. His work involves the study of underground water horizons by 
means of outcrop studies and the usual collection and study of deep well 
drillings. In the past season he has especially studied the area lying be- 
tween the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Already several hundred drill 
records are available. It is, however, especially desirable that this work 
should be based upon first hand knowledge of the drillings themselves. 
To that end arrangements will be made with any individual or munici- 
pality contemplating deep drilling in the State, for examination of the 
work. Directions for taking the samples and bags for sending them to 
the laboratoiy will be furnished. All needed laboratory tests will be 
made without charge and all possible information will be furnished to 
the well owner. 

In certain portions of the State it is even now possible to furnish quite 
accurate forecasts as to depth, quality and quantity of water available. 
Each new well, where the samples have been carefully taken and studied, 
extends the area within which such forecasts are possible' and increases 
their accuracy. The Survey will therefore welcome correspondence with 
persons contemplating drilling. 

In much of the State the deeper waters are not suitable for industrial 
purposes and their corrective treatment is a problem for the State Water 
Survey. Elsewhere the waters while suitable are not present within 
practicable drilling depths or are inadequate in quantity to the uses of 
a large community. For the smaller cities, however, or for single in- 
dustries deep wells are often capable of furnishing a satisfactory supply. 
The complete investigation of these problems is necessarily a matter 
of some years. A beginning has been made in a special study of the 
water resources of the East St. Louis district,^ and in the preparation, 
in cooperation with the State Water Survey, of a report upon Mineral 



i Bull. No. 5, Postage 6 cents. 



14 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. NO. U 

Content of Illinois Water's.^ Mr. Udden's investigations will furnish 
mncli needed additional data wliicli will be published in special reports 
from time to time, , similar tO' his paper on the artesian wells of the 
Peoria district.^ This work is being carried on in cooperation with the 
TJ. S. G-eological Survej which makes a small allotment toward the ex- 
pense in order to permit its extension where desirable into adjacent 
states. 

Oil and Gas. — In 1904 there was no recorded production of oil in Illi- 
nois. In 1905 the Eastern Illinois oil fields were discovered and 156,502 
barrels were shipped by tank cars. In 1906 pipe lines were extended into 
the area, 4,397,050 barrels of oil were shipped and the State ranked 
ninth. In 1907 there was a large increase of production, the State rank- 
ing third with a total output of 24,540,938 barrels. In 1908 there was 
another increase, the total shipments for the year reaching approximately 
40,000,000 barrels. The principal production is from Clark, Crawford 
and Lawrence counties in the southeastern part of the State, the oil 
occurring in the Pennsylvania, Pottsville and Chester rocks of the Car- 
boniferous. Immediately after the organization of the Survey the study 
of these fields was taken up and several papers describing the territory 
have been published f complete reports are yet to be written. 

Of prime importance in any final report on an oil field is an accurate 
knowledge of the relative elevation of the various oil sands. With this in 
view a special party was organized in 1906 to run level lines through the 
northern part of the field, and the elevations were indicated by suit- 
able bench marks. The next year regxilar topographic work was taken 
up and surveys were made of the field between the Indianapolis Southern 
and B. & 0. S. W. railway lines. In the season of 1908 the levels were 
extended south to connect with those previously run in the Mount Car- 
mel area. 

Supplementary to this topographic work P. S. Blatchley, assisted by 
Douglas Wright and J. C. Jones, collected drill records throughout the 
Hardinville quadrangle and accurately determined the elevation of ap- 
proximately 2,800 wells. Since the close of the season these drill records 
have been plotted and are now being studied, in order to construct maps 
showing the depths to the various sands, and the recorded thicknesses of 
the latter. It is believed these maps will be of large service in the 
further development of this important field and also that they will yield 
valuable data for the study of the laws governing the genesis and accum- 
ulation of oil and gas. In the present unsatisfactory condition of our 
knowledge of these law^s and of the structure of the State it is impossible 
to make accurate forecast. It is believed that with the more complete 
data now being collected this will become possible, at least in some cases. 

Throughout the oil fields a certain amount of gas is found with the 
petroleum. The gas is now being used in the surrounding towns and in 
pumping oil. The individual wells have good pressure and volume but 



1 Bull. No. 10. 

2 Bull. No. 8, Year Book for 1907, pp. 313-334. 

3 Petroleum in Illinois, by A. W. Lewis, Mining World, Apr. 14, 1906. 

Petroleum Industry of Southeastern Illinois, by W. S. Blatcliley, Bull. 2, State Geo!. Survey, 1906 
Petroleum Fields of Illinois in 1907, by H. F. Bain, Bull. No. 8, State Geol. Survey, pp. 273-312. 



BAIN.] ADMINISTEATIVE EEPOET. 15 

in the main they have sO' far proven short lived so that the gas is rela- 
tively of much less importance than the oil. However^ the valne of the 
product for 1907 reached $143^577.00. Outside the main fields gas has 
been found at a number of points and utilized at several smiall towns. 
In Pike county it occurs in the Niagara over a considerable area but with 
small pressure. In other places it is found in the Pleistocene- or drift 
deposits and its presence is not necessarily indicative of large supplies 
or of the presence of oil at deeper horizons. C. F. Knirk has furnished 
a special report on gas pockets of this character. 

Both oil and gas in the rock have been found at a number of places in 
the southwestern part of the State ; notably at Sparta, Centralia and in 
the East St. Louis district. A large amount of prospecting is now being 
carried on throughout the State and the Survey is called on almost daily 
for information regarding the probable depth to the various oil sands 
and regarding the presence or absence of anticlinals. It is usually pos- 
sible to give a fair estimate of the depth to the sands, but our data re- 
garding geologic structure is not so complete. Structural features which 
are very slight, measured in feet, are here of very large importance as 
regards the accumulation of oil and gas. For this reason it is neces- 
sary to have a complete restudy of all the available drill records with 
exact data regarding their elevation. Man}^ of the records now on file 
were made years ago and are of unequal accuracy. In few cases were 
the samples or drill core examined by competent geologists and accord- 
ingly there are many errors. New records are being collected as rapidly 
as possible and the elevation of both old and new test holes determined 
by reference to railway or other lines of levels. It is proposed to make 
a preliminary structural map of the State in advance of the detailed 
surveys. Such a map will be particularly useful in future prospecting 
for oil and gas. G-ood progress is being made but probabty another 
season must be devoted to the work before any general results are avail- 
able for publication. In the meantime Jon Udden has made a special 
study of the Duquoin area within which there is a certain amount of 
faulting and a small structural area of some possible significance in the 
finding of gas and oil. 

Educational Bulletins. — The law governing the State Geological Sur- 
vey, by the provision it makes for the consideration of ^'Scientific and 
economic questions * * * deemed of value to the people,^' and the 
provision that materials collected shall be distributed to ''the educational 
institutions of the State in such manner as the Commissioners may de- 
termine to be of the greatest educational interests of the State,^^ indi- 
cates plainly' that it was the purpose of the General Assembly to provide 
for the educational as well as economic phases of tlie Survey work. In 
harmony with this idea, plans were early made for a series of bulletins 
available for use in the schools, which should put in simple form, the 
fundamental facts regarding the physical geography of our areas. Pro- 
fessor Salisbury of the University of Chicago was placed in charge of 
the w^ork ^nd seven typical areas were selected for special study. Ee- 
ports upon all of these have been prepared and are available wjienever 
the printer can handle them. The first of the reports, that on the 



16 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

physical geograpliy of the Evanston-Waukegaii region by Messrs. Atwood 
and Goltliwait was piiblislied as Bulletin 7. This has proA^n to be one 
of the most popular publications of the-Survey, being favorably received 
by educators everywhere. It is being quite generally used in the schools 
of the area treated and there is a large demand for it elsewhere. Un- 
fortunately this demand was not anticipated and the edition printed 
proved much too small. It will be necessary to print a second. In the 
meantime six similar reports are read}^^ ancl field work of this sort has 
been temporarily discontinued until th€ printing can be brought up to 
date. 

Miscellcuieous Mineral Resources. — Within the State there are a large 
number of minor minerals of which there is or may be a considerable 
output. Galena and blende^ the common sulphides of lead and zinc are 
mined in both the northern and southern parts of the State and are 
known^ tliough not as yet in commercial quantities^ in the western and 
southwestern counties. A small amount of silver is found with the lead 
in the southern counties. In 1907 (according to the IT. S. Geological 
Survey) the total values for the State were : Silver^ $1^882.00 ; lead, 
$87,980.00; zinc, $86,966.00. In 1908 preliminary estimates by the 
Mining World indicate that 3,017 tons of blende and 93 tons of galena 
were sliipped from JoDaviess county as compared with 2,530 and 620,. 
respectively for 1907. In the southern part of the State the production 
of zinc ore is irregular and some galena is produced as an incident to 
fluorspar mining in Pope and Hardin counties. The fluorspar mines 
are among the most important in the world and yielded, in 1907, 25,128 
tons selling for $141,971.00. The introduction of the open-hearth 
method of steel making in the place of the Bessemer process is increasing 
the demand for spar and promises an increasing output. 

Pyrites, the sulphide of iron, occurs widely disseminated but is rarely 
in commercial quantities. A small amount is saved as a by-product of 
zinc and lead mining and at one of the coal mines of the State, at least, 
the "sulphur balls" are hand picked and sold for making sulphuric acid. 

Silica, in the form of a weathered chert, is found in the Devonian 
beds of Lmion and Alexander counties. It is used for a variety of pur- 
poses and is probably capable of being used for many others. The 
stratigraphy of the deposits is being studied by-T. E. Savage, while 
T. E. Ernest of the Engineering Experiment Station is experimenting 
with the material.^ 

Ochre and paint pigments of various sorts are fomid at a few places 
in the State but are very little used. Sampling and testing the materials 
would probably lead to the development of some of the deposits. 

Glass sand of high grade is taken out at Ottawa and shipped widely. 
It is probable that sand suitable for lower grades of manufacture occur 
at other points in the State. These deposits, as alsasand for building, 
moulding and other uses should be studied. 

Whetstones are found in tlie southern part of the State and it is- 
known that the formations from which these stones are taken in Indiana, 
extend into our State. Preliminary samples indicate that portions at 
least of the material are of commercial grade. 



state Geol. Survey, Bulletin No. 8, 147-149; Bulletin No. 4, pp. 185-186. 



BAIN.] 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 



17 



Mineral Statistics. — One of the most important aids to the economic 
develoiDment of an area is the publication of accurate statistics of pro- 
duction. The survey is therefore cooperating with the TJ. S. Greological 
Suryey in the annual collection and publication of the statistics of out- 
put of our mineral industry. For the year 1907 the plan adopted was 
that of the previous years.^ the State Survey undertaking to look up the 
delinquent producers and the Federal Survey carrying on the main cor- 
respondence. Mr. F. B. Yan Horn acted as special agent and prepared 
Circular No. 4:, containing a resume of the production for 1907. It was 
preceded by Circular 3, giving the special statistics of the petroleum in- 
dustry. Since these reports were gotten out at the earliest possible 
moment they were not complete with regard to minor products, and 
slight corrections are included in the figures in this report. 

in collecting the figures for 1908 the plan has been changed and the 
inquiry blanks are in the main sent out by, and returns made to, the 
State Survey; the returns after tabulation being forwarded to Wash- 
ington. There are now on the mailing lists 2,040 producers and the 
output includes coal, coke, clay, pottery, brick and tile, stoneware, sand- 
lime brick, flourspar, sandstone, sand and grave], mineral paints, mineral 
waters, limestones, gas and oil. Because of the delay in printing this 
report it is possible to include the figures for 1908. For the last three 
years the complete totals for Illinois, according to the U. S. Geological 
Survey, were as follows : 

Table Shovs^ifg Mineral Output op Illinois por tpie Calendar 
Years 1906, 1907 and 1908. 

(Collected in Co-operation with the U. S. Geological Survey.) 



Product. 



1906. 



Quantity Value 



1907. 



Quantity. Value 



1908. 



Quantity. Value 



Cement, natural — barrels 

Portland— barrels 

Clay products 

Coal— short tons 

Fluorspar— short tons 

Glass sand— short tons 

Iron, pig— long tons 

Lead — short tons 

Lime— short tons 

Mineral waters— gallons sold . 

Natural gas 

Petroleum— barrels 

Sand and gravel— short tons. 
Silver— fine ounces (troy) . . . 

Stone 

Zinc— short tons 

Other products 



Total. 



365,843 
1,858,403 



41,480,104 

28,268 

238,178 

2,156,866 

572 

121,546 

574,453 



4,397,050 
2,419,381 



282 



$ 118,221 

2,461,494 

12,765,453 

44,763,062 

160,623 

156,684 

47,128,000 

65,208 

534,118 

77,287 

87,211 

■ 3,274,818 

886,357 



2,961,456 
34,404 

11,787,807 



284,599 
,036,093 



,317,146 

25,128 

235,716 

,457,768 

498 

124,784 

720,400 



281,973 

315,275 

2,900 



1,446 



$ 92, 

2,632: 

13,220, 

54,687, 

141, 

152, 

52,229, 

52: 

559, 

91; 

143; 

16,432, 

1,215, 

1, 

3,789, 

170 i 

1154, 



188,859 
,211,168 



,659,660 
31,727 
194,722 
,691,944 
363 
92,549 
685,763 



33, 



$121,188,306 1145, 



,464 



685,106 

463,026 

2,000 



298 



$ 68,772 

2,707,044 

11,559,114 

49,978,247 

172,838 

139,172 

30,135,000 

30,492 

393,951 

58,904 

446,077 

22,648,881 

1,363,850 

1,100 

3,134,770 

28,012 

134,464 

.1122,900,688 



1 Includes in 1906: Alum amd aluminum sulphate, slag cement, infusorial earth, sand-lime brick, 
Venetian red, and white lead; in 1907: Puzzolan cement, infusorial earth, metallic paint, pyrite, quartz, 
sienna, umber, sand-lime brick; in 1908: Infusorial earth, pyrite, sand-lime brick. 

—2 G 



18 



YEAR BOOK FOE 1908, 



[BULL. NO. 14 



Bureau of Information.— OnQ of the most important functions of the 
Survey is to furnish information regarding the mineral resouTces of the 
State to land owners, miners, investors and educators. A large amount 
of time is devoted to this work, and a great deal of correspondence is 
involved. The requests for information come from all parts of the 
country and from every part of the State. The recent requests from 
within the State are tabulated below. Ajaproximately an equal number 
of inquiries have come from other states and countries. 

Eequests foe. Infoemation. 



County. 



Number. 

of 
Inquiries. 



County. 



Number. 

of 
Inquiries. 



County. 



Number. 

of 
Inquiries . 



Adams 

Alexander. . 

Bond 

Bureau 

Carroll 

Cass 

Champaign. 
Christian . . . 

Clark 

Clay 

Clinton 

Coles . : 

Cook 

Crawford . . . 
Cumberland 
DeKalb.... 

DeWitt 

Douglas 

DuPage 

Edgar 

Edwards . . . 
EfRnghan . . 

Ford 

Franklin . . . 

Fulton 

Gallatin 

Greene 

Grundy 

Hamilton... 



Hancock 

Hardin 

Henderson . . . 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jefferson 

Johnson 

Jersey 

Jo Daviess . . . 

Kane 

Kankakee — 

Kendall 

Knox 

Lake 

LaSalle 

Lawrence 

Logan 

McDonough. . 

McHenry 

McLean 

jMacon 

Macoupin — 

Madison 

Marion 

Mason. 

Massac 

Mercer 

Monroe...,-.. 
Montgomery . 



Morgan 

Ogle 

Peoria 

Perry 

Pike 

Pope 

Pulaski 

Randolph. . . 

Richland 

Rock Island. 

Saline 

Sangamon... 

Schuyler 

Scott 

Shelby 

St. Clair 

Stark 

Stephenson . 

Union 

Vermilion. . . 

Wabash 

Washington. 

Wayne 

White 

Whiteside. . . 

Win 

Williamson . 
Winnebago.. 
Woodford... 



Subject. 



No. of 
Inquiries. 



Subject. 



No of 
Inquiries. 



Altitudes 

Areal surveys . . . 

Asphalt 

Bauxite 

Cement 

Chalk 

Chert 

Clay 

Coal 

Copper 

Drainage 

Fluorspar 

Galena 

Gas 

Geology, general 

Gold 

Granite 

Graphite 

Gravel 

Gypsum 

Iron 

Koalin 

Lead : 

Lime 



Limestone 

Manganese 

Maps 

Mica 

Mineral 

MisceUaneous . . 

Oil 

Paint materials 

Pearls 

Peat 

Phosphate 

Sand 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Silica 

Soil 

Stone 

Swamps 

Trenton rock. . . 

Water 

Wells 

Zinc 

Zoological 



STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



BULL. NO. 14, PL. 1. 






















COKSTO 









wso« o^"'„ 



Published prio. i/c i/X^~i^ ""TV" '^'^'--^°"'>-^'-f'b°>' /i \ 
to 1-905 J/ #7 i \tr7cWT(»^'''i's^>^^'';^^ 

urv^yed In coop- /w Viooro^Ts^^i^ — SiL. JZJ___y__ti4 .^ 
eration and P^blishfe^Oy^t,.^''^^^ /X^o. s ^; • -v enf 

Surveyed m cooper atiQrf^ ^^^H^LB^^;|^^ ; ifS ^ 

and in course of '•^^!^li.„„j >#\n''*'"''lV°'' 

publication _^ _.. . 

e Maps 



^nOramag 



Quadrangles being sorveyed 



A Astronon-.ic stations 
A Triangulation stations 
"'^ — Routes of primary traverse 
'~— Routes of precise levels 
..., Routes of primary leve[s 







Map Showing progress of Topographic and Drainage Surveys. 



BAIN.] ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 19 

These lists illustrate sufficiently perhaps the wide variety of subjects 
and the general nature of these requests for information. In making 
this table no account has been taken of the numerous requests for printed 
reports. The list includes only the cases requiring the preparation of a 
manuscript report or letter. It is not possible in all cases to give the 
information asked for. Often^ indeed, the information does not exist. 
In other eases it would require expensive field studies to solve the par- 
ticular problems involved. In such cases it is only possible to file the 
request for investigation the first time one of the field men shall be in the 
vicinity in the course of regular work. 

In many cases the request for information is accoanpanied by a spec- 
imen for analysis or test. Usually the specimen has not been well chosen, 
and an analysis would not signify much with regard to the deposit as 
a whole. It is not generally understood that sampling is quite as im- 
portant, and calls for nearly as much skill, as making analyses or labor- 
atory tests. This is entirely aside from the honesty of the one taking 
the sample and his desire to get an average specimen of the material. 
Analytical work and laboratory tests are expensive, and it is desirable 
not to spend money on them except on the basis of good sampling. For 
these reasons, together with the fact that any other course would permit 
the whole appropriation to be used up by any citizen for private pur- 
jooses, or for work of doubtful value, the Survey has been forced, in most 
instances, to decline to make any analyses or laboratory tests on miscel- 
laneous material sent in by correspondents. While this occasionally 
leads to individual disappointment, it seems to be the only plan con- 
sistent with the present size of the appropriations, the general purpose 
of the Survey — a systematic study of the mineral resources of the 
State. In many cases it is not necessary to make an analysis in order 
to determine the value of the material, but the results of a physical ex- 
amination are cheerfully and promptly furnished the inquirer. 

Topographic Section". 

(By W.H. Hereon. )i 

The plans for the cooperative topographic surveys in Illinois for the 
season of 1908, contemplated the completion of the topographic sketch- 
ing of unfinished quadrangles begun in the previous year, the revision of 
the Hennepin and LaSalle maps, made previous to the inauguration of 
the cooperative survey, and the extension of the control, both primary 
and secondary, over areas to be completed in the near future. The gen- 
eral progress of the work is shown on the accompanying map. 

It will be noted that the localities selected for this yearns work are 
widely divergent, the G-alena and Apple River quadrangles being in the 
extreme northwestern corner of the State, the LaSalle and Hennepin 
in the north central portion, the Hardinville, Bridgeport, Carmi and 
Shawneetown in the southeastern part, while the remainder of the 
quadrangles are situated in southern and southwestern Illinois. The 
clistribution of the work has been conditioned by the needs of the mining 



Geographer in Charge, Central Division, U. S. Geological Survey. 



20 



YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



industries of the State^ there being an especially large demand for the 
ma23s in the coal^ oil, and lead and zinc fields. The season has been an 
unusually favorable one, and the output has been most satisfactory. 

It has been possible to utilize much of the primary control of the 
quadrangles in sOiuthAvestern Illinois in the drainage surveys of the Kas- 
kaskia and Big Muddy rivers, thus avoiding duplication of work, and 
accomplishing a saving of funds for the drainage surveys. 

A summary of results of the cooperative topographic surveys in Illi- 
nois during the season of 1908 is shown in the following table: 





Square. 

miles of 

topograph 3^ 


Traverse, Miles. 


B. M. 


Levels 


, Miles. 


Locality, 


Primary. 


Second- 
ary. 


Primary. 


Second- 
ary. 








696 
594 


10 
11 
19 


71 

78 
91 




Baldwin 




55 
55 








32i 


c£i^^'.:::::::::;::;:::::: 

Carmi 


156 




102 


74 


345 
408 

37 
556 

50 
686 

97 


19 
11 


84 
48 




Galena 








139 






Hennepin 


62 


18 


67 






105 




LaSalle 


62 


20 


73 




Murphysboro 

New Athens 


236 


576 








462 


Okawville 


165 




25 


10 
3 


30 


388 


Shawneetown 


36 






101 


539 


















902 


344 


4,033 


121 


542 


1,849 



It will be noted from a perusal of the above table, and comparing it 
with that published for 1907,^ that the Carlyle, Hardinville, Herrin, 
Murphysboro and Okawville quadrangles will be ready for publication as 
soon as the office drawings are completed, the field work having been 
entirely finished for these areas. 'The New Athens sheet needs only the 
topographic sketching in order to complete the field work for this quad- 
rangle. The secondary leveling and topographic sketching are necessary 
to finish the Apple Eiver, Galena, Hennepin and LaSalle quadrangles, 
while the secondary traversing and sketching will complete the Bridge- 
port sheet. 

The following is the personnel of the organization arranged by quad- 
rangles : 

Apple River — Henry Bucher, levelman; F. B. Barrett, field assistant; Terry 
Hackett, rodman; Ml. F, Gannett, field assistant. 

Baldwin — W. A. Gelbach, levelman; F. W. Crisp, field assistant; L. S. 
Bowles, rodman. 

Bridgeport — W. A. Gelbach, junior topographer; W. S. 
man; A. J. Hendley, levelman; Percy Kimmell, levelman 
man; L. S. Bowles, rodman; Mack McCreery, rodman 
rodman. 

Carlyle — A. T. Fowler, assistant topographer; E. W. McCrary, assistant 
topographer; A. J. Htendley, levelman; A. C. Wood, levelman; Thos. Gas. 
soway, rodman; F. W. Hempstone, rodman. 



S. Johnson, level- 
J. M. Aiken, rod- 
Thos. Gassoway, 



^ Year Book for 1907, Bull. No. 8, page 23. 



ADMINISTEATIVE EEPORT. 



21 



Carmi — J. R. Ellis, assistant topographer; W. A. Gelbach, junior topo- 
grapher; F. W. Crisp, field assistant; W. H. Snyder, recorder; L. S. Bowles, 
rodman; G. C. Graeter, rodman; N. Underwood, chainman; M. Underwood, 
rodman; F. P. Tippitt, laborer. 

Galena—Henry Bucher, levelman; F. B. Barrett, traversman; F. W. Crisp, 
traversman; Terry Hackett, rodman; M. F. Gannett, field assistant. 

Hardinville — M. Hackett, topographer. 

Hennepin — C. B. Kendall, assistant topographer; G. R. Hoffman, travers- 
man; Henry Bucher, levelman; Terry Hackett, rodman; R. C. Gaylord, rod- 
man; J. W. Matthewson, rodman; S. L. Fuller, rodman; M. F. Gannett, re- 
corder. 

Herrin — W. J. Loyd, topographer; G. L. Gross, junior topographer; J. A. 
Duck, field assistant; J. W. Lowell, Jr., field assistant; J. M,. Aiken, rodman. 

LaSalle — W. J. Lloyd, topographer; C. B. Kendall, assistant topographer; 
Henry Bucher, traversman; G. R. Hoffman, traversman; Terry Hackett, 
rodman; R. C. Gaylord, rodman; J. W. Matthewson, rodman; S. L. Fuller, 
rodman; M. F. Gannett, recorder. 

Murphy sTyoro — W. J. Loyd, topographer; G. L. Gross, junior topographer; J. 
W. Lowell, field assistant; A. C. Wood, levelman; W. S. S. Johnson, level- 
man; Percy Kimmel, levelman; F. W. Hempstone, rodman; C. P. Gross, rod- 
man; Mack McCreery, rodman; J. W. Aiken, rodman. 

ISIeio Athens — A. C. Wood, levelman; H. A. Church, levelman; A. J. Hend- 
ley, levelman; Thos. Gassoway, rodman; Melvin Evenson, rodman; F. W. 
Hempstone, rodman; C. P. Gross, rodman. 

Okawville — W. J. Lloyd, topographer; E. W. McCrary, assistant topo- 
grapher; W. A. Gelbach, levelman; A. J. Hendley, levelman; A. C. Wood, 
levelman; H. A. Church, levelman; L. S. Bowles, rodman; F. W. Hempstone, 
rodman; Thos. Gassoway, rodman; Melvin Evenson, rodman. 

Shawneetoion — J. R. Ellis, assistant topographer; W. H. Snyder, recorder; 
N. Underwood, chairman; M. Underwood, rodman; F. B. Tippitt, laborer. 

Yanclalia — E. W. McCrary, assistant topographer; Lee Morrison, junior to- 
pographer; E. L. Hain, junior topographer; A. K. Atkinson, field assistant. 

The following table shows the season's expenditures : 



Balance Jan. 1, 1908 




% 3,294 18 


Appropriation, United States, net 


$7,920 00 
6,920 00 




14,840 00 






Total funds available 


$18,134 18 


Disbursed Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1908— 

Office 


$ 1,820 79 
14,775 78 




rield 






$16,596 57 




$ 305 25 
1,232 36 


Balance Jan. 1, 1909— 

United States . 




State . . 






$1,537 61 







The office expenditures indicated were from the unexpended balance 
of last year, and the work consisted of the completion in the office of 
maps of the previous season. 



Deainage Section". 

Organization and Worh. — The special drainage section of the Surve}^ 
was organized in 1907 to take charge of the work provided for by the ap- 
propriation for the survey and stu.dy of the lands subject to overflow 
along our inland rivers. The need of this work has been recognized for 



22 



YEAE BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



some years. AccoTcling to' estimates made for the State Geological Sur- 
vey by W. Carvel Hall, there is an enormous area of land subject to 
overflow along onr intra-state streams. 

Bottom Lands Subject to Overflow in Illustois. 

(Estimate by W. Carvel Hall.) 



River. 



Estimated 
valley length- 
miles. 



Estimated 

area of 

bottom land — 

square miles. 



Embarrass 

Little Wabash 

North Fork Little Wabash 

Skillett Fork 

Olney Fork 

Saline River 

Big Muddy 

Kaskaskia 

Silver Slough 

Shoal Creek 

Crooked Creek 

Sangamon 

Salt Creek 

Desplaines 

Rock 

Spoon 

Mackinaw 

Pecatonica 




175 

335 
45 

190 
15 
30 
45 

245 

30 

40 

5 

100 
20 

900 

275 
30 
25 



In this table are included only those streams which were unsurveyed. 
If to the areas estimated are added the bottom lands of the Illinois' and 
its branches, surveyed by the U. S. Army Engineers in 1905/ and the 
Cache river bottoms surveyed by a State commission in 1904/ the totals 
would be much greater. Preliminary surveys have already shown that 
Mr. Hairs estimates are well within the truth since on the Kaskaskia 
alone nearly 300 square miles of bottom, land are now known. The table 
however^ will serve its main purpose in illustrating the extent and some- 
thing of the distribuiton of the bottom lands of these streams. 

The great interstate rivers which border Illinois, the Mississippi, 
Ohio and Wabash, have also extensive bottom lands. Mr. Hall estimates 
that in Illinois their areas amount respectively, to 1,205, 25 and 270 
square miles. 

Probably ninety per cent of the bottom lands of the State are unpro- 
tected or inadequately protected against floods and it is estimated that 
if they could all be brought under successful cultivation there would be 
added to the farm value of the State over one hundred million dollars. 
There would be additional benefits to be derived from improved health 
conditions, some power development and the increased navigation of 
the streams. 

In order properly and economically to plan works which shall protect 
and drain the river bottom it is necessary to take into account the river 
as a whole. Power development must not be allowed to interfere with 
navigation and one drainage project must not be allowed to block the way 



iHouse of Rep., Doc. 263, 59th congress, first session. 

^Report of Board of Cache River Drainage Commission of Illinois, 30 pages, Danville, 1905. 



BAIN.] ADMINISTRATIVE EEPORT. 23 

for a inoT'e comprehensive one. No permanently satisfactory solntdon 
of the problems afforded by even one of these streams is likely to be 
reached except by the nnited action of the people of a whole valley. 
Large districts must be arranged and in order that they may work most 
efficiently^ it will probably prove necessary for the State to assume at 
least supervisory control of the work. The State is, in fact, under cer- 
tain obligations to do this. The lands, originally in possession of the 
general government, were given to the State upon condition that they 
be drained. This obligation was passed on to the counties, drainage laws 
being provided to permit of the work being execu.ted. Since now a stage 
in the work has been reached where a considerable change in method 
is necessary, the State must assume its share of the burden. 

A beginning has been made. In 1903 the General Assembly provided 
for a special survey of the Cache river bottoms. In 1905 the General 
Assembly passed a joint resolution looking to the improvement particu- 
larly of certain of the rivers in the southern part of the State. No 
definite results having been accomplished under this resolution, the 
General Assembly in 1907 made a special appropriation to the State 
Geological Survey for the survey and study of lands subject to overflow 
along the streams of the State. At the same time an additional ap- 
propriation was made to the Internal Improvement Commission for the 
further study of the rivers of the State with a view especially to their 
improvement from the point of view of navigation and the development 
of power. The State has therefo're undertaken, as its share', the expense 
of the surveys, the studies and the supervision of the work, and, in ap- 
propriating for the Shawneetown levee, has even set the precedent of at 
least some appropriation for construction work. 

To consider the various problems involved in river improvement in 
Illinois., there has been organized a State Committee on Waterways Ee- 
clamation, including representatives of the State Geological Survey, the 
Internal Improvement Commission, and the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. The work of this joint committee is expected to result in a re- 
port upon which the General Assembly can formulate a definite policy 
toward stream improvement. The making of detailed maps of the 
different river valleys has been assigned tO' the Geological Survey, and 
is now being carried on. A report by Mr. E. W. McCrary, detailing the 
progress for the year, is given on the following pages." The methods 
used are essentially those developed by the U. S. Geological Survey, 
which is actively cooperating in the work. 

Work is now being carried on along the Kaskaskia, Big Muddy and 
Embarrass and additional work along the Little Wabash and the Sanga- 
mon is planned. The special study of drainage problems will be under- 
taken by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, under the direction of 
Mr. C. G. Elliott, Chief Engineer of Drainage Investigations. Work 
has already been taken up along the Little Wabash river and Skillet 
fork. 

The Internal Improvement Commission is making the general engin- 
eering studies involved, including the gauging of the streams, in whicli 
part of the work the assistance of the water resources branch of the 
U. S. Geological Survey has been enlisted. A report upon these phases 
of the work will be made by the Internal Improvement Commission. 



24 . YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

Surveys for 1908. (By E. W. McCrary.) — The topographic survey of 
overflowed lands^ begun in 1907, was continued througli the season of 
1908, resulting in complete surveys of the Kaskaskia river from the 
wagon hridge, one and one-half miles southeast of Cowden, to its outlet 
near Chester ; Shoal Creek, from the wagon bridge six miles west and 
one mile south of Greenville, to its outlet into the Kaskaskia river; and 
the Big Muddy river from near Mulkeytown to the Mississippi. The 
distance along the surveyed portion of the Kaskaskia river, by direct 
line through the bottomiS^, is 118 miles; Shoal Creek, twenty-nine miles, 
and the Big Muddy, fifty miles. The areas surveyed are shown on the 
accompanying map, (PI. 1). 

In addition to these completed maps, a primary level line has been 
run from Beardstown along the Sangamon river to Petersburg, and from 
Springfield to Decatur; from Decatur the line continues north along the 
Illinois Central railroad to Clinton, and thence west along Salt river to 
the Sangamon and south to Petersburg. This line of levels will serve as 
vertical control for the work along the Sangamon and Salt rivers. 

The total area surveyed is 496 square miles, of which 348 are included 
in the Kaskaskia Eiver Survey, 48 in the Shoal Creek Survey, and 
100 in the Big Muddy. Of the 348 square miles along the Kaskaskia 
river, 160 was surveyed in 1907, which leaves for 1908, a total of 336 
square miles. There is an average of five linear miles of stadia traverse, 
with fifty determined elevations per square mile, which makes a total 
of 2,480 miles of traverse and 24,800 elevations, which are distributed 
along these streams as follows : 





Miles traverse. 


Elevations. 


Kaskaskia River 


1,740 
240 
500 


17 400 


Siioal Creek 


2,400 
5,000 


Big Muddy River 






2,480 


24,800 



In addition to the ground elevations, levels have also been taken of a 
sufficient number of high water marks to make it possible to show upon 
the completed maps, the extent of the flooded section. With this infor- 
mation plotted on the maps, it will be possible to see at a glance the ex- 
tent of the flood along the entire length of the stream. Elevations have 
also been determined of the ap|)roximate low water, but because of the 
quick changes in the level of the water surface, and the lack of stream 
gauges, these elevations may vary as much as three feet from a given 
stage. However, they should be useful in giving a fairly accurate idea 
of the fall between different points along the stream. 

In their completed form, the maps are divided into sections or sheets, 
which are given the name of the largest town, or, if there be no town, of 
the best known feature which it contains. The size of the sheets are not 
uniform, but necessarily vary in order to fit the changing course of the 
stream. The approximate size will be, to the scale of the map, 9 by 11 
miles. 

The scale is 1 :24000, or one inch to 2,000 feet, and the contour in- 
terval, five feet. The methods used in the survey of these streams are 



BAIN.] ADMINISTRATIVE EEPOET. 25 

fully given in the year-book for 1907.^ During 1908 the work was 
carried along in practically the same manner as in the preceding year. 
Following is a list of the completed sheets : 

Easkaskia River — Lorton Bridge, Vandalia, Sopher Lake, Carlyle, Santa Fe, 
Queens Lake, Fayetteville, Round Pond, Evansville. 

Shoal Creek — Breese, Frogtown. 

Big MuMy River — There will be five or six sheets along this stream. 
They were surveyed under the direction of Mr. W. J. Lloyd of the U. S. G. S., 
and are being put into map form by him. 

Of these sheets, the Carlyle, Santa Fe and Qneen's lake are now avail- 
able. The Breese and Frogtown wexe completed February 1. The 
Vandalia, Soper Lake and Lorton Bridge are expected to be ready by 
March 1, and the remainder by April 1. 

From the view point of area mapped, and the qnality of the work, the 
year 1908 has been_ a successful one. However, the party in the field 
suffered a great deal from, sickness during the summer months, there be- 
ing only two out of a party of ten toi escape sickness. Of the eight who 
were sick, five were affected at the same time, which very seriously in- 
terfered with the progress of the work. The work, as previously planned 
for 1908, included the Kaskaskia river. Big Muddy, Shoal creek, and 
a small section of the Little Wabash, south of Carmi, and the level 
work on the Sangamon. All of this, Avith the exception of the Little 
Wabash, was completed as planned. 

The personnel of the surveying party is as follows : 

Kaskaskia River — E. W. McCrary, assistant engineer; Lee Morrison, as- 
sistant topographer; E. L. Hain, assistant topographer; S. K. Atkinson, field 
assistant; A. L. Hambrecht, field assistant; H. P. Hancock, field assistant; 
R. E. Johnson, field assistant; John Fletcher, levelman; F. W. Hughes, 
traversman; P. E. Fletcher, traversman; W. H. Herron, Jr., rodman; Herbert 
Johnson, rodman; Douglas Wright, rodman; William Ahring, rodman; Ralph 
Atkinson, rodman; G. R. Hoffman, rodman; W. S. S. Johnson, rodman; 
J. W. Johnson, rodman; J. M. Aiken, rodman, 

Shoal Creek — E. W. McCrary, assistant engineer; Lee Morrison, assistant 
topographer; J. A. Duck, field assistant; S. K. Atkinson, field assistant; F. 
W. Hughes, levelman; J. Lederer, rodman; Douglas Wright, rodman; Wil- 
liam Ahring, rodman. 

Big Muddy River — W. J. Lloyd, topographer; George Gross, assistant to- 
pographer; A. L. Hambrecht, field assistant; J. A. Duck, field assistant; R. 
E. Johnson, field assistant; W. H, Herron, Jr., rodman; Mack MicCreery, 
rodman; W. S. S. Johnson, rodman; J. M. Aiken, rodman. 

Plans. — It is greatly regretted that these surveys are not yet suffi- 
ciently advanced to permit definite recommendations for the improve- 
ment of these rivers to be submitted at this time. This phase of the 
subject is treated in the report of the Internal Improvement Commis- 
sion. 

Publications. 

Reports Pnnted. — At the beginning of the year Bulletin 7, a report on 
the Physical GeogTaphy of the Evanston-Waukegan Eegion, by Messrs. 
Atwood and Golthwait, was still in press. It was distributed in the 



' Topographic Mapping in Bottom Lands, by E. W. McCrary. Bull. No. 8, State Geol. Survey, pp. 
64-67. 



26 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

spring, followed in the fall by Bnlletin 8, the Year-Book for 1907. Bul- 
letin 9, a special report on paving brick and paving brick clays, by 
Messrs. Eolfe, Purd}^, Talbott and Baker, is now in press. Bulletin 10, 
a report on the Mineral Content of Illinois Waters, prepared in cooper- 
ation with the State Water Survey, has been submitted for publication.^ 

The reports now" available for distribution are listed at the close of 
this bulletin. 

The distribution of these reports so as to prevent waste, and yet make 
them most widely available, has been in itself a considerable task. It 
was thought that the interests of all concerned would be best met if 500 
copies of each report be reserved for sale at the cost of printing, the re- 
ceipts from the sales being turned into the State treasury. This makes 
it possible for libraries to complete their sets and for persons having 
real need for any of the volumes to obtain the earlier ones at small 
cost. The remainder of the edition is distributed by the Survey and the 
Secretary of State to institutions and individuals making application 
for them or exchanged with other Surveys or publishing organizations. 

Any of the published reports will be sent upon receipt of the amount 
noted. Money orders, drafts and checks should be made payable to F. 
W. DeWolf. 

The topographic maps completed and published are distributed from 
Washington, the State having made no provision for publishing a local 
edition. They may be purchased at the rate of five cents each or $3.00 
a hundred. Drafts or money orders should be sent to the Director, 
U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. He is not allowed to receive 
postage stamps or personal checks in payment. The areas already sur- 
veved and the names of the maps are shown on the accompanying map. 

(PI. 1). 

Reports in Pi'&puraUon. — There are a number of reports now ready for 
the printer or in an advanced stage of preparation. These include three 
educational bulletins which have been already submitted, and three 
others which are available at any time. The three which have been for 
some months ready for the printer are : 

The Mississippi Valley between Savanna and Davenport, by J. Ernest 
Carman. 

Physical Features of the Des Plaines Valley, by James Walter Goldthwait. 

Physical Geography of the East St. Louis District, by N. M. Fenneman. 

The three reports which can be submitted with slight delay are : 
Physical Geography of the Springfield Quadrangle, by J. C. Jones. 
The Middle Portion of the Illinois Valley, by Harlan HI. Barrows. 
Physiography of the Wheaton Quadrangle, by A. C. Trowbridge. 

In less advanced state of preparation is the year-book for 1908, in- 
cluding a preliminary report on cement making material of Illinois; 
some studies of Illinois coals and other papers. Special reports on coal, 
oil and other materials are in preparation. 

The State Geological Survey has not attempted as yet the publication 
of areal reports either by counties or districts. Instead, arrangements 



i Published July, 1909. 



BAIN.] 



ADMINISTKATIVE EEPOET. 



27 



have been made for tlie IT. S. Geological Survey to assume the expense 
of publishing the areal reports. One such report, that of J. A. Udclen on 
the Peoria quadrangle has been completed and is in process of publi- 
cation. The report of 'N. M. Fenneman on the St. Louis-East St. Louis 
quadrangle has also been submitted. The Springfield quadrangle has 
been surveyed and a report has been prepared by T. E. Savage. A 
similar report upon the Belleville-Breese quadrangles by J. A. Udden 
is about ready for publication. Mr. DeWolf and his assistants have sur- 
veyed a numl3er of quadrangles in the southern coal fields and prelimin- 
ary articles on certain of them will be found in Bulletin 8 of this Survey. 
It is expected later that a combined report on the whole district will be 
prepared. 

Expenditures. 

The annual appropriation for the survey, including the topographic 
work, is $25,000.00. Originally $10,000.00 per year of this amount was 
allotted for cooperative topographic surveys. In 1907, owing to a reduc- 
tion in aj)propriations, the U. S. G-eological Survey was only able to 
meet an allotment of $8,000.00, and in 1908 certain new charges for 
administration were made against this allotment, still further reducing 
the Federal appropriation to $6,920.00. This has been met by an equal 
allotment of funds by the State. In 1908, in addition, $1,000.00 of the 
unexpended funds of the IT. S. G-eological Survey for the preceding fiscal 
year were available and $10,484.92 of the special appropriation made 
by the State for the survey and study of overflowed lands. The total 
funds available on January 1, 1909 are as follows : 

For geologic surveys $4,577 82 

For topographic surveys 1,232 36 

For drainage surveys 863 46 

The detailed expenditures are listed below: 



General Appropriations- 
Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1908 


$ 5,306 73 
25,000 00 




Appropriation of July 1, 1908 








Total available 




$30,306 73 


Expenditures Jan. 1, 1908, to Jan. 1, 1909— 


$4,027 33 

2,323 91 

4,779 38 

635 24 

877 73 

969 78 

1,831 24 

835 13 

682 31 

135 00 

144 20 

1,184 01 

383 65 

5,687 64 


Clerical help and general office expenses 

Surveys and laboratory studies of coal fields 








Studies of cement materials 








General stratigraphic studies . . . .... 








Water resources . . 








Special studies 












Topographic surveys 










Total 




24,496 55 






Balance available Jan. 1, 1909 


$5,810 18 








Special appropriation for survey and study of overflowed lands- 
Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1908 


$10,484 92 
9,621 46 


Expended in 1908 


$9,621 46 




Balance available Jan. 1, 1909 




$863 46 









28 YEAE BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Eecommbndations. 

In view of the needs of the Survey and the numero'iis demands upon it^ 
the following reconimendations are made: 

1. That the present annual appropriation for the general support of the 
Survey be increased from $25,000 to $35,000 annually. This is necessary if 
the reasonable demands for increased work along the lines now being pur- 
sued is to be met. In support of this recommendation, it may be pointed 
out that since the State Geological" Survey was established, the mineral in- 
dustry of the State has enormously increased. Excluding pig iron and 
spelter, the total output in 1904 amounted to $56,400,829.00. For the same 
items in 1907 the total v/as $93,415,404.00 and for 1909 probably an even 
larger amount. It is not claimed that this increase, amounting to 65 per 
cent, is due to the activities of the Survey, though the latter doubtless had 
some influence. It may be pointed out, however that this increase in pro- 
duction has very greatly increased the work of, and demands on, the Survey. 
At the time this bureau was established and the size of its annual appro- 
priation fixed, there was no oil production in Illinois. We have now a pro- 
duction of nearly 40,000,000 barrels. This has brought millions of dollars 
into the State, and has also brought hundreds of requests to the office of the 
Survey for information regarding depth to various horizons, location of 
anticlines, etc. It has not been possible to give satisfactory service to this 
industry because we have not had the men nor the money to hire them. At 
the completion of Mr. Blatchley's season in the oil field this year it was 
necessary to practically stop the work and leave the results undigested and 
unstudied, and therefore largely valueless, because of the pressure of routine 
work in the office. If the information asked for by the oil men could be 
promptly and accurately supplied now that they are in the mood for pros- 
pecting, very large developments would undoubtedly result. These facts 
are cited to illustrate the new and unanticipated demands made on the Sur- 
vey, which require additional funds if the work now undertaken is to go 
forward; to say nothing of new lines of work as yet untouched. Similar 
but less critical conditions obtain in regard to the demands on us for in- 
formation regarding coal, stone, clay, and other minerals. 

It is further true that as the work of the Survey becomes better known 
and more of the citizens of the State learn the ways in which the office can 
be useful to them, that larger demands on the time of the members of the 
force are being made. This may be expected to continue and so, from time to 
time, either additional funds must be provided or the work deliberately cut 
down. In the estimate above no provision is made for taking up any new 
lines of work. If it is desired that any of the many which have been sug- 
gested, be taken up, a still larger increase must be made. 

2. That the special appropriation of $15,000.00 for the survey of the bot- 
tom lands be continued and be made annual. While good progress has been 
made, it will necessarily be several years before complete plans for the 
proposed reclamation of these lands can be presented. It is everywhere 
recognized that surveys are the first step, and that maps are necessary to any 
satisfactory study of the problems involved, either by the engineer or the 
financier. These maps are now being made rapidly, accurately, and eco- 
nomically; at a cost, in fact, of but a few cents per acre. If any satisfactory 
plan of improvement is every to be adopted it can only be on the basis of the 
study of the whole valley, or even of the comparative study of several val- 
leys. ■ The force is splendidly organized, and the work should go forward 
without any check until all the data needed for a comprehensive plan of 
action are at hand. The reclamation of these bottom lands and the regula- 
tion of the rivers is one of the big constructive problems of the State. We 
will never, however, make sure progress with problems of this nature except 
on the basis of accurate knowledge, and to this end these surveys and the 
coordinate work of the cooperating State bureaus should be liberally sup- 
ported. 



BAIN.] ■ ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 29 

3. It is recommended that a special appropriation of $7,500 per annum be 
made to the Geological Commission to provide for preparing and engraving 
illustrations and maps for printing and binding the reports of the survey; 
provided that all printing contracts be approved by the State Printer Expert. 
The law establishing the State Geological Survey requires of it: "The 
preparation of geological and other necessary maps to illustrate the re- 
sources of the State" and "The preparation of reports, with necessary illus- 
trations and maps." It is further provided that: "The regular and special 
reports of the said bureau shall be printed and distributed or sold, as the 
commissioners shall deem best." Finally there is the following section with 
regard to the printing: 

"Section 6. The printing of said reports and necessary supplies of stationery, blank books ani 
other printed matter necessary for the purpose of said bureau shall be and form a part of the State 
printing contract, and as such, shall be under the direction and siipervision of the Board of Commis- 
sioners of State contracts; provided, however, that the cost thereof shall not exceed the sum of five 
thousand dollars ($5,0ij0.00) per annum." 

The reports so far issued by the Survey have been printed by the State 
Printer under the terms of Section 6. Despite, however, the specific pro- 
vision of the law to the effect that such reports shall include maps and illus- 
trations, the latter have been paid for out of the general support fund of 
the Survey. At one time the paper upon which the reports were printed 
was paid for by the Survey. There are probably good reasons for this, and 
there is no objection from, the point of view of the Survey, provided that 
this expense be taken into account in fixing the appropriations of the latter. 
As it stands, this constitutes expense of from $1,000 to $2,000 a year, and 
serves by just so much to decrease the amount originally intended to be made 
available for the field work of the survey. So far only the most necessary 
maps have been published, and these have been printed in small editions. 
No provision has been made for publishing by the State of any of the de- 
tailed maps now being made, and much valuable material is therefore un- 
available to the general public. 

4. It is recommended that hereafter the reports of the Survey be pub- 
lished in the same general style "as regards typography, paper, and binding 
as were the reports of the older Geological Survey of Illinois, and as are 
now the reports of the State Laboratory of Natural History, and that ade- 
quate appropriations be made to the commission to cover the cost of this 
paper, printing and binding, so that the work may be done promptly. Sec- 
tion 6, quoted above should be repealed in order to relieve the Secretary 
of State of responsibility. 

As matters now stand, even with the Survey paying for all maps and fur- 
nishing all engravings to the printer, it has been impossible to get reports 
printed as fast as they were prepared. There are now seven reports written 
and ready for the printer, and several more in preparation. Some of these 
reports have been in hand for more than a year, and yet the Survey has 
never had the benefit of the maximum, amount allowed by law for its 
printing. 

A list of the reports awaiting publication has already been given. All 
these reports have been written by the best men we could command any- 
where in the United States, and each is designed to answer a specific pur- 
pose. The field work has been done and paid for and the report has been 
written, and yet the State has no benefit because of the congestion in the 
printing office and the defective arrangements already cited. 

In addition to the reports enumerated, detailed reports on the geology 
and mineral resources of the Peoria, Springfield, Belleville-Breese areas 
have been prepared and material is in hand for a similar report on the 
southern coal fields from New Haven as far west as Herrin. As each of 
these reports will require an expensive, engraved map for which the State 
has made no provision, arrangements have been made for their publication 
to be undertaken by the Federal Government. It is desirable, if possible, 
that the State provide at least one edition of these and similar reports for 
local use. 



30 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

Studies of the coal, cement, oil and clay industries are being prosecuted, 
but in the absence of adequate means of publication no attempt has been 
made to hurry the preparation of reports. None the less, a report on cement 
materials is practically complete. 

These difficulties regarding printing have arisen not because of any lack 
of cooperation on the part of the various persons concerned, but because the 
attempt is being made to put out technical publications from plants designed 
for commercial and ordinary book work, and with facilities entirely inade- 
quate to the demand. A change is imperative, since it is poor policy for 
the State to spend money on surveys and investigations and then not pro- 
vide for printing the results promptly and in such form as to be really ser- 
viceable to its citizens. 



HERRON.l TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 31 



REPORT OF THE CO-OPERATIVE TOPOGRAPHIC 
SURVEY OF ILLINOIS. 

(By W. H. Hereon.)^ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Introduction 32 

Legislative and Administrative 33 

Season 1905-6 ■ 32 

Results 34 

Season 1906-7 34 

Results 35 

Season 1907-8 36 

Results 36 

Season 1908-9 37 

Results 37 

Expenditures 37 

Resume of results 37 

Topographic sheets mapped in cooperation 38 

Nature of cooperation 38 

Objects and recommendations 39 

Organization and reports 39 

Fiscal system 40 

Nature and uses of topographic maps ." 41 

General plan 41 

Publication 43 

Scale and contour interval 43 

Areas of political subdivisions. 44 

Uses of the maps 1 44 

Topographic mapping of bottom lands 46 

Progress of topographic surveys in Illinois prior to cooperation 50 

Detailed report of field work 54 

Organization and personnel 54 

Summary of results .- 55 

Spirit leveling 60 

Methods 60 

Detailed results 60 

Introduction : 60 

Index to results ." . . . 63 

Precise leveling 64 

Primary leveling 76 

State Geological Survey leveling ■. 118 

Primary control 126 

Methods 126 

Results of primary horizontal control 1896-1908 127 

Primary railroad traverse 127 

Primary quadrangle traverse 133 



1. Geographer in Charge, Central Division, U.S. Geological Survey. 



82 YEAK BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 



INTRODUCTION. 



The act of the State Legislature of 1905 which provided foT cooper- 
ation between the State of Illinois and the United States G-eological 
Siirve}' in the making of -a topographic map of the State has been more 
than justified by the ]3opular interest in the progress of the work and by 
the demand for the finished maps. The State was slow in taking this 
step, but it is believed that the success of the last four years will insure 
the steady progress of the work until the entire State is surveyed. 

Illinois has never had a satisfactory State map, the best at present 
available being those issued by the General Land Office and the Post 
Office Department of the Federal Government, together with several 
popular maps compiled from them, which contain many inaccuracies of 
latitude and longitude, etc., in the interior part of the State ; and while, 
as a rule they show the system of subdivision of the public land lines, 
counties, towns, drainage systems, etc., the data for their control is very 
incomplete and in many cases inaccurate. 

It is therefore easy to comprehend the value to the State of the topo- 
graphic map' that is now being prepared in cooperation with the United 
States G-eological Survey, which is utilizing, at an immense saving to the 
State, the Coast and Geodetic Sur\'ey primary triangulation, U. S. Lake 
triangulation, surveys by the Mississippi Eiver Commission, and the ac- 
curate control survey of the Army Engineers along the Illinois river 
from its mouth to Lake Michigan. The rapid progress and completion 
o± this m,ap will be of inestimable benefit in the study and development 
of the economic resources of the State, such as minerals, including coal, 
oil, clay, lead, zinc and cement-making materials. It can also be util- 
ized as a basis for the reclamation of overflowed lands and swamps and 
their drainage; for the improvement of highways; for a study of water 
supply for cities, and as a preliminary survey for railways and trolley 
lines, etc., and for any class of improvements which must take into con- 
sideration the configuration of the land surface and quality and character 
of the soil. 



LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Season oe 1905-1906. 

In May, 1905, House Bill No. 63 of the General Assembly was adopted, 
whereby a State Geological Survey Avas established under the direction 
Oi a commission known as the State Geological Commission, and said 
commission was authorized to arrange with the director or representative 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 33 

of the United States Geological Survey in regard to cooperation between 
the United States Geological Survey and the State Geological Commis- 
sion in the preparation and completion of a contour topographic survey 
and map or maps of the State of Illinois. The commission was author- 
ized to spend a sum of not more than $10,000 in any one year on this 
work, provided this sum was met by an equal amount by the Federal 
Survey. 

The following formal agreement was entered into in November, 1905, 
between the Governor of Illinois and the Director of the United States 
Geological Survey, confirming a verbal a;greement entered into in May, 
1905, by which agreement provision was made for the execution of this 
topographic work : 

Agreement between the State Geological Commission of the State of Illinois 
and the United States Geological Survey for the Execution of the Coopera- 
tive Topographic Survey of the State of Illinois as provided for in Act of 
Legislature of the State of Illinois, 1905. 

1. The preparation of the map shall be under the supervision of the 
director of the United States Geological Survey, who shall determine the 
methods of survey and map construction, 

2. The order in which, in point of priority, different parts of the State 
shall be surveyed shall be agreed upon in detail by the State Geological 
Commission of the State of Illinois and the Director of the United States 
Geological Survey, but in case of failure to agree the order shall be de- 
termined by the State Geological Commission. 

3. The survey shall be executed in a manner sufficiently elaborate to 
prepare maps upon a scale of 1:62,500. This map shall exhibit the hydro- 
graphy, hypsography and public culture, and all township and county boun- 
dary lines and extensive wooded areas in this State as existing on the 
ground at the time of the execution of these surveys. The location of all 
trails, by-roads, railroads, streams, canals, lakes, rivers, and shall show by 
contour lines the elevation and depression of the surface of the country. 

4. The hypsography shall be shown by contour lines with vertical in- 
tervals of 10 or 20 feet, depending upon the scale and relief of the country, 
and as may hereafter be agreed upon in detail. 

5. The heights of the important points shall be determined and furnished 
to the State Geological Commission of the State of Illinois. 

6. The outlines of wooded areas shall be represented upon the proofs of 
the engraved map to be furnished to the State Geological Commission of the 
State of Illinois. 

7. For convenience, the United States Geological Survey, shall, during 
the progress of the field work, pay the salaries of the permanent employes 
engaged thereon, while the traveling, subsistence and field expenss shall 
be paid for the same time by the State. For official work on the map the 
salaries shall be divided between the two agreeing parties in such way 
as to equalize expenses, providing that the total cost to the State of Illinois 
of the field and office work shall not be more than $10,000 from July, 1905, 
to June 30, 1906, or for any subsequent fiscal year. And, further, provided, 
that the United States Geological Survey shall expend an amount upon the 
same work and during the same period of time. 

8. During the progress of field and office work, free access to the records 
of the topographers shall be afforded the State Geological Commission of the 
State of Illinois for examination and criticism, and should the Commission 
consider that the work is not being executed in accordance with this agree- 
ment, it may, on formal notice, terminate the same. This agreement may 
also be terminated by formal notice of either party thirty days prior to the 
beginning of the new fiscal year. 

—3 G 



34 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

9. The resulting reports shall fully recognize the cooperation of the State 
organization. 

10. All accounts and vouchers paid by the State Geological Commission 
under this agreement shall be subject to their auditing and approval. 

11. It is further agreed that, in view of the cooperation arrangements 
here entered into, the State Geological Commission of the' State of Illinois 
shall be furnished with transfers ,at the cost of printing, from the copper 
plates, for use in printing editions of said maps by the State. 

(Signed) Chas. D. Walcott, 

Director U. S. Geological Survey. 
Washington, D. C, November 20, 1905. 

(Signed) Chables S. Deneen, 
Chairman State Geological Commission, State of Illinois. 
Springfield, 111., November 17, 1905. 

RESULTS. 

From the expenditure of the joint fund of $20,000 provided for in 
the above agreement, a complete and accurate map was made for publi- 
cation on the scale of 1 :62500, with contour intervals of 10 and 20 feet, 
of 1,347 square miles of the State, which is represented on the follow- 
ing six sheets : Belleville, in Madison and St. Clair counties ; Eldorado, 
in Gallatin, Hamilton, Saline and White counties; Mahomet, in Cham- 
paign and Piatt counties; New Haven (111., Ind., iCy.) in G-allatin and 
White counties ; Springfield, in Logan, Menard and Sangamon counties ; 
Urbana, in Champaign county. In addition, eighty-three square miles 
were mapped over the edges of these sheets, which will be incorporated 
in future map^ work. 

Considerable preliminary work was accomplished on the following 
quadrangles : Breese, in Bond, Clinton; St. Clair and Madison counties ; 
Carmi, (111., Ind.) in White county; Havana, in Fulton and Mason 
counties; Petersburg, in Logan, Menard and Sangamon counties; Sai- 
dora., in Cass, Fulton, Mason and Schuyler counties ; Wheaton, in Du- 
Page county. Of these the Breese and Wheaton quadrangles were al:)out- 
half surveyed. 

During the season there were run on all of the above eleven sheets 
3,740 miles of spirit levels, in the course of which 24,446 elevations and 
101 permanent bench marks were established; there were run 6,223 
linear miles of road traverse, every bend and every house being accurately 
located. 

Two parties extended primary traverse over the counties of Cham- 
paign, (Clinton, DuPage, Madison, Menard, St. Clair and Sangamon, 
resulting in the occupation of 1,441 stations and the running of 402 
miles of traverse. One party extended precise levels over the counties 
of Champaign, DeWitt, McLean, Piatt and Tazewell, resulting in the 
running of eighty-seven miles, in the course of which thirty-three per- 
manent bench marks were established. 

Seasoit of 1906-1907. 

The cooperative agreement signed by the Governor of the State of 
Illinois and the Director of the United States Geological Survey in 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SUEVEYS. 35 

November, 1905, was continued for the cooperative topographic survey 
of the State for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907, in the following 
supplemental agreement : 

Supplemental Agreement Ijetween the State Geological Commission of the 
State of Illinois and the Director of the United States Geological Survei/ 
for the continuation of the Cooperative Topographic Survey of Illinois, 
for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1901. 

In accordance with the provisions of an agreement between the above 
named parties, signed November, 1905, the terms of which are hereby ex- 
tended for the continuation of this cooperative surveying, it is further agreed 
and understood that the State of Illinois shall expend for such cooperative 
surveys during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907, a sum of not less than 
$10,000; provided, that the United States Geological Survey shall expend 
for cooperative topographic surveys within the State an amount at least 
equal to the above. 

(Signed) Chas. D. Walcott, 

Director U. S. Geological Survey. 
(Signed) C. S. Deneen, 
Chairman State Geological Commission, State of Illinois. 

RESULTS. 

Correspondence was immediately entered into between the Director of 
the State Geological Survey, Dr. H. Foster Bain, and Mr. H. M. Wilson, 
Geographer, of the IT. S. Geological Survey, in which plans were per- 
fected for the work to be executed during the year, and such plans were 
carried to completion. 

From the expenditure of funds provided for in the supplemental agree- 
ment an accurate map was made for publication on the scale of 1 :62,500, 
with contour intervals of 10 and 20 feet, of an area oi 1,055 square miles 
of the State, which is represented on the following five sheets, namely: 
Breese, in Bond, Clinton, Madison and St. Clair counties; Galatia, in 
Franklin, Hamilton, Saline and Williamson counties; Waukegan, (111., 
Wis.), in Lake county; Whealon, in Cook and DuPage counties; Tal- 
lula, in Cass, Menard, Morgan and Sangamon counties. This latter 
quadrangle was completed with the exception of thirteen miles. In 
addition, ninety square miles were mapped over the sheet edges, which 
will be incorporated in future map work. Considerable preliminary work 
was accomplished on the following quadrangles: Galena, (111., la.), in 
Jo Daviess county; Thompsonville, in Franklin and Williamson coun- 
ties ; Herrin, in Franklin, Jackson, Perry and Williamson counties. 

During the season, for the control of the above quadrangles, 2,464 
miles of spirit levels were run, in connection with which sixty-six per- 
manent marks and 15,771 useful elevations were established. There 
were also run 3,227 miles of road traverse, upon which all bends and 
houses were accurately located. 

One party extended primary traverse over portions of the counties of 
Franklin, Hamilton, Jackson, Jo Daviess, Perry, Lake, Saline, William- 
son, which will furnish geodetic positions of a great many points to 
which to tie future topographic and property surveys. This work re- 
sulted in the occupation of 1,671 stations and the running of 398 miles 



36 YEAE BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 141 

of traverse. One party extended precise levels over portions of the 
counties of Coles, Cumberland, Douglas, Edgar, Franklin, Gallatin, Jas- 
per, Eichland, Saline, and Vermilion, 306 miles of double line being 
run, in connection witli which seventy-six permanent bench marks and 
435 elevations were established'. These furnish exact heights through 
which to refer to mean sea level any spirit leveling which may- be done 
hereafter by private or public organizations. 

Owing to the late date at which it was possible to resume field work, 
namely, after the first week in July, because neither State nor Federal 
funds were available until July 1st, the field season was unusually short,^ 
But the progress was as good as could have been anticipated. 

Three of the topographic sheets mapped during the previous year were 
engraved, namely; Urbana, New Haven and Eldorado, copies of which 
are sold by the U. S. Geological Survey at the nominal price of five cents 
per copy. 

Season of 1907-1908. 

The agreement of November, 1905, for cooperative topographic sur- 
veys was further continued by a supplemental agreement similar to that 
of the year before, the amount provided by the State, however, being 
$8,000, to be met by a like sum from the United States. 

EESULTS. 

From the expenditure of the $16,000 provided for cooperative topo- 
graphic work, the survey of the Tallula quadrangle, in Morgan, San- 
gamon, Cass and Menard counties, and the West Frankfort quadrangle, 
in Franklin and Williamson counties, was completed; and the survey of 
the Carlyle, New Athens and Okawville quadrangles, in St. Clair, Wash- 
ing-ton, Clinton and Bond counties; the Hardinville quadrangle, in 
Jasper, Crawford, Eichland and Lawrence counties; and the Herrin 
quadrangle, in Jackson, Perry, Franklin and Williamson counties, was 
commenced. The total area surveyed was 624 square miles, for publica- 
tion on the scale of 1 :62,500, with a contour interval of twenty feet. 
For the control of these and adjacent areas 477 miles of primary and 
2,636 miles of secondary levels were run and 108 permanent bench 
marks were established. The Carlyle, Chauncey, Okawville and New 
Athens quadrangles, in Clinton, Eichland, Lawrence, Jasper, St. Clair, 
Washington and Monroe counties, were controlled by 237 miles of prim- 
ary traverse run and 913 stations established. A line of precise levels 
thirty-two miles in length, extending from the vicinity of Terre Haute, 
Ind., to Oakland, 111., through the Paris and Kansas quadrangles, in 
Edgar and Coles counties, was also run, in connection with which twelve 
permanent bench marks were established. 

Of the topographic sheets mapped during the season of 1906-1907, the 
Breese was engraved. 



herron.] topographic sueveys. 37 

Season of 1908-1909. 

The agreement of November, 1905, for cooperative topographic sur- 
Teys was continued by a supplemental agreement similar to that of 
1906-1907, which provided for the mutual expenditure of $8,000 by the 
State of Illinois and the United States Geological Survey. 

RESULTS. 

From the expenditure of the $16,000 available for topographic work, 
the survey of the Carlyle quadrangle_, in Clinton and Bond counties; 
the Herrin quadrangle, in Jackson, Perry, Franklin and Williamson 
•counties; the Murphysboro quaarangle, in Jackson and x-erry counties; 
the Okawville quadrangle, in Clinton, Washington and St. Clair coun- 
ties; and the Hardinville quadrangle, in Crawford, Lawrence and Jasper 
counties was completed; and the Survey of the Vandalia, quadrangle, in 
Fayette county; the Baldwin quadrangle, in Eandolph county; and the 
N'ew Athens quadrangle, in St. Clair and Monroe counties, was com- 
menced, the total area mapped to December 31, 1908, being 915 square 
miles, for publication on the scale of 1 : 62,500, with a contour interval 
of twenty feet. Preliminary work was well advanced on the Apple Eiver 
and Galena, quadrangles, in Jo Daviess county ; the Baldwin quadrangle, 
in Eandolph county; the LaSalle quadrangle, in LaSalle, Bureau, and 
Putnam counties; the Bridgeport quadrangle, in Lawrence and Wabash 
counties; the Hennepin quadrangle, in Putnam, Bureau and LaSalle 
counties, and the Carmi quadrangle, in White and Posey counties. All 
control for the New Athens quadrangle was completed. 

For the control of the above quadrangles and adjacent areas 542 
miles of primary levels, 1,849 miles of secondary levels, 344 miles of 
primary traverse, and 4,033 miles of secondary traverse were run, and 
118 permanent bench marks were established. 

Of the quadrangles previously mapped, the Galatia, Waukegan and 
Wheaton were engraved. 

Expenditures. 

Since the inauguration of topographic surveys in 1905, to the close of 
the fiscal year 1908-1909, there were available for cooperative topo- 
graphic surveys from State and Federal funds $72,000. Of this amount 
there had been expended on December 31, 1908, $70,462.39, leaving a 
balance of $1,537.61. This balance was reserved in accordance with the 
agreement in order to meet the permanent salaries of civil service em- 
ployes engaged in completing the drafting of the topographic maps, and 
to prosecute surveys in the field during the good spring weather. 

Eesume of Eesults. 

During the time that cooperative topographic surveys have been in 
progress, seventeen whole and three partial quadrangles have been com- 
pleted, comprising an area of 3,941 square miles, in addition to which 
about 425 square miles over sheet edges have been mapped, at a total 



38 



YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



expenditure of $57,462, which includes the cost of primary triangula- 
tiion and precise levels. In addition to this a large amount of pre- 
liminary control has been completed preparatory to future topographic 
mapping at a cost of $14,538. 

The following tabular statement gives the names of the sheets com- 
pleted during the four years cooperation, their areas, scale, contour in- 
terval and the year mapped : 

TOPOGEAPHIC ATLAS SHEETS MAPPED IN 00-OPEEATION. 



Quadrangle. 



Area 


Year. 


Contour 


Mapped. 


Interval. 


Sq. miles. 




Feet. 


233.28 


1905 


20 


235.66 


1905 


20 


228.40 


1905 


20 


192.78 


1905 


20 


229.22 


1905 


10 


228.40 


1905 


10 


233.28 


1906 


20 


235.66 


1906 


20 


149.00 


1906 


20 


225.50 


1906 


20 


229.22 


1906 


20 


235.66 


1907 


20 


235.66 


1907 


20 


233.28 


1908 


20 


235.66 


1908 


20 


234.07 


1908 


20 


232.48 


1908 


20 


64.00^ 


1908 


20 


35.00i 


1908 


20 


15. 00^ 


1908 


20 


3,941.21 



Scale. 



Belleville 

Eldorado 

Mahomet 

New Haven (111., Ind., Ky.) 

Springfield 

Urbana 

Breese 

Galatia 

Waukegan (111., Wis.) 

Wheaton 

Tallula 

Herrin 

West Frankfort 

Carlyle 

Murphysboro 

Okawville 

Hardin ville 

Vandaliai 

New Athens^ 

Baldwin^ 



1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62300 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 
1.62500 



Total 3,941.21 



iQnly partially completed. 



Natuee of Co-Opeeation. 

The cooperative topographic survey of the State has been vigorously 
prosecuted during the past four years in accordance with the joint 
agreements above cited. Under the terms of these agreements, the execu- 
tion of the work both in field and office is under the immediate charge 
of the Federal Survey, which draws upon the large corps of trained 
topographers which has been created uncler it through the Federal Civil 
Service. The Director of the State Geological Survey recommends the 
order, in point of priority, in which the different parts of the State 
shall be mapped, as he is best acquainted with the needs of the State in 
this direction. Many of the citizens of the State who are competent 
engineers have found employment upon this work. 

When the Legislature made its appropriation for beginning this work 
in 1905, the Federal Survey had made rough reconnaissance maps in 
many cases, and in a few cases more detailed and accurate topographic 
maps of a total area of 4,917 square miles of the State. These have been 
published by the Government upon thirty-nine separate atlas sheets dis- 
tributed throughout various parts of the State, upon which it had inde- 
pendently expended a sum roughly estimated at $40,000 between the 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 39 



years 1887 and 1904, inclusive. A large portion of this work is on the 
scale of about two miles to one inch, with contours showing elevations 
for change of every fifty feet in altitude. Some of it is on the larger 
scale of one mile to one inch, with contour intervals of twenty and ten 
feet. A consiclerahle portion of this area was mapped before the 
Federal Survey began its more accurate work and is lacking in detail, 
no houses being represented. It is also devoid of spirit leveling, so that 
the contouring and elevations are not sufficiently reliable to afford a basis 
for exact engineering work. 

The land area of Illinois is 56,002 square miles and the water area 
663 square miles, making a total of 56,665 square miles. There have 
been mapped in cooperation 3,941 square miles, and prior to cooperation 
4,917 square miles, a total of 8,858 square miles, leaving 47,807 square 
miles yet to be mapped, though 3,000 square miles of the earlier recon- 
naissance work should be added to this area, as it will ultimately be re- 
surveyed. 

Objects and Eecommendations. 

As stated, the object of making a topographic survey of the State 
in such great detail as will permit the making of a map on the scale 
of one mile tO' one inch, is primarily to serve as a basis for study of the 
structural and economic geology of the State, with a view to aiding in 
the development of its economic mineral resources. In 1908 Illinois 
ranked second among the states in quantity of coal produced, the amount 
being 47,659,690 short tons of a value of $49,978,247. It ranked well up 
in the production of building stone and cement-making materials. It 
is believed that the output of many of the minerals found in the State 
may be increased through the medium of this survey. These maps have 
a high value in connection with all studies for drainage of swamp' and 
overflowed lands. They show the positions of the swamps, the absolute 
heights of points upon them, and the relation of these in altitude to the 
stream channels through which they may be drained. They are of es- 
pecial value to the State in connection with studies for the improvement 
of highways. They are needed in connection with the planning of public 
improvements, developing railways, trolley lines, etc. 

At the close of December, 1908, 8,858 square miles had been mapped, 
leaving approximately 50,000 square miles to be mapped or resurveyed. 
In order that this work may be continued, now that it has been so aus- 
piciously commenced, $10,000 should be appropriated each year for the 
completion of the topographic survey of the State. 

Organization" and Eeports. 

Topographic mapping in Illinois is under the general direction of Mr. 
E. B. Marshall, Chief Geographer, of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, and under the immediate direction of Mr. W. H. Herron, Geog- 
rapher in Charge of the Central Division, who has personal supervision 
of the field work and is held responsible for its quality and organization. 
Mr. E. M. Douglas, Geographer, has charge of the section of primary 



40 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

control and precise leveling and overlooks the office computations. Un- 
der Mr. Herron several topograpliers, named in the body of this report, 
had charge of field parties, assisted by temporary aids employed for the 
season only. All of the men excepting the temporary employes are U. S. 
Civil Service appointees who have passed a rigid engineering examin- 
ation. The temporary employes are selected preferably from residents of 
the State and fill out applications accompanied by letters of recommend- 
ation showing their education, experience, and other qualifications for 
this special line of work. The field work is further inspected by Mr. 
J. H. Eenshawe, Inspector, and by the Director of the State Geological 
Survey. 

Weekly reports of progress are sent to the party chiefs, and monthly 
reports are submitted by the party to the Division Chief and the 
Chief Ceographer, the latter of whom transmits them with a financial 
statement to the State Geological Survey. 

Fiscal System. 

The salaries of the party chiefs are fixed by appointment from the 
Honorable, the Secretary of the Interior, while the salaries of the tem- 
porary aids are determined by the qualifications shown in their applica- 
tions and by promotion subsequent to employment. All actual traveling 
expenses are refunded upon presentation of vouchers duly signed and 
sworn tO', and per diem in lieu of subsistence is allowed, the same ranging 
from $1.50 to $2.25, according to the location of the work and the nature 
of the duties assigned to the employes. All vouchers are submitted semi- 
monthly in duplicate to the division chief, who after approving them 
transmits a portion to the Federal disbursing officers for payment and 
another portion through the Director of the State Geological Survey to 
the State Auditor for payment. A monthly statement transmitted to the 
Director of the State Geological Survey itemizing the amount expended 
by the Federal Government. The conditions of the agreement are such 
that the State Survey expends the bulk of its funds during the summer 
season on actual field work and the Federal Government pays the per- 
manent salaries. In consequence the Federal Government does not ex- 
pend nearly so much as the State by the close of the season, having to 
reserve a sufficient sum to cover office salaries on drafting and computing. 



HERRON.] TOPOGKAPHIC SUEVEYS. 41 



NATURE AND USES OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. 

Geneeal Plan. 

The topographic maps made under this cooperative arrangement are 
drawn up in the office in three colors and furnish exact copy for reproduc- 
tion. The published maps are engraved in the office of the Federal 
Survey in Washington on three separate copper plates, on one of which 
is shown the drainage and water surfaces, and on a second, all roads, 
houses, names and other cultural features, and on the third, figures of 
elevation and shapes and heights of hills by contour lines. The map 
is printed from transfers from these three copper plates to three litho- 
graphic stones, in blue, for the water features; black for the cultural 
features ; and brown, for the topographic relief of the surface. The result 
is a very handsome and attractive and extremely legible map, the neat 
size of which is about 17% inches by 13 inches wide. 

For purposes of convenient publication, and in order that the edges 
■of adjoining sheets may match and be mounted together in larger groups, 
the whole area of the country is divided by latitudes and longitudes fif- 
teen minutes each way to a map sheet, so that each map represents one 
■quarter of a square degree, or an area in Illinois of approximately 325 
square miles to an atlas sheet. To cover the entire State several hun- 
dred such atlas sheets will be required to make the final map which, 
extending from latitude 37° 00' to latitude 42° 30' will be 355 inches 
long north and south, and 240 inches long east and west. Upon this 
map when finally completed there will be located many thousands of 
geodetic positions, or an average of one to every twenty square miles, 
and a still greater number of permanent bench marks showing precise 
level elevations above sea, these averaging about two to each township. 
The latter will be of inestimable value as datum upon which to base all 
engineering projects, and the former will serve as permanent bases for 
all future cadastral or property and political surveys. 

Surveying in general may be divided into three classes: 

1, Those made for general purposes, or information surveys, which may 
be exploratory, geodetic, geographic, topographic, geologic, etc. 

2, Those made for jurisdictional purposes, or cadastral surveys, which 
define political boundaries and those of private property and determine 
the enclosed areas. 

3, Those made for construction purposes, or engineering surveys, on 
which are based estimates of the cost of public and private works, such as 
canals, railways, water supplies, etc., and their construction and improve- 
ment. 

The topographic survey, one of those in the first class, is made for 
military, industrial, and scientific purposes. The topographic map, 
made directly from nature by measurements and sketches on the ground, 



42 



YEAE BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



is the mother map from which all others are derived. It shows with 
accurac}^ all the drainage, relief and cultural features which it is prac- 
ticable to represent on the scale chosen. 
The features exhibited on the maps are : 

1. Hydrography, or water features, as ponds, streams, lakes, swamps,, 
etc., which are printed in blue. 

2. Hypsography, or relief of surface, as hills, valleys, and plains, which 
are printed in brown. 

3. Culture, or features constructed by man, as cities, roads, villages, and 
the names of boundaries, which are printed in black. 

This combination of color renaers these topographic maps readily 
legible. On the reverse side of each sheet is a description of the mode of 
reading the map, and a legend, or series of conventional signs, indicat- 
ing how the various facts shown on the maps are represented. All these 
conventions are self-explanatory and are readily understood and inter- 
preted by the layman, except, perhaps, the brown ^^contour" lines. 

These contour lines are of equal elevation — lines along which the 
ground w^ould be touched by the border of a water surface (of the ocean, 
for instance) if it were repeatedly raised by a given amount. Contour 
lines express three features of relief: (1) elevation; (2) horizontal 
form, and (3) grade or slope. To explain more clearly the manner in 
which the contours shown on the maps of the Geological Survey delin- 
eate height, form and slope, the accompanying contour map (Fig. 1) 
has been prepared from the ideal view shown above it. It may be in- 
terpreted as follows: 




TtW^^-^'V^ 


i^^ 


^^^^^\ 


w 


^^^ 


^ 



Fig. 1— Ideal view and corresponding contour map. 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 4ii 

1. A contour indicates a certain height above sea level. In this illustra- 
tion the contour interval is 50 feet; therefore, the contours are drawn at 
50, 100, 150, and 200 feet, and so on, above mean sea level. Along the 250- 
foot contour lie all points of the surface 250 feet above sea; along the 200- 
foot contour, all points that are 200 feet above sea, and so on. In the 
space between any two contours are found elevations above the lower and 
below the higher contour. Thus the contour at 150 feet falls just below the 
edge of the terrace, while that at 200 feet lies above the terrace; therefore, 
all points on the terrace are shown to be more than 150 but less than 200 
feet above sea. The summit of the higher hill is stated to be 670 feet above 
sea; accordingly the contour at 650 feet surrounds it. In this illustration 
all the contours are numbered, and those for 250 and 500 feet are accentu 
ated by being made heavier. Usually it is not desirable to number all the 
contours, and then the accentuating and numbering of certain of them — say, 
every fifth one — suffice, for the heights of others may be ascertained by 
counting up or down from a numbered contour. 

2. Contours define the horizontal forms of slopes. Since contours are 
continuous horizontal lines, they wind smoothly about smooth surfaces, 
recede into all re-entrant angles of ravines, and project in passing about 
prominences. These relations of contour curves and angles to forms of the 
landscape can be traced in the map and view. 

3. Contours show the approximate grade of any slope. The altitudinal 
space between two contours is the same, VN^hether they lie along a cliff or 
on a gentle slope; but to rise a given height on a gentle slope, one must 
go farther than on a steep slope, and therefore contours are far apart on 
gentle slopes and near together on steep ones. 

Publication. 

While the Federal Survey cooperates with the State in making the 
field survey and drafting the resulting map^ it undertakes alone the 
publication of the final results. In consequence, though the State con- 
tributes half toward the making of the survey, one of the most expensive 
features of the map making, the publication and distribution, is handled 
at no expense to the State. Meantime, since the inception of cooperation 
the State has benefitted by marked improvements in the method and 
style of the published maps, the character of the lettering and other 
finish of the engraving making the maps more attractive and legible. 
Much greater detail and nicer representation is shown on the later maps 
than on the earlier ones. This includes chiefly, exactness in representing 
cuts and fills and other obstacles along railroads and highways; the 
position of the highest point on hill and mountain tops. Not only are 
all houses, in cities and in the country shown, but school houses and 
churches are distinguished, as are cemeteries. 

Scale and Contour Interval. 

The scale selected for the cooperative maps is that adopted for the 
whole of the United States, which is being mapped upon two standard 
scales, one of about two miles to one inch, and the other of about one 
mile to an inch. This latter and larger scale is adopted for Illinois, the 
exact multiple being represented by the figures 1 :62,500, which is an 
aliquot part of 1 :1,000,000, the international scale adopted by all great 
organizations throughout the world, as well as by the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey and the War Department of the Federal Government. The 



44 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

actual field scale is 4,000 feet to 1 inch, which is reduced in publication. 
In regions of special importance, as about large cities, the field work of 
surveying is done on double this scale, or on the scale of 2,000 feet to 
1 inch, though no arrangements for publishing on this larger scale have 
yet been made by the Federal Government. 

The contour interval adopted is 10 or 20 feet according to the steep- 
ness and amount of relief or comparative flatness of the slopes. Which 
of these two contour intervals shall be used is agreed upon in detail 
each, year by the cooperative oSicials; the maps about Urbana, where 
the country is quite level, having been mapped with the' 10-foot in- 
terval, while the maps about Eldorado and Belleville, where the country 
is more deeply eroded were mapped on the 20-foot interval. The scale 
selected is so large that a distance of about 100 feet on the ground, can 
be represented on the map, thus permitting the actual platting of every 
house and every bend in the road, etc. The contour interval is such that 
every change in the slope and every difference in elevation amounting 
to 10 and 20 feet can be accurately represented. 

Areas of Political Subdivisions. 

The result of this topographic mapping is to show accurately for the 
first time the boundaries of all townships and counties so far as the 
data can be procured in the field and from county records. This survey 
is not warranted in investigating questions of disputed boundaries or of 
obscure boundaries. These are matters for determination by the courts. 
The boundaries as found and shown on the maps present clearly and ac- 
curately all questions connected with the townships and counties; show 
in which township and county fall various roads, houses, etc., and fur- 
nish the data from which to make an exact measurement of the areas of 
these political subdivisions. 

The system of symbols, and particularly the contour system by which 
elevations and slopes of these maps are shown has been adopted by the 
Federal Survey after much careful thought. 

« 

Uses of the Maps. 

It is evident from the foregoing that the uses of the maps are so 
varied as to furnish data touching nearly every public and private ac- 
tivity having to do with the surface of the land. 

Some of the special uses of the maps to the State are a§i follows : 

1. As preliminary maps for planning extensive irrigation and drainage 
projects, showing areas of catchment for water supply, sites for reservoirs, 
routes of canals, etc. 

2. Highways, electric roads, railroads, aqueducts and sewerage systems 
may he laid out on them, thus saving the cost of preliminary surveys. 

3. In the improvement of rivers and smaller waterways. 

4. In the determination and classification of water resources, both surface 
and underground. 

5. By boards of health in the disposal of city sewage, garbage, etc. 

6. In determining routes, mileage, location of road-building material, and 
the topography in country traversed by public highways. 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 45 

7. In the selection of most practical routes for automobiling tours and 
inter-city runs. 

8. As a guide map for prospectors and others in traveling through little- 
known regions. 

9. As a base for the compilation of the extent and character of forest and 
grazing lands, 

10. In the classification of lands and in plotting the distribution and 
nature of the various soils. 

11. In the compilation of maps in connection with the survey and sale 
of lands. 

12. In investigations for the improvement of the plant and animal in- 
dustries, and in a comprehensive study of physical and biological conditions 
in connection with the stocking of interior waters with food fishes, and in 
advantageously locating fish-culture stations. 

13. In locating and mapping the boundaries of the life and crop zones, 
and in mapping the geographical distribution of plants and animals. 

14. In plotting the distribution and spread of injurious insects and germs. 

15. As a base map for the plotting of information relating to geology and 
the mineral resources of the country, 

16. In maneuvers of the national guard, in the development of military 
problems, and in the selection of routes for road marches or strategical 
movements of the troops, particularly of artillery or cavalry. 

17. In connection with questions relating to State, county or town boun- 
daries, 

18. As a means of promoting an exact knowledge of the country and 
serving teachers and pupils in geographic studies, 

19. As base maps for the graphic representation of all facts relating to 
population, industries, products, or other statistical information. 

20. In connection with legislation involving the granting of charters, 
rights, etc., when a physical knowledge of the country may be desirable or 
necessary.^ 

21. Their main importance, however, is as a basis upon which to study 
the geological formations and the relations of the various coal, oil and gas- 
bearing formations one to another, their depth below the surface and the 
probable extension of such resources into unexploited areas, also as a basis 
for soil surveys for the determination of the agricultural value and prop- 
erties of the lands. 



46 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 



TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING OF BOTTOM LANDS. 



The last General Assembly of Illinois made a small appropriation for 
the beginning of siTrveys and studies of the over-flow lands of the State, 
for the purpose of acquiring a knowledge of their exsiting conditions, 
and the methods by which the needed improvements may best be made. 
In accordance with this legislation, the State G-eological Survey last year 
began the topographic mapping of portions of the Kaskaskia, Big Muddy 
and Embarass rivers, in which it cooperated with the topographic branch 
of the XJ. S. Geological Survey. Cooperative topograhic mapping hav- 
ing been arranged in quadrangles adjacent to these streams, much of 
the control work of the regular surveys, has, with slight modifications 
been utilized for our special drainage work. This has enabled us, at the 
least possible expense, to produce during the past season a 5-ft. topo- 
graphic map on a scale of 1 :24000 of approximately 200 square miles of 
these river bottoms. 

The purpose of the survey in doing this work along the riv^ courses 
is to furnish a detailed topographic map, sufficiently accurate to be of 
practical value to the engineer in the planning of any proposed improve- 
ments and the estimating of costs for same. While the question of the 
scale has been somewhat perplexing, it is believed that the 1 :24000 scale 
will prove adequate for the uses for which it is intended, since it is suf- 
ficiently large to contain all detail that would be taken into account in 
the planning of these improvements. It has the additional advantage of 
permitting large sections of the country to be mapped on a single sheet 
of paper, thereby presenting in a collected form the conditions in differ- 
ent sections of the bottoms. Also because of its much reduced cost, 
which must be considered with a limited appropriation, it has a very 
strong claim to consideration. 

The section of country especially referred to here, and which may bo 
considered in a general way as representative of the over-flow lands, is 
that portion of the Kaskaskia river bottoms mapped last year, extending 
from Iveyesport on the northern boundary of Clinton county to its outlet 
near Chester. Within this area, the field work has been completed south 
to near the boundary line between Clinton and St. Clair counties, includ- 
ing a total of 160 square miles, while the level and traverse work has 
been completed for the remaining portion to the mouth. Of the 160 
square miles of mapped country, 130 square miles are under from 1 ft. 
to 8 ft. of water several times each year. The overfloAV season usually 
begins in January, and at times lasts as late as the middle of August, 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPEIC SURVEYS. 47 

which makes the season^ in which the land is dry enough for cultivation, 
entirel}^ too short for successful farming. It seems to be generally 
necessary to plant several times each spring, and even with the last plant- 
ing farmers cannot hope for a yield to the full capacity of the land. It 
has been stated that a successful crop, one that has escaped damage by the 
Hood, does not occur oftener than once in seven years. In fact, so com- 
pletely is this river in possession of its bottom lands that very little effort 
is made to utilize it in any way, and at the present time it might well be 
■considered waste land. 

In making a study of these rivers, it is well to bear in mind that their 
present condition is not altogether due to natural causes, but that the 
making of drainage improvements in other parts of the State, is to a 
great extent responsible for their present trouble. More than 25 years 
ago, after a practicable demonstration of the successful drainage of 
farm lands by tiling, the central part of the State began an earnest and 
persistent fight for the reclamation of their swamp and wet areas. The 
vital question of sufficient outlet naturally followed, and by individual 
efi^ort, by the formation of drainage districts, and with other help, canals 
were dredged and natural channels straightened and improved. These, 
with innumerable ditches of smaller capacity, now quite thoroughly pro- 
vide for the disposition of the water from tiled fields. This quarter of 
a century of sustained effort on the part of the farmers of the State, dur- 
ing which millions of dollars have been spent on drainage propositions, 
has resulted in a most thorough system of successful drained farm lands. 
So thoroughly has this work been accomplished that it might be said that 
Illinois, with the exception of a few areas, such as the Kankakee Marsh, 
and the Green river country, has reached almost the last stages of a 
complete drainage system for the State. Important exceptions also, are 
some of the rivers, part of which form its boundaries. This final step, 
liowever, presents by far the greatest problems for the engineer, and 
their successful solution can be obtained only after a very thorough ex- 
amination of all conditions which bear upon the question. The localities 
now needing outlet are to be found in the lower stretches of the principal 
streams of the State, the Kaskaskia, Little Wabash, Big Muddy, Em- 
harass and Sangamon being especially important. 

Before the uplands were reclaimed by tiled drains, a rainy season of 
even a week's duration, produced but a slight increase in the flow of the 
channels of these streams. This was due to the fact that the rain col- 
lected in enormous areas of marsh and loAvlands, and reached these river 
courses by a very slow and tedious process. The experience of the past 
summer, while making topographic surveys along the Kaskaskia river, 
shows that a rain of 24 hours will now raise the stream from 4 to 10 
feet. An explanation of this is readily found in the fact that with our 
present system of tile drainage and the excellent outlets thereto, Avater 
from such a rain is carried quickly from the fields and poured immedi- 
ately into the upper courses of these streams, and the multiplication of 
these feeders has forced upon the streams a burden entirely beyond their 
present capacity. As a result the numerous floods have rendered thous- 
ands of acres of the best farming land of the State practically worthless. 



48 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. IBULL. no. 14 

It will be easily seen that -the responsibility for the improvement of the 
channels of these rivers rests equally npon the farm holders on the upper 
conrses of these rivers and those located nearer their outlet. The prin- 
ciple of general assessment^ so thoroughly recognized in legislation pro- 
viding for drainage districts^ can be applied with justice to these larger 
problems of reclamation which cover all land within individual drainage 
basins. 

The methods used in making these drainage maps are very similar to 
those of the topographic branch of the U. S. Geological Survey, the 
principle difference being that because of the contour interval used the 
enlarged scale, and the object of the work itself, a greater amount of 
detailed work is necessary. As bases for our maps we have the primary 
traverse transit lines of the U. S. Geological Survey for position and the 
primary level lines of the same survey for elevation, in addition to which 
we have the steel tape measurements along township lines. With these 
lines for control, a plane table buggy traverse is run of the first ridge 
road outside the bottom on each side of the river, and as often as pos- 
sible cross roads, which tie the work together, are run in the same way 
Since the distance between roads crossing the river is so great, it has 
been found necessary, at intervals of from li/^ to 2 miles, to traverse 
from the outside roads to the river, where points are left for the purpose 
of being tied to by the stadia traverse of the river. While the wheel 
method of measurement may be considered crude and inaccurate, a prac- 
tical test will prove that for scales even longer than the one used in this 
work and controlled equally well, it will fully meet all requirements. 
The accumulation error is slight, and when larger errors are made, they 
are readily located after the traverse has ben tied to itself or to another 
line. 

Over the same roads, and others when necessary, spirit levels are run 
and numerous elevations painted at summits, bridges, road corners and 
other convenient points, while at intervals scarcely exceeding a quarter 
mile, substantial bench marks are left. The level work is so planned that 
elevations determined by stadia, need not be carried for distances greater 
than 1% miles. Experience during the past summer indicates that levels 
may be successfully carried with this instrument for distances of 3 or 4 
miles. The instrument used is similar to the ordinary stadia, except that 
it is provided with an attachment which simplifies the reading of eleva- 
tions at an angle. It has been in use on the U. S. Geological Survey the 
last few years, the idea for the improvement having originated with 
members of that survey. 

The frame w^ork of traverse and level' lines, together with the stadia 
traverse of the river and other streams, is adjusted to the land lines and 
the other available control after which it is ready for the topographer. 
This topographic sketching is by far the most difficult work connected 
with the making of a map, because the necessity of carrying innumerable 
stadia lines through the dense jungles of the bottoms. Starting from 
convenient bench marks, these lines zig-zag through the bottoms, the sight 
bein,s^ through the openings of greatest length in the general directions 
of the traverse. The importance of these lines being closely run is 
clearly shown by a glance at the finished map, for the great number of 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 49 

lakes, sloughs, marshes and isolated hills are features that can not be 
reliably mapped except by actual survey. Being hidden, as they are, by 
dense woods they must be hunted, and the meandering traverse line is 
the method by which we find them. 

On our drainage maps, such features have been carefully traversed 
and their elevation determined, and in addition to the numerous cross 
sections at short inten^als, a mass of isolated elevations have been left 
throughout the bottom lands. These stadia lines, as carried through 
the bottoms, are usually run with great difficulty because of the heavy 
undergrowth, and especially is this true in mid-summer, when, in ad- 
dition to the dense foliage, the intense heat and mosquitoes make work 
both difficult and disagreeable. In fact, because of this condition in the 
bottoms, the problemx of keeping help is a very serious one and the best 
solution seems to be in the bringing of help from such a distance that 
quitting at will is made more difficult. Few men will submit long to the 
physical sufferings met with in the bottoms, even at wages two to three 
times the price they can receive elsewhere, if they are where they can 
reach home within a few hours. 

Along with the stadia traverse and levels, the relief of the river bot- 
toms and the country adjoining the bottom lands has been carefully 
sketched. This map of the relief with 5 feet contours should greatly 
facilitate the study of the river problem. Mere location of the stream 
course and elevations, be they ever so numerous, does not bring to the 
eye of the engineer the actual figuration of the surface. It is thought 
that it will be necessary to inspect most minutely the local physiographic 
conditions before a successful plan of improvement can be determined. 
It has been planned, therefore, to present to the engineer who studies 
this great problem the most complete possible data for his use. It is 
not claimed that this form of map is the most inexpensive one even under 
favorable conditions under which it was accomplished last season, but it 
is believed that in the end it will justify itself on the ground of economy 
in the saving of time and of additional work for the engineer. It also 
seems that in a study of the carrying capacity of the channel, the effect 
of possible dike construction and of the control of lateral streams, the 
topographic features of the map will appeal very strongly to the en- 



4 G 



50 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. NO. 14 



PROGRESS OF TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS IN ILLINOIS 
PRIOR TO CO-OPERATION. 



In 1887 the United States Geological Survey did its first work in 
topographic mapping in Illinois. This work was continued thereafter 
for several years with considerable energy, chiefly along the course 
of the Illinois river. This surveying was undertaken with a view to 
aiding the study of the Drainage Commission of Chicago in solving 
the problem with which it was charged, and included the making of a 
series of fifteen maps extending from Chicago via Joliet and Hennepin 
to Peoria, and covering an area of approximately 3,700 square miles. 
Other topographic mapping was done in the neighborhood of Bast St. 
Louis, and in the northwestern corner of the State in connection with 
studies of mineral resources in the neighborhood of Jo Daviess county. 
There were thus mapped in the seventeen years prior to cooperation 
4,917 square miles without the assistance of the State, or at the average 
rate of nearly 300 square miles a year. It is evident that ot this rate 
many 3^ears must pass before the survey of the State will be completed. 
With cooperation appropriated for at the rate of $10,000 per annum, 
there have been mapped 2,492 square miles, or at the rate of 1,246 
square miles per annum. At an increased rate of appropriation there 
would be an increased output. The topographic mapping done prior 
to cooperation is estimated to have averaged $8.00 per square mile. 
The total expenditure on this work by the Federal Government alone 
and unaided has therefore been about $39,336. 

1887. — The first topographic surveying prosecuted by the United 
States Geological Survey in Illinois was in connection with the map- 
ping of the Louisiana (Mo.-Ill.) sheet, in Pike county, for publica- 
tion on the scale of 1 :125,000, with 50-foot contour interval. The 
work was done by Mr. H. L. Baldwin, topographer. 

1888. — During this year Mr. Baldwin completed the survey of the 
St. Louis (M0.-III.) sheet, in Madison, St. Clair and Monroe counties, 
for publication on scale of 1 :62,500, with 20-foot contour interval. 
This sheet was resurveyed in 1903 to bring the culture u.p to date of 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

1889. — The Calumet (Ul.-Ind.) sheet, in Cook county, was mapped 
by Messrs. D. C. Harrison and K. C. McKinney. This sheet was pub- 
lished in 1901 after having been revised for cultural changes. The 
Chicago sheet, in Cook county, was mapped in this year and revised 
for publication in 1897- and 1899. The topographic field work was 
done by Messrs. D. C. Harrison, IST. Tyler, Jr., and E. C. McKinney, 
topographers, together with the Chicago Sanitary Commission. The 
Davenport (la.-Ill.) sheet, in Eock Island county, was mapped by Mr. 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 51 

W. J. Peters, topograplier. It lias since been reduced and forms part 
of the Eock Island (la.-Ill.) sheet, on scale of 1:125,000. The above 
work was all for publication on the scale of 1 :62,500 with contour in- 
tervals of 5 to 20 feet respectivel3^ 

1890. — The Clinton (la. -111.) sheet, in Carroll and Whiteside coun- 
ties, was mapped by Messrs. W. J. Peters and E. C. McKinney, topo- 
graphers, and was revised in 1896. This was on the publication scale of 
1 : 62,5 00, with a contour interval of ten feet. The DesPlaines sheet, in 
DuPage, Cook and Will counties, was completed by Messrs. D. C. Har- 
rison and N. Tyler, Jr., and the Chicago Sanitary Commission. It 
was revised in 1899 for publication on the scale of 1 :62,500, with con- 
tour interval of 10 feet. Goose Lake (la.-Ill.) sheet, in Eock Island 
county, was mapped by Mr. W. J. Peters, topographer. It now forms 
a part of the Cordova (la.-Ill.) 1:125,000, sheet, though it was orig- 
inally for publication on the 1 :62,500 scale with contour interval of 20 
feet. Joliet sheet, in Cook, DuPage and Will counties, was mapped by 
Mr. D. C. Harrison, topographer, on the 1 : 62,500 scale with contour 
interval of 10 feet. The Leclair (la.-Ill.) sheet, in Eock Island county, 
was mapped by Mr. W. J. Peters, topographer. It also forms a part 
of the Cordova thirty-minute sheet, and is published on the 1 :62,500 
scale, with contour interval of 20 feet. The Marseilles sheet, in La 
Salle, Grundy and Kendall counties, was completed by Mr. D. C. Har- 
rison, for publication on the scale of 1 : 6 2,500, with contour interval 
of 10 feet. The Morris sheet, in Kendall and Grundy counties, was 
also mapped by Mr. Harrison on the same scale and with the same 
contour interval. The Ottawa sheet, in LaSalle county, was mapped 
by Mr. Harrison on the same scale and with the same contour interval. 
The Peosta (la.-Ill.) sheet, in Jo Daviess county, was mapped by Mr. 
W. J. Peters, topographer, and was revised for publication in 1896. 
This was on the publication scale of 1 :125,000, with a contour inter- 
val of 20 feet. The Eiverside sheet, in Cook and DuPage counties, 
was mapped by Messrs. D. C. Harrison, N. Tyler, Jr., and the Chicago 
Sanitary Commission, and was revised for publication in 1899, scale 
1:62,500, contour interval 10 feet. Savanna (la.-IU.) sheet, in Jo 
Daviess and Carroll counties, was mapped for publication on the scale 
of 1:62,500, with contour interval of 20 feet, by Mr. W. J. Peters, 
topographer. The Wilmington sheet, in Will county, was mapped by 
Mr. .D. C. Harrison, for publication on the scale of 1:62,500, with a 
contour interval of 10 feet. 

1891. — The Brodhead (Wis.-Ill.) shee-t, in Winnebago and Stephen- 
son counties, was mapped by Mr. Van H. Manning, topographer, for 
publication on the scale of 1:62,500, with a contour interval of 20 
feet. The Dunlap sheet, in Stark, Marshall, Peoria, Tazewell and 
Woodford counties, was mapped by Mr. D. C. Harrison on the same 
scale with a contour interval of 10 feet, as was also Hennepin sheet, 
in Bureau and Putnam counties. Lacon sheet, in Bureau, Putnam and 
Marshall counties, was also mapped by Mr. Harrison, on the above 
scale, with a contour interval of 20 feet, as was the Metamora sheet, 
in Marshall, Woodford, Peoria and Tazewell* counties, with a contour 
interval of 10 feet. 



62 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

1896.-^Th.e Cordova (la.-Ill.) sheet, in Carroll, Henry, Eock Island 
and Whiteside counties, was produced by Messrs. W. J. Peters and R. 
C. McKinney, topographers, on the scale of 1 :125,000, with a contour 
interval of 20 feet. This map work was a revision of the Clinton, 
Goose Lake, Leclaire, and Henry sheets, scale 1 :62,500, which it re- 
placed. 

1897. — Lancaster (Wis.-Ia.-Ill.) sheet, in Jo Daviess county, was 
mapped by Mr. C. B. Cooke, topographer, for publication on scale of 
1 :125,000, with a contour interval of 20 feet. Highwood sheet, in Cook 
and Lake counties, was mapped by Mr. R. C. McKinney, topogTapher,. 
for publication on the scale of 1 : 62,500, with a contour interval of 
10 feet. Evanston sheet, in Cook county, was also mapped by Mr. 
McKinney, on the same scale and with the same contour interval. Dan- 
ville (Ill.-Ind.) sheet, in Vermilion county, was mapped by Mr. W. J. 
Lloyd, topographer, on the above scale and with the same contour in- 
terval. 

1898. — OTallon sheet, in Calhoun and Jersey counties, was mapped 
by Mr. Paul Holman, topographer, for publication on the scale of 
1:125,000, with a contour interval of 50 feet. The Rock Island (la.- 
111.) sheet, scale 1:125,000, contour interval 20 feet, was mapped in 
1889, and revised for publication in 1898. It is formed by reduction of 
four 15-minute sheets, of which Davenport, la., sheet is one. 

1^00. — Kahoka (Mo.-Ia.-IIL), in Hancock and Adams counties, pub- 
lication scale 1:125,000, contour interval 20 feet, was mapped by Mr. 
Paul Holman, topographer. Mineral Point (Wis.-IU.) sheet, seal© 
1 :125,000, contour interval 20 feet, in Jo Daviess county, was mapped 
by Mr. R. C. McKinney, topographer. 

1901. — New Harmony (Ind.-Ill) sheet, in White and Wabash coun- 
ties, publication scale 1 :62,500, contour interval 20 feet, was mapped 
"by Mr. C. W. Coodlove, topographer. Princeton (Ind.-Ill.) sheet, in 
Wabash county, with above scale and contour interval, was also map- 
ped by Mr. Goodlove. These sheets form by redu.ction, parts of the 
Patoka (Ind.-Ill.) thirty-minute sheet. 

1902. — ^Mount Carmel (Ill.-Ind.) sheet, in Edwards, Wabash and 
White counties, scale 1 : 62,5 00, contour interval 20 feet, was mapped 
by Mr. C. W. Goodlove, topographer. It forms part of the Patoka 
(Ind.-Ill.) thirty-minute sheet, which latter was completed and pub- 
lished during the same year. 

1903. — ^The St. Louis Special (Mo.-Ill.) sheet, was completed this 
year by Messrs. C. E. Cooke, W. 0. Tufts, G. Young and the city of 
St. Louis, and was published on the scale of 1 :24,000 with a con- 
tour interval of 20 feet. This sheet was reduced and included in the 
St. Louis double atlas sheet, scale 1 :62,500 and contour interval 20 
feet, a resurvey of the 1888 sheets. 

190Jf. — Peoria sheet, in Tazewell, Peoria and Woodford counties, was 
mapped by Mr. C. E. Cooke, topographer, assisted by Mr. J. IST. William- 
son. This was on the publication scale of 1 :62,500, with a contour in- 
terval of 10 feet. 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 



53 



The following list contains all topographic atlas sheets mapped by 
the United States Geological Survey outside of any cooperation with 
the State of Illinois. These sheets are arranged alphabetically by 
names. They show the exact area of any sheet within the State where 
the sheet overlaps, one or more states. The total area mapped within 
the State is given. 

The Geological Survey^ in its measurement of areas, does not in- 
clude large bodies of water bordering on political boundaries or the 
open ocean. The measurement closely follows the shore line, jumping 
from headland to headland across necks or straits less than 1,000 feet 
in width. 

Quadrangles Mapped Prior to Co-Operation. 



Quadrangle. 



Area 
Mapped 



Square miles. 



Year. 



Original 
Survey. 



Resurvey or 
Revision. 



Cont. 
Int. 



Feet. 



Scale. 



Brodhead (Wis.-Ul.) 

Calumet (Ill.-Ind.) 

Chicago 

Clinton (la.-Ill./' 

-Cordova (la.-Ill.y 

Danville (Ill.-Ind.) 

Davenport (la.-Ill.)* 

Des Plaines 

Dunlap 

Evanston 

Goose Lake (la.-IU.)- 

Hennepin 

Highwood 

. Joliet 

Kahoka (Mo .-la .-111.) 

Lacon 

Lancaster (Wis.-Ia.-Ill.) 

LaSalle 

LeClaire (la.-IU.)- 

Louisiana (Mo.-IU.) 

Marseilles 

Metamora 

"Mineral Point (Wis.-Ill.) 

Morris 

Mount Carmel (Ill.-Ind.)^ 

JSTew Harmony (Ind.-Ill.)=' 

O'Fallon (Mo.-IU.) 

Ottawa 

Patoka (Ind.-Ill.)=' 

Peoria 

Peosta (la.-Ill.) 

Princeton (Ind.-Ill.)^ 

Riverside 

Rock Island (la.-Ill.)* 

Savanna (la.-Ill.) 

Ste. Genevieve (Mo .-111.)"^ 

St. Louis (Mo.-IU.) . (double sheet) ' 

-St. Louis Special (Mo.-IU.) "^ 

Wilmington 



0.99 

200.32 

120.87 

^143.13 

492.81 

200.12 

^7 .46 

223.36 

225.90 

28.55 

^3.30 

224.21 

206.94 

223.36 

3.11 

225.06 

4.39 

224.21 

^104.58 

11.49 

224.21 

225.90 

10.46 

224.21 

180.45 

44.78 

71.74 

224.21 

^232.29 

226.73 

33.90 

7.06 

222.50 

7.26 

177.00 

2.00 

194.43 



224.21 



1891 

1889 
1889 
1890 
1896 
1897 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1897 
1890 
1891 
1897 
1890 
1900 
1891 



1888 
1890 
1891 
1900 
1890 
1902 
1901 
1898 
1890 
1902 
1904 
1890 
1901 
1890 
1889 
1890 
1895 
1888 
1903 



1899 
1899 
1896 



1899 



1903 



Total . 



■4,916. 



1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 

1:125000 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 

1:125000 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 

1:125000 
1:62500 
1:62500 

1:125000 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 

1:125000 
1:62500 

1:125000 

1:125000 

1:125000 
1:62500 
1:62500 

1:125000 
1:62500 

1:125000 
1:62500 
1:62500 
1:62500 



1 Figures in italic are not included in total, as the sheets form parts of other sheets whose total area 
are given. 

2 Clinton, Goose Lake, and LeClaire sheets,. on scale of 1:62500 have been reduced, and form parts of 
Cordova sheet, on scale of 1:125000. 

3 Princeton, New Harmony, and Mount Carmel sheets, on scale of 1:62500, have been reduced, and 
lorm parts of Patoka sheet, on scale of 1:125000. 

* Davenport sheet, on scale of 1:62500, has been reduced and forms part of Rock Island sheet, on scale 
of 1:125000. 

s St. Louis Special sheet is included within the St. Louis double sheet. 



54 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908, [bull. no. U 



DETAILRD REPORT ON FIELD WORK. 



Organizatioit and Personnel. 

During the field season of 1905 three parties were engaged under the 
supervision of Mr. C. E. Cooke, chief of section, in the topographic map- 
ping of twelve atlas sheets, portions of three of which lie in the adjoin- 
ing states of Indiana and Kentucky, the area in Kentucky having been 
mapped in cooperation with that state, while that in Indiana was mapped 
by the Federal Survey alone. The other two parties were in charge of 
Messrs. Albert Pike and W. J. Lloyd, topographers. Six quadrangles 
were completed during the season. Primary control was extended, un- 
der the supervision of Mr. S. S. G-annett, Geographer, by two parties 
under Messrs. E. L. McN^air and J. E. Ellis, assistant topographers. One 
line of precise levels was run by Mr. McNair. 

During the field season of 1906 Mr. W. H. Herron, topographer, was 
placed in supervisory charge of the section which includes Illinois, and 
under him three parties were maintained throughout the season under 
Messrs. W. J. Lloyd, topographer; C. L. Sadler, assistant topographer, 
and J. Gr. Staack, topographic aid. Towards the latter end of the season 
two parties under Messrs, A. T. Fowler, assistant topographer, and C. 
Hartmann, topographic aid, were added to these to aid in completion of 
work planned. During the season the topographic mapping of four atlas 
sheets was completed. Preliminary work was in progress on three others. 
Primary control was continued under the general supervision of Mr. S. 
S. Gannett, geographer. This work was done by a party in charge of Mr. 
L. E. Tucker, topographic aid. Two lines of precise levels were run by 
Mr. T. A. Green, field assistant. 

During the field season of 1907 Mr. W. H. Herron, as Geographer in 
Charge of the Central Division of Topography, has supervisory control 
of all topographic surveys in Illinois, and under him Messrs. W. J. Lloyd 
and J. P. McBeth, topographers, Messrs. E. W. McCrary and H. L. Mc- 
Donald, assistant topographers, and Lee Morrison and J. E. Tichenor, 
field assistants, were engaged in topographic mapping, three quadrangles 
being completed and five commenced. Primary control was continued 
by parties under the direction of Messrs J. E. Ellis and C. B. Kendall, 
assistant topographers. A line of precise levels was run by Mr. C. H. 
Semper, levelman, and primary and secondary levels were run by Messrs. 
W. A. Gelbach and Henry Bucher, levelmen. 



HERRON.] TOPOGKAPHIC SURVEYS. 00 

During the season of 1908 Mr. Herron eontinned in charge of topo- 
graphic work in Illinois. Topographic mapping was continued by 
Messrs. W. J. Lloyd and M. Hackett, topographers; E. W. McCrary and 
A. T. Fowler, assistant topographers ; G. L. Gross, Lee Morrison and E. 
L. Hain, junior topographers, and J. W. Lovell and J. A. Duck, field 
assistants. Four quadrangles were completed and three were commenced. 
Primary levels were continued by Mr. W. A. Gelbach, junior topographer. 

Summary of Eesults. 

The following are tabular statements of the results of the field work 
of the seasons of 1905, 1906, 1907 and 1908: 



56 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 



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HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 



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58 



YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



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HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 



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60 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

SPIRIT LEVELING. 

Methods, 

The elevations shown on the topographic maps are determined from 
accurate spirit leveling executed in three orders : First, precise level- 
ing, whereby levels are brought hundreds of miles from mean sea level 
to different parts of the State, to furnish the fundamental bases to 
which further leveling is referred. This leveling is of the highest order. 
Some of it has already -been executed by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
and recently this cooperative survey has run many lines of such leveling. 
Second, primary leveling is run in connection with the topographic map- 
ping and consists of a high order of engineering levels, such as are run 
on railways or in cities. Lines of these levels are run with such frequency 
as to permit the placing of two permanent bench marks in each township. 
Third, based on the above, secondary leveling or flying leveling is run, 
with less accuracy, but 3^et within limits of about one foot, so as to pro- 
cure elevations upon which to base the contour sketching, these lines of 
levels running practically into every section of one mile square within 
the area surveyed. In appendix attached hereto are printed instructions 
governing this work, as is a list giving elevations determined by leveling 
both prior to and since cooperation. 

During 1905 and 1906 five parties were engaged in the running of 
spirit levels over the areas unaer survey, and in 1907 and 1908, seven 
parties were engaged in the same work. This leveling was done for the 
purpose of determining elevations and establishing bench marks upon 
which to base the contour sketching of the areas mapped. During the 
field season of 1905, 3,740 miles of spirit levels were run and 101 per- 
manent bench marks were established; in 1906, 4,518 liiiles were run 
and QQ permanent bench marks were established; in 1907, 3,145 miles 
of levels were run and 161 permanent bench marks were established; in 
1908, 2,391 miles of levels were run and 121 permanent bench marks 
were established. Appended hereto are descriptions of such bench marks 
as were established during the field seasons of 1905, 1906, 1907, and 
1908, all of the precise leveling for 1906 and 1907, also of levels run 
prior to cooperation. 

Detailed Results. 

Introduction. — The following lists are based upon the precise level net 
as adjusted in 1907 by the Coast and Geodetic Survey upon a common 
mean sea level datum. The elevations are not, however, finally deter- 
mined or accepted for all points given for the reason that the precise 
leveling of the Army Engineers along the Ohio Eiver has not yet been 
published nor taken into account in fixing an elevation for Shawnee- 
town. The net of precise level lines, which lie within or along the bord- 
ers af this State, comprises also the line along the Mississippi Eiver and 
the lines — Savanna, 111., to Chicago, and Grafton, 111., to Chicago; by 
the Army Engineers; the lines — Yincennes, Ind., to St. Louis, Mo., and 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 61 

Cairo, 111., to Odin, 111., by tlie Coast Survey; and the line Pekin, 111. 
via Fairmont Junction, 111. to Olney, III, the spnr, Fairmont Jtinction, 
111. to Catlin, 111., and the lines Farrington, 111. to Oakland, 111., and Du- 
quoin. 111. to Shawneetown, 111. of the United States Geological Survey. 

All results of spirit leveling in this State previously published by the 
U. S. G-eological Survey, and all later work are included in this report, 
rearranged by quadrangles. 

The field work previous to 1903 was done under the general direction 
of Mr. J. H. Eenshawe, geographer, that for 1903 to 1906, inclusive, 
under Mr. H. M. Wilson, geographer, and the later work under Mr. W. 
H. Herron. The work in the State was supervised in 1905, by Mr. C. E. 
Cook, topographer, chief of section, and in 1906 by Mr. W. H. Herron, 
then topographer and chief of section. The office work of computa- 
tion adjustment and preparation of lists was done mainly by D. H. 
Baldwin, topographer, under the supervision of Mr. S. S. Gannett, 
geographer, and since 1907 under the general direction of Mr. E. M. 
Douglas, geographer. 

The elevations are classified according to the accuracy of the method 
employed in their determination, precise and primary. The precise 
leveling done by the Geological Survey in this State consists of lines 
run in both forward and backward directions using high grade instru- 
ments, special precautions being taken in observations and reduction, and 
a small allowable limit of divergence adopted to insure the results to be 
continuously good throughout. The primary leveling consists of lines 
run with the ordinary "Wye" level, precautions being taken against 
principal sources of error. These lines are usually run in circuits of 
single lines required to close within a less severe limit of error. 'The 
allowable divergence adopted by the U. S. Geological Survey on precise 
lines is represented in feet by 0.017 \^'D, in which "D" represents the 
distance between bench marks in miles. The limit for primary work 
is represented in feet by .05 VE):* in which "D" represents the length of 
circuit in miles. 

The standard bench marks are of the two following general forms : 

First — A circular bronze or aluminum tablet 3.5 inches in diameter 
and 0.25 inch thick, appropriately lettered, having a 3-inch stem ce- 
mented into a drill hole, generally in the vertical walls of public build- 
ings, bridge abutments or other substantial masonry structure. 

Second — A form employed where masonry or rock is not accessible, 
consists of a hollow ^vrought iron post 3.5 inches in outer diameter and 
four feet in length after being split at bottom and expanded to ten 
inches in base so as to prevent both the easy subsidence of the post and 
its being maliciously pulled out of the ground. The iron is heavily 
coated with asphalt, and over the top of the post is riveted a bronze 
tablet similar to that described above. 

The numbers stamped upon the bench marks as described in the fol- 
lowing lists represent the elevations to the nearest foot above mean sea 
level, as determined by unadjusted levels in the field. They have been 
subjected to changes resulting from the adjustments necessary to close 
circuits and to those resulting from reduction to mean sea level through 
readjustment of the precise level net of the United States. In some 



62 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [BULL. NO. 14 

cases the finally accepted elevations as printed herein differ from those 
submitted as bench mark numbers by one or two feet. This method 
of numbering bench marks has been adopted where many levelmen are 
working in the same area at the same time as less liable to lead to con- 
fusion in identification of bench marks than any attempt at serial 
numbering, and because the bench mark number at the same time gives 
an approximate statement of the elevation. It is assumed that engineers 
and others finding these bench marks so stamped in the field will com- 
municate with the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey in order to 
obtain the accepted elevation to hundredths or thousandths of a foot. 

Any person finding bench marks in the following lists mutilated or 
destroyed will confer a. favor by notifying the Director, United States 
Geological Surve}^, Washington, D. C. 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SUEVEYS. 63 



Index to Results. — ^The results of precise and primary leveling and of 
State leveling for drainage projects are indexed in the following table : 

Page. 

PRECISE LEVELING 64 

Peoria, Mackinaw, Danvers, Leroy, Farmer City, Monticello, Maliomet, Urbana, Fithian, and 

Danville quadrangles 64 

Champaign, DeWitt, McLean, Piatt, Tazewell and Vermilion counties 64 

Olney, Newton, Greenup, Bradbury, Mattoon, Oakland, Kansas, Sidell and Fithian, quad- 
rangles 68 

Coles, Cumberland, Douglas, Jasper and Richland counties 68 

Kansas, Marshall, Oakland and Paris quadrangles 72 

Clark, Coles and Edgar counties 72 

Duquoin, Eldorado, Equality, Herrin, Shawneetown and West Frankfort quadrangles 73 

Franklin, Gallatin, Perry and Saline counties 73 

PRIMARY LEVELING 76 

Galena and Apple River quadrangles 76 

Jo Daviess county 76 

, Cordova quadrangle 79 

Henry, Rock Island and Whiteside counties 79 

Evanston, Highwood and Waukegan quadrangles 80 

Cook and Lake counties 80 

■ Wheaton quadrangle 83 

DuPage county 83 

Hennepin, LaSalle and Toluca quadrangles 84 

Bureau, LaSalle and Putnam counties 84 

Peoria quadrangle 90 

Peoria and Tazewell counties 90 

Mahomet and Urbana quadrangles 91 

Champaign and Piatt counties 91 

Danville quadrangle 93 

Vermilion county 93 

Havana, Petersburg, Saidora, Springfield and Tallula quadrangles 94 

Mason, Menard and Sangamon counties 94 

St. Louis quadrangle 97 

Madison and St. Clair counties 97 

Belleville and Breese quadrangles .♦. 98 

Bond, Madison and St. Clair counties 98 

Baldwin, Carlyle, Centralia, Chester, New Athens, Okawville and Sparta quadrangles 99 

Clinton, Monroe, St. Clair and Washington counties 99 

Hardinville, Merom, Olney and Russellville quadrangles 103 

Crawford, Jasper^ Lawrence and Richland counties 103 

Bridgeport, Carmi and Mt. Carmel quadrangles 106 

Edwards, Lawrence, Richland, Wabash and White counties 106 

Eldorado, Enfield and New Haven quadrangles Ill 

Gallatin, Hamilton, Saline and White counties Ill 

Galatia and West Frankfort quadrangles 113 

Franklin, Hamilton, Saline and Williamson counties 113 

Alto Pass, Herrin and Murphysboro quadrangles 114 

Franklin, Jackson, Perry and Williamson counties 114 

STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY LEVELING. (See also portion of work on Baldwin and 

Chester quadrangles) 118 

St. Charles quadrangle 118 

Kane county 118 

Mattoon, Ramsey, Shelbyville, St. Elmo, Vandalia and Windsor quadrangles 119 

Coles, Fayette and Shelby counties 119 

Beardstown, Clinton, Dawson, Decatur, Kenney, Lincoln, Mason City, Niantic, Petersburg, 

Saidora and Springfield quadrangles 121 

Cass, DeWitt, Logan, Macon, Mason, Menard and Sangamon counties 121 



64 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

Precise Leveling. — Peoria, Maelcinaw, Danvers, Leroy, Farmer City, 
Monticello, Mahomet, Urhana, Fithian and Danville Quadrangle's — 
Champaign, DeWitt, McLean, Piatt, Tazewell and Vermilion Coun- 
ties. 

The following are the results of a line of precise levels run in 1905- 
1906; in 1905 from the U. S. Army Engineers' bench mark at Pekin 
over the C. C. C. & St. L. E. E. to Champaign, and continued in 1906 
over the Wabash Eailroad to Catlin. This line is connected at Fair- 
mount Junction with a similar precise level line run from Olney, and 
together they form a link in the precise level net as adjusted in 1907. 
As a result of this adjustment the original elevations have been al- 
tered by amounts varying between plus .058 foot at Pekin and plus 
.051 foot at Pairmount Junction, and on the spur east to Catlin. 

The methods, kind of instruments and limit of error used are those 
now adopted by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. On all sections upon 
which the forward and backward measures in millimeters differed more 
than 4.0 VK (in which Iv is the distance between bench marks in kilo- 
meters), both forward and backward measures were repeated until a 
pair run in opposite directions came within limits, and all other re- 
quirements necessary to obtain accurate results were closely adhered to. 
In 1905 self reading rods were used 3.2 meters in length, graduated to 
centimeters and reading to millimeters by estimation. In the work 
of 1906 self reading rods of the same length were used but graduated 
to hundredths of a yard and reading by estimation to thousandths, com- 
putations being made in feet. The equivalent limit of error expressed 
in feet being .017 VI^ (where D is the distance in miles between bench 
marks.) 

The leveling of 1905 was done by Mr. E. L. McNair and that of 1906 
by Mr. T. A. Grreen, under the direction of Mr. S. S. Gannett. 

The work was done in cooperation with the State and the standard 
bench marks are stamped with the State name and in addition with fig- 
ures of elevation except on the portion run -in 1905. 

Pekin, via Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway, to 

Champaign. 

peoeia quadrangle. 

Feet. 

Pekin, in water table on east side of county clerk's office; iron 
bolt (Pekin city bench mark) 479.092 

Pekin, in water table on east side of county clerk's office; bronze 
tablet stamped" ? " 479.080 

Pekin, in top of east abutment of Traction Line bridge across Illi- 
nois river, 12 feet north of center of track; copper bolt; "U. S. 
Army Engineers' bench mark," (P. B. M. 49) 455.422 

Pekin, in front of Big Four station; top of rail 467.2 

Leslie, 1 mile west of, 6 miles east of Pekin, 15 rails east of mile- 
post marked "P-15," 15 feet from center of Peoria and Eastern 
Railway track, in coping stone of concrete culvert; aluminum 
tablet stamped " ? " 68L979 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 65 

MACKINAW QUADEANGLE. Feet. 

Tremont, in front of station; top of rail 643.9 

Tremont, 25 feet southeast of street crossing, at west end of con- 
crete platform of station; iron post stamped " ? " 643.425 

Menert, 0.33 miles west of, in top of north end of east abutment 
of plate girder bridge over Mud creek; aluminum tablet stamped 

'' ? " 575.634 

Menert, in front of station; top of rail 595.4 

Minert, 0.67 miles east of, on top of and on south end of west abut- 
ment of a through bridge over Mackinaw river, 6 feet below top 
of rail, 3.5 feet from center of track, midway between south shoe- 
plate and south floor beam in first panel from west; aluminum 

tablet stamped " ? " 583.134 

Mackinaw, 175 feet west of station, in top of first cap in east pier 
of first row of piers to railroad water tank; aluminum tablet 

stamped " ? " 646.239' 

Mackinaw, in front of station; top of rail 645.5 

Lilly, in top of southwest corner of west end of concrete platform 
of railroad station, 5 feet north of center of track; aluminum 

tablet stamped " ? " 803.268 

Lilly, in front of station; top of rail 802.4 

DANVEBS QUADRANGLE. 

Woodruff, 900 feet west of coaling sheds, 30 feet south of center of 
track, on right-of-way line in front of house of N. C. Osman; iron 
post stamped " ? " '. 840.198 

Danvers, about 120 feet south of station, in top of southwest corner 
west end of concrete platform of station; aluminum tablet stamped 
" ? " 809.268 

Danvers, in front of station; top of rail 809.2 

Danvers, 4.5 miles east of, 6 feet north of center of track, in coping 
of east wall of wagon pass under railroad; aluminum tablet 
stamped " ? " '754.948 

Twin Grove, in front of station; top of rail. . 817.3 

Twin Grove, at north end of station platform, due south of elevator 
owned by F. Supple, 10 feet south of track; iron post stamxped 
" ? " 816.420 

Bloomington, 0.75 miles west of, at Chicago & Alton and Big Four 
junction, 15 feet from center of track, 6 feet belovf top of rail, in 
south side of west abutment of plate girder bridge across a creek 
used as an open sewer for city; aluminum tablet stamped " ? ".. 746.283 

LEROY QUADRANGLE. 

Bloomington, Chicago & Alton junction, Kansas City division 775.3 

Bloomington, in front of station; top of rail '. 789.3 

Bloomington, about 350 feet east of passenger station, south of 
track, in north pier of water tank; aluminum tablet stamped 

" ? " 793.949 

Bloomington, in southeast corner of court house, about 2 feet above 
ground and in face of wall, on a spur line from the preceding bench 

mark; aluminum tablet stamped " ? " 829.800 

Bloomington, 1 mile east of; Illinois Central Railv/ay crossing 857.7 

Gillum, 2 miles west of, 20 feet from center of track, in top of para- 
pet wall on south side of a concrete arch across a draw on the Big 
Four Railroad (arch is No. 300-88); aluminum tablet stamped 

" ? '' 832.836 

Gillum. 75 feet west of station, 20 feet from center of track, on 

south side and 1.75 foot below rail; iron post stamped " ? " 820.416 

—5 G 



66 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 

Gillum, in front of station; top of rail 822.1 

Downs, 360 feet east of station, 15 feet south of center of track, 10 

feet northwest of section car house; iron post stamped " ? "... 794.255 

Downs, in front of station; top of rail 796.3 

Ford Woods, 0.67 mile west of, 12 feet from center of track, in coping 
stone on north side of stone arch No. 293-94 on railroad; aluminum 

tablet stamped " ? " 791.339 

Ford Woods, in front of station; top of rail 803.0 

LeRoy, 300 feet east of station, 20 feet south of center of track, at 
intersection of right-of-way line and street line; iron post stamped 

" ?" 779.903 

LeRoy, in front of station; top of rail -. 780.9 

FARMER CITY QUADRANGLE. 

Empire, 130 feet west of station. 15 feet north of center of track, 15 

feet east of switch stand at siding; iron post stamped " ? " 755.580 

Empire, in front of station; top of rail 756.7 

Farmer City, 1 mile west of, 10 feet from center of track, in top on 
west side of abutment of a^mall I-beam briuge on railroad; alumi- 
num tablet stamped " ? " 730.718 

Farmer City, at Illinois Central crossing; top of rail , 732.3 

Farmer City, "Big Four Railway" bench mark (railroad elevation 

723.500) 733.86 

Farmer City, 375 feet east of junction of Big Four and Illinois Cen- 
tral railways, 18 feet south of center of track, 65 feet south of 
where first street east of Pittsburg and Eastern Railroad station 
crosses tracks ; iron post stamped " ? " 732.510 

MONTICELLO QUADRANGLE. 

Harris, 60 feet west of station, 16 feet north of center of tracks; 

iron post stamped " ? " 721.633 

Harris, in front of station; top of rail 722.8 

Mansfield, 270 feet east of Wabash and Big Four railroad crossing, 
18 feet south of center of Big Four track; iron post stamped 
" ? " 727.288 

Mansfield station, at Wabash railroad crossing; top of rail 729.7 

MAHOMET QUADRANGLE.. 

Mansfield, 3.5 miles east of, in south end of west abutment of plate 
girder bridge No. 270-40 on Big Four railroad; aluminum tablet 
stamped ' ? " 721.663 

Mahomet, 230 feet west of station, 15 feet north of center of track; 

iron post stamped " ? " 712.117 

Mahomet, in front of station; top of rail 712.4 

Mahomet, 2 miles west of, 10 feet from center of tracks, in top of 
south side of stone culvert No. 266-11 on Pittsburg and Eastern 
Railroad; aluminum tablet stamped " ? " 733.530 

Rising, 75 feet west of station, 15 feet north of center of track; iron 

post stamped " ? " 734.092 

Rising, in front of station; top of rail 735.7 

Champaign, 2 miles west of, 15 feet south of center of track, in 
south side of west abutment of small I-beam bridge on Big Four 
Railway; aluminum tablet stamped " ? " 748.327 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 67 

URBANA QUADRANGLE. Feet. 

Champaign, 53 feet southeast of southeast corner of Engineering 
building of University of Illinois; iron post stamped "Prim. 
Trav. Sta. No. 1" : 721.103 

Champaign, on south side of east entrance to Engineering building 

of University of Illinois; aluminum tablet stam.ped " ? " .... 722.774 

Champaign, via Wabash Railroad Southeast, to Sidney, Thence East to 

Catlin. 

URBANA quadrangle. 

Urbana, in front of station; top of rail 713.9 

Urbana, 1059 feet east of station, 220 feet north of Wabash tracks, 

45 feet south of Big Four tracks, in southwest corner of stone 

culvert under Big Four railroad; aluminum tablet stamped "?"... 704.640 
Mira, 2.03 miles northwest of, in east side of milepost "Cha 3-Tol 

284;" spike 746.02' 

Mira, 1.03 miles northwest of, iii east side of mile post "Cha 4-Tol 

283;" spike 719.21 

Mira, at road crossing; top of rail 695.8 

Mira, 30 feet west of track, 30 feet south of road, 3 feet west of fence 

corner; iron post stamped "695 1906" 696.085 

Deers, 1.29 miles northwest of, in west side of milepost "Cha 6-Tol 

281;" spike 686.66 

Deers, 0.99 miles northwest of, in west side of milepost "Cha 7-Tol 

280;" spike 690.66 

Deers, 65 feet west of track, 25 feet south of road, 70 feet north of 

store and post office of F. C. Edwards, at northeast corner of 

barn; iron post stamped "691 1906" 691.954 

Sidney, in front of station; top of rail (Old elevation marked 

"669") 665.8 

Sidney High School, in southwest corner of; aluminum tablet 

stamped "673 1906" 672.575 

Sidney High School, at front entrance on south west corner of stone 

step, level with brick pavement; cross mark 670.73 

Homer, 5.29 miles west of, on second tier of concrete on north side 

of abutment of Wabash Bridge over Chicago and Eastern Illinois 

Railroad; center of chiseled square 682.17 

Homer, 3.56 miles west of, 45 feet north of milepost "St. L. 163-T- 
273," 35 feet north of track, 5 feet north of telegraph pole; iron post 

not stamped 668.028 

FITHIAN QUADRANGLE. 

Homer, 605 feet west of station, 30 feet north of track, 25 feet west 

of road, at east side of asphalt pavement; aluminum tablet 

stamped "674 1906" 674.484 

Homer, in front of station;, top of rail 676.4 

Fairmount, 6.64 miles west of, 275 feet northeast of milepost "St. L. 

168-T 268," in north side of telegraph pole; spike 670.70 

Fairmount, 5.59 miles west of, 35 feet north of track, 25 feet east of 

road, near fence corner; iron post stamped "664 1906" 664.392 

Fairmount, 4.59 miles west of, in east end of board at road crossing; 

top of spike 673.14 

Fairmount, 3.69 miles west of, in north side of milepost "St. L. 171- 

Tol 265;" spike 675.91 

Fairmount, 2.69 miles west of, 40 feet north of track, 50 feet north 

of mile post "St. L. 172-Tol 264;" iron post stamped "655 1906". .. 655.857 



68 YEAK-BOOK FOR 1908. , [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 

Fairmount, in front of station; top of rail 661.5 

Fairmount, 1.71 miles west of, 240 feet northwest ot milepost "St. 

L. 173-T. 263," on north side of lock; top of spike 656.840 

Fairmount Junction, 56 feet northwest of, 50 feet west of Chicago 
and Eastern Illinois railroad tracks, 60 feet west of signal station, 
35 feet north of Wabash tracks, in fence corner; iron post stamped 

"654 1906" 654.522 

Fairmount Junction, Chicago and Eastern Illinois railroad and Wa- 
bash railroad crossing; top of rail 656.18 

The Remaindee of This List to Catlin is Result of a Spur Line. 

Fairmount Junction, 1.01 miles east of; 120 feet west of road cros- 
sing, on south side of bridge; lop of second bolt from west end. . 656.40 

Fairmount Junction, 2.32 miles east of, in north side of milepost 

"St. L. 177-Tol 259 ; " spike 667.22 

Fairmount Junction, 3.32 miles east of, 40 feet directly north of mile- 
post "St. L. 178-Tol. 258," 30 feet north of track; iron post stamped 
"672 1906" 672.379 

Fairmount Junction, 4.32 miles east of, in west side of milepost 

"St. L. 179-Tol. 257 ; " spike 674.01 

Middle of bridge No. 7 over stream and wagon road; top of rail... 664.89 

Surface of water under bridge No. 7; October 29, 1906 648. 

DANVILLE quadrangle. 

Fairmount Junction, 5.09 miles east of, on south side of bridge 

No. 6; top of fifth bolt from west end 665.69 

Catlin, in front of station; top of rail 663.8 

Catlin station, section 34, T. 19 N., R. 12 W., 195 feet north of track, 
30 feet west of road, at "Champion's Corner;" iron post stamped 
"658 1906" 657.398 



Olney, Newton, Greenup, Bradbury, Mattoon, Oakland, Kansas, Sidell, 
and Fitliiaii Quadrangles — Coles, Cumberland, Dougias, Jasper and 
Richland- Counties. — The following elevations are the result of a pre- 
cise level line run from a bench mark of the trans-continental levels at 
Olney north to Fairmount Junction where it connects with a similar 
line from Pekin. The two together formed a link in the precise level 
net and being of a class receiving the highest weighty there has only 
heen a small adjuustment of 0.006 foot and 0.007 foot, respectively, dis- 
tributed in these lines whereas the new elevation, accepted for Olney, 
is 0.785 greater than that determined by the adjustment of 1903. The 
usual method of direct and reverse leveling was employed, the line being 
broken by temporary bench marks into sections of about a mile, and the 
partial discrepancies in feet required to not exceed 0.017 times the 
square root of the distance between bench marks in miles. All the 
usual precautions were taken and corrections made. 

The leveling was done in 1906 by T. A. Green, under the direction of 
S. S. Gannett. 

The work was done in cooperation with the State and the standard 
bench marks are stamped with the State name. 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS, 69 

Olxey North Along Illinois Central Railroad, to Lerna. 

olney quadrangle. 

Feet. 
Olney, cut at the base of one cf the columns at the north face of 
Richland County courthouse; marked "B3-U. S. C. & G. S.-B. M.- 

1882" 486.117 

Olney, Richland County Courthouse, in top west stone balustrade of 

steps at south entrance; aluminum tablet stamped "483 1906".... 483.645 

Olney, in front of station; top of rail 472.8 

Olney, 0.86 miles north of, 30 feet west of track, 90 feet south of 
lock to switch at C, H. & D. junction; top of rail driven in 
ground 461. 6bl 

NEWTON QUADRANGLE. 

Olney, 2.87 miles north of, 45 feet west of road crossing, 40 feet 
north of road, in southeast corner of lot owned by J. M. Fleming; 
iron post stamped "465 1906" 465.529 

Olney, 5.36 miles north of, 30 feet east of track, 40 feet southeast of 
private road crossing, 50 feet southeast of whistle post, 10 feet 
south of gate to house; iron post stamped "475 1906" 475.308 

Dundas, in front Of station; top of rail . 478.4 

Dundas, 439 feet north of station, 50 feet northeast of road crossing, 
30 feet east of track, in southwest corner of Dundas Rolling Mill; 
aluminum, tablet stamped "480 1906" 481.292 

West Liberty, in front of station; top of west rail 484.0 

West Liberty, 1.59 miles north of, 160 feet north of milepost "169-78;" 
70 feet south of bridge "B-163-93," 590 feet south of road crossing, 
30 feet east of tracks, east of right of v/ay line; iron post stamped 
"480 1906" ..y 481.253 

West Liberty, 4,52 miles north of, 8 feet west of milepost "166-81;" 

iron post stamped "506 1906" 507.128 

Boos, in front of station; top of rail 517.4 

Boos, 1.84 miles north of, 40 feet northeast of milepost "163-84," 25 
feet east of track, 15 feet east of warning post, 50 feet southeast of 
road crossing, in fence corner; iron post stamped "524 1906" . . . 525.217 

Newton, 180 feet northwest of station, 70 feet west of railroad cros- 
sing, 20 feet west of water plug on south side of road; iron post 
stamped "512 1906" 512.989 

GREENUP QUADRANGLE, 

Newton, 3,03 miles north of, 165 feet south of milepost "157-90," 30 
feet east of track, 10 feet north of private road crossing, in fence 
corner; iron post stamped "538 1906" 538.806 

Falomuth, 1.4 miles north of, 40 feet east of track, at edge of fence, 
50 feet east of milepost "154-93," 175 feet west of oil derrick; iron 
post stamped "564 1906" 564.880 

Rose Hill, in front of station; top of rail 567.4 

Rose Hill, 1.05 mile north of, 553 feet north of milepost "151-96," 
35 feet southeast of road crossing, in fence corner; iron post 
stamped "566 1906" , 566.634 

Hidalgo, in front of station; top of rail ' 583,1 

Hidalgo, 0,31 mile north of, 30 feet west of track, 8 feet west of 

milepost "148-99;" iron post stamped "581 1906" 582,276 

Hidalgo, 3,37 miles north of, 245 feet north of milepost ^145-102," 30 
feet east of track, 9 feet north of center of road through field, at 
edge of right of way; iron post stamped "593 1906" 593.640 

Greenup, at junction of Illinois Central and Vandalia line; top of 
rail 553.9 



70 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

Feet. 
Greenup, in front of Illinois Central Railroad station; top of rail . . . 553.9 
Greenup, 700 feet northwest of station, 40 feet north of track, 570 

feet southeast of milepost "142-105;" iron post stamped "543 1906" 543.690 

BRADBURY QUADRANGLE. 

Greenup, 3.18 miles northwest of, 45 feet northwest of road crossing, 
25 feet north of warning post, 15 feet west of wagon road; iron 
post stamped "553 1906" 553.387 

Toledo, in front of station; top of rail 601.1 

Toledo, 0.75 mile north of, 210 feet north of milepost "136-111," 35 
feet west of track, 10 feet north of private road to Glenn Mowel 
house, in fence corner; iron post stamped "602 1906" 602.864 

Bradbury, 630 feet north of station, 25 feet west of track, 3 feet west 

of milepost "133-114;" iron post stamped "607 1906" 608.131 

Janesville, 0.53 mile south of, 30 feet west of track, in fence corner 

20 feet south of road; iron post stamped "676 1906" 676.582 

Janesville, 2.6 miles northwest of, 235 feet south of milepost "127- 
120;" 35 feet east of track, in fence corner; iron post stamped 
"735 1906" 735.938 

MATTOON QUADRANGLE. 

Lerna Junction, Illinois Central and Tole'do, St. Louis and Western 

Railroads ; top of rail 754.3 

Lerna, southeast corner of station, on east side at corner of platform 

113 feet northwest of junction; iron post stamped "753 1906" ... 754.316 

Lerna Northeast by Toledo, St. Louis and Western Railroad, to Brocton. 

mattoon quadrangle. 

Lerna, 2 miles northeast of, 60 feet east of milepost "St. L. 125-T 
326," 10 feet south of rail rack, in south end of terra cotta drain 
pipe; chiseled hole 721.39 

Lerna, 3.01 miles northeast of, 40 feet north of track, 20 feet east of 

road; iron post stamped "708 1906" > 708.589 

Lerna, 3.99 miles northeast of, 250 feet northeast of milepost "St. 
L. 127-T 324," 20 feet north of whistle post, in top of rock; 
chiseled hole 677.89 

Lerna, 5.74 miles northwest of, 50 feet north of track, 25 feet east 
of road, 20 feet west of silver poplar tree; iron post stamped "615 
1906" 615.548 

Charleston, on southwest corner of "Clover Leaf" station, 5 feet east 
of entrance to baggage room, in stone coping; aluminum tablet 
stamped "672 1906" 672.804 

Charleston, Coles County Courthouse, 15 feet west of north entrance, 
in section of building occupied by U. S. Post Office, in west end of 
top step; aluminum tablet stamped "686 1906" 686.536 

Charleston, in front of station (Clover Leaf Railroad); top of rail 678.5 

OAKLAND QUADRANGLE. 

Charleston, 3.68 miles north of, 35 feet east of track, 25 feet north 
of county road, in southwest corner of G. W. Wasson's lot; iron 
post stamped "686 1906" 686.866 

Pairgrange, in front of station; top of rail 683.1 



HERRON.] TOPOGBAPHIO SURVEYS. 71 

Feet. 

Fairgrange, 0.95 mile northeast of, 45 feet south of rock, 25 feet south 
of warnihg post, 25 feet east of county road, 2 feet west of fence 
corner; iron post stamped "686 1906" 687.083 

Bushton, in front of station; top of rail 672.6 

Bushton, 0.85 mile northeast of, 50 feet northeast of road crossing, 
30 feet north of county road, near fence corner; iron post stamped 
"666 1906" 666.586 

Rardin, in front of station; top of rail 664.9 

Rardin, 1.58 miles northeast of, 53 feet south of private road cross- 
ing, 10 feet south of angle in road; iron post stamped "658 1906". 658.348 

Oakland, 820 feet south of junction, 60 feet west of track, 140 feet 
northwest of milepost "St. L. 147-T. 304," 25 feet south of wagon 
road; iron post stamped "652 1906" 653.022 

Oakland, at Clover Leaf Junction with Vandalia railroad; top of 

rail 656.6 

KANSAS QUADRANGLE. 

Oakland, 2.98 miles north of, 50 feet east of track, 30 feet east of 

milepost "St. L. 150-T. 301," 465 feet north of small bridge No. 

302, in edge of field; iron post stamped "661 1906" 661.593 

Brocton, 0.47 mile southwest of, 65 feet north of road crossing, 35 

feet west of track, in fence corner; .iron post stamped "661 1906". 662.182 
Brocton, at junction of Clover Leaf and Cincinnati, Hamilton and 

Dayton railroads ; top of rail 662.7 

Beocton Noeth, via Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton Raileoad, to Sidell. 

kansas quabeangle. 

None. 

sidelt. quadeangle. 

Brocton, 2.36 miles northeast of, at Payne's Siding, 25 feet east of 
tracks, 50 feet southeast of switch, 6 feet east of telephone pole, 
15 feet north of county road; iron post stamped "678 1906" 678.662 

Hughes, 0.48 mile northeast of, 40 feet east of track, 12 feet east of 

telegraph pole; iron post stamped "655 1906" 656.265 

Hume, 1.47 miles north of, 1,000 feet north of milepost "Olney 78- 
Sidoll 7," 40 feet east of track, 90 feet northeast of whistle post; 
iron post stamped "645 1906" , 646.299 

Hume, 4.34 miles north of, 330 feet north of milepost "Olney 81- 
Sidell 4," 25 feet west of track, 5 feet north of private road; iron 
post stamped "693 1906" 693.572 

Hildreth, in front of station; top of rail 714.3 

Hildreth, 1.99 miles north of, at road crossing, 150 feet north of 
Archie Siding, 30 feet west of track, 10 feet south of road; iron 
post stamped "691 1906" '. 691.984 

Sidell, in west side at northwest corner in water shed of high scho'ol, 
2 feet south of corner of building; aluminum tablet stamped 
"684 1906" 685.184 

Sidell, in front of station; top of rail 681.9 



72 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull, no. 14 

SiDELL North by Rossville Branch G. & R. R. R., to Fairmount Junction. 

SIDELL QUADRANGLE. - Feet. 

Sidell, 3.13 miles northeast of, 50 feet east of track, 10 feet north of 

private road; iron post stamped "679 1906" 679.859 

Jamaica, in front of station; top of rail 683.3 

Jamaica, 145 feet northwest of station, 100 feet west of track, 30 
feet north of road, at southeast corner of Joe Collin's store (owned 
by Wm. Gohain) ; iron post stamped "677 1906" 677.913 

FITIIIAN QUADRANGLE. 

Jamaica, 2.22 miles north of, 60 feet west of track, 70 feet north- 
west of milepost "C 134-T. 260," 195 feet northwest of switch; iron 
post stamped "668 1906" 668.351 

Fairmount Junction, at junction of Chicago and Eastern Illinois 

and Wabash railroads; top of rail 656.2 

Fairmount Junction, 56 feet northwest of, 50 feet west of Chicago 
and Eastern Illinois tracks, 60 feet west of signal tower, 35 feet 
north of Wabash tracks, in fence corner; iron post stamped "654 
1906" 654.522 



Kansas, Marshall, Oakland and Paris quadrangles — Clark, Coles and 
Edgar Counties. — The elevations in the following list are the unadjusted 
results of a line of precise levels run from Farrington to Oakland and 
based upon the 1907 adjustment value at Oakland. They are the Illi- 
nois portion of a line run from Mitchell, Indiana., to Oakland, Illinois. 
At Oakland the connection is made with a similar precise line of the 
Geological Survey adjusted between Olney and Pekin junction points of 
the precise level net. The values computed from Mitchell, Indiana would 
be 0.6 foot greater those those here given, but since this line was not 
involved in the 1907 adjustment and since it has much greater weight 
than the Coast and Geodetic Survey line through Mitchell, it was 
thought best not to distribute any part of this adjustment in this Illinois 
j)ortion of the line and to determine later a new elevation for Mitchell, 
Indiana. A prism level, yard rods, and the standard method were used. 
The divergence between the forward and backward lines for entire dis- 
tance from Mitchell was 0.215 foot in 132.8 miles and for the Illinois 
portion alone 0.013 foot in 31.5 miles. 

The leveling was done in 1907 by C. H. Semper. 

The leveling was done in cooperation with the State and the standard 
bench marks are stamped with the State name. 

From the State Line Near Farrington Station Northwest Along Vandalia 

Railroad, to Oakl.\nd. 

MARSHALL QUADRANGLE. Feet. 

Farrington, in front of station; top of rail. 570.7 

Farrington, 1.83 miles west of, 0.24 mile southwest of milepost "T. 
H. 10," east of track, in top of railroad culvert; aluminum tablet 

stamped "580" 579.453 

Ferrell, in front of station; top of rail 604.7 

Marley, in northeast corner of front wall of Methodist Episcopal 

Church; aluminum tablet stamped "644" 644.155 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 78 

Feet. 

Marley, in front of station; top of rail 645.8 

Marley, 2.1 miles northwest of, 750 feet southeast of milepost "T. 
H. 15," west of track, in top of railroad culvert; aluminum tablet 

stamped "673" 673.149 

PARIS QUADRANGLE. 

Marley, 4.31 miles northwest of, 100 feet east of road, in southv\''est 
corner of front wall of McCall school house, 300 feet east of track; 

aluminum tablet stamped "728" 728.065 

Paris, in front of station; top of rail 735.7 

Paris, at east end of Vandalia freight station, in wall; aluminum 

tablet stamped "739" 739.225 

KANSAS QUADRANGLE. 

Mays, 150 feet southeast of milepost "T. H. 26," north of track, in 

top of railroad culvert; aluminum tablet stamped "691" 690.424 

Mays, in front of station; top of rail 689.6 

Mays, 1.29 miles west of, 1050 feet west of road crossing, in top of 

south end of railroad culvert; aluminum tablet stamped "681".... 680.538 

Redmou, in front of station; top of rail. 683.0 

Redmon, in front wall of Redmon Bank; aluminum tablet stamped 

"691" : . . 690.300 

Borton, 0.51 mile east of, in top of railroad culvert north of track 

at road crossing; aluminum tablet stamped "664" 664.209 

Borton, in front of station at crossing of C. H. & D. R. R.; top of 

rail 664.9 

Isabel, in front of station; top of rail 669.2 

Isabel, 2.02 miles west of, 276 feet west of road crossing, 100 feet 

north of track, in house of Ed. Gobert's; aluminum tablet 

stamped "645" 644.680 

OAKLAND QUADRANGLE, 

Oakland, 250 feet west of crossing of T. St. L. & Y\\ R. R., in front 
wall of J. T. Simms' grain elevator; aluminum tablet stamped 
"659" 658.718 

Oakland, at crossing of Vandalia Railroad and T. St. L. & W. R. R.; 
top of rail 656.6 

Oakland, 820 feet south of junction, 60 feet west of track, 140 feet 
northwest of M. P. St. L. 147, 25 feet south of highway; iron post 
stamped "652" 653.022 



Duquoin, Eldorado, Eqimlity, Herriiv, Slimvneeiown wnd~ West Franl-- 
fort Quadrangles — Franhlin, Galatia, Perry a7id Saline Counties. — The 
following are the tinadjusted results of a line of precise levels run from 
Duquoin southeastward along the Illinois Central E. E. to Shawnee- 
town. The elevations are based upon the bench mark "E3" at Duquoin 
on the Coast and Greodetic Survey precise level line^ Cairo to Odin. Illi- 
nois. It is the bottom of a square cut in corner of stone sill at main 
door opposite Illinois Central Eailroad station and its accepted eleva- 
tion is 462.477 as obtained b}^ the adjustment of 1907 made by the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

The method, type of instrument, and limit of error are the same 
as those now used by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. The self -reading 
rods used were 3.5 yards in length, graduated to yards and hundredths 



74 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

and read by estimation to thousandtlis, which enabled computation to 
be made directly in feet instead of meters as is done by the Coast Sur- 
vey. On all sections upon which the forward and backward measures 
in feet differed more than 0.017 VD (in which D is the distance between 
bench marks in miles) both forward and backward measures were re- 
peated until a pair run in opposite directions cam,e within limits, and 
all other requirements necessary to obtain accurate results were closely 
adhered to. 

The leveling was done in 1906 by. T. A. Green under the direction 
of S. S. Gannett. 

The standard bench marks are stamped with figures of elevation and 
year. Many are stamped with a value one foot too small but will prob- 
ably be restamped when further work is done in the locality. 

DUQUOIN, SOUTHEASTEELY ALONG ILLINOIS CenTBAL RaILKOAD, TO ShAWNEE- 

TOWN. 

DUQUOIN QUADRANGLE. Feet. 

Duquoin, Coast and Geodetic Survey bench mark "R3," at bottom of 
a square cut in corner of stone sill at main door opposite Illinois 
Central Railroad station; the cavity is marked thus "[]" 462.477 

Duquoin, 600 feet east of station, in east brick wall of Exchange 
Bank; aluminum tablet stamped "468 1906" 468.427 

Duquoin, in front of station; top of rail 463.7 

Duquoin, 3.2 miles east of, 60 feet west of creek, 40 feet north of 

railroad just south of fence corner; iron post stamped "396 1906". 396.407 

HEREIN QUADRANGLE. 

McDonald, in front of station; top of north rail 395.9 

McDonald, 1 mile southeast of, 60 feet 'directly north of milepost 
"East St. Louis 77 mi., Bldorauo 44 mi."; iron post stamped "402 

1906" 401.898 

Mulkeytown, in front of station; top of rail 424.4 

Mulkeytown, 324 feet south of station, in east side of cornerstone 
at hall of "Modern Woodmen of America;" aluminum tablet 

stamped "449 1906" 449.025 

Christopher, in front of station; top of rail ! . . . . 438.9 

Christopher, in southwest corner of Christopher National Bank; alu- 
minum tablet stamped "443 1906". .- 443.866 

Buckner, in front of station; top of rail 408.5 

Christopher, 2.8 miles east of, 348 feet west of small railroad bridge 
over stream, 150 feet southeast of house occupied by Isaac Den- 
ton; iron post stamped "392 1906" 392.968 

WEST FRANKFORT QUADRANGLE. 

Christopher, 5.7 miles east of, 150 feet southeast of road crossing, 
at northwest corner of house occupied by W. M. Wolf; iron post 

stamped "438 1906" 439.161 

Benton, Franklin county court house, 1507 feet north of station, in 
stone step just south of west entrance; aluminum tablet stamped 

"474 1906" 475.832 

Benton, in front of station; top of rail 470.7 

Benton, 0.3 mile east of, at junction of Chicago & Eastern Illinois 

and Illinois Central railroads; top of rail 471.1 

Benton, 2.3 miles southeast of, 90 feet directly north of milepost 

"E. St. Louis 92-Eldorado 29;" iron post stamped "405 1906" 406.605 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SUKVEYS. 75 

Feet. 

Smothers (Smotherville P. O.), in front of station; top of rail 481.5 

Smothersville post-office, 260 feet southeast of road crossing, at north- 
west corner of store kept by M. M. Moore; iron post stamped "479 

1906" 479.994 

Parrish, 200 feet northeast of road crossing, at southwest corner of 

store kept by Brown & Moore; iron post stamped "438 1906" 439.500 

Parrish, in front of station; top of rail 438.1 

Thompsonville, 600 feet south of road crossing, 100 feet east of 
brick school house; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 4 — 

494 1906" 495.401 

Thompsonville, in front of station; top of rail 499.9 

GALATIA QUADRANGLE. 

West End, 75 feet north of station, in south wall of "West End Roll- 
ing Mill;" aluminum tablet stamped "429 1906" 430.507 

West End, 60 feet east of station; top of rail 425.9 

Rileyville, in front of station; top of rail 398.9 

Rileyville, 0.71 mile southeast of, 20 feet northwest of cattleguard, 
in corner of fence at point where county road jogs north from 

railroad; iron post stamped "392 1906" 393.222 

Galatia, 0.3 mile west of station, at "Galatia Rolling Mill," in south- 
west foundation of old elevator; aluminum tablet stamped "397 

1906." (This bench mark is to be destroyed) 398.186 

Galatia, m front of station; top of rail 401. l^ 

Galatia, 3.18 miles southeast of, 20 feet directly south of milepost 
"E. St. Louis 114-Eldorado 7," inside of fence; iron riost stamped 

' ?" 394.403 

Raleigh, in front of station; top of rail 407.2 

Raleigh, 1.59 miles east of, 70 feet west of milepost "E. St. Louis 
117 mi-.Eldorado 4 mi.," 62 feet south of center of tracks; iron 
post stamped "390 1906" 391.099 

ELDORADO QUADRANGLE. 

Eldorado, 30 feet south of southwest corner of Grand Hotel at edge 

of pavement; iron post stamped "388 1906" 387.904 

Eldorado, just east of station, at junction of Big Pour and Louisville 

& Nashville railroad; top of rail 391.9 

Grayson, 30 feet Vx^est of station; top of rail 407.1 

Grayson, 0.49 mile southeast of, 40 feet north of center of track; 
inside of wire fence; iron post stamped "1906" 392.649 

EQUALITY QUADRANGLE. 

Grayson, 3.1 miles southeast of, 40 feet northwest of road crossing, 

on west side of road; iron post stamped "1906". 363.044 

Equality, at northwest corner of Louisville & Nashville railroad 

station; iron post stamped "1906" ■ 362.272 

Equality, in front of station; top of north rail 362.9 

Equality, 2.7 miles southeast of, 100 feet southeast of E. P. Fowler's 
residence, 40 feet north of track in fence corner; iron post stamped 
"1906" 376.921 

Equality, 5.7 miles southeast of, 60 feet north of milepost "St. Louis 

138-Shawneetown 6 mi.;" iron post stamped "1906" 353.14:2 

SHAWNEETOWN QUADRANGLE. 

Cypress Junction, at crossing of Louisville & Nashville and Balti- 
more & Ohio railroads; top of rail 355.9 

Cypress Junction, 30 feet east of station; top of rail 358.0 



76 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. Lbull. no. 14 

Feet. 

Cypress Junction, 2.5 miles east of, 330 feet west of road crossing, 
50 feet north of milepost "St. Louis 141-Shawneetown 5 mi.;" 
iron post stamped "1906" 396.512 

Shawneetown, in front of station; top of rail 350.2 

Shawneetown, at southwest corner of Louisville & Nashville railroad 

station; iron post stamped "1906" 349.598 

Shawneetown, 100 feet east of southeast corner of "Riverside Hotel" 
in northeast corner of concrete, gun rack; aluminum tablet 
stamped "1906" 365.968 

Primary Leveling — Galena and Apple River Quadmngles — JoDaviess 
County. 

The following elevations are based upon the precise level line of 
the Mississippi Eiver Commission along the Mississippi river and np- 
on the 1907 adjustment. 

The leveling was done in 1908 by Henry Bucher. 

The work was done in cooperation with the State and the bench marks 
are stamped with the State name. 

Galena Quadrangle. 

pleasant hill school west, to blanding, thence north, via galena junction 
and galena, to sec. 24, t. 29 n., r. 1 w., thence east, to scales mound. 

Feet. 

T. 26 N., R. 2 E., northeast quarter of section 11, at T road, at Pleas- 
ant Hill school house, west of road, 120 feet north of fence corner, 
4 feet east of fence; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 19, 
965" 964.637 

T. 26 N., R. 2 E., near center of section 11, at angle in road, south 
of road, in root on west side of 30-inch oak tree, nail; marked 
"945" 946.05 

Hanover, at southwest corner of Hanover Hotel; iron post stamped 

"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 28, 632" ' 632.215 

Hanover, south side of, in southwest quarter of section 9, T. 26 N., 
R. 2 E., at southwest corner of Y road, south of road, in root on 
northeast side of 12-inch hard maple tree; nail 635.93 

T. 26 N., R. 2 E., north of center of section 17, at Y road, on north- 
east side of road, in root on south side of 48-inch oak tree; nail. . 900.64 

T. 26 N., R. 1 E., in southwest quarter of section 12, at northeast 

corner of road crossing, in field corner, 3.7 feet north of fence ^ 

north of wagon road, 5 feet northeast of railroad right-of-way 

fence; iron post stamped "626" 626.292 

Bellevue, lov/a, opposite, 0.5 mile from river, 0.5 meter from fence 
in wagon road leading back from ferry landing, 100 meters be- 
yond 100-foot wooden bridge across slough, to birch 102 degrees — * 
16.7 meters; tile and pipe; "Mississippi River Commission Bench 
Mark 173." (Bridge and fence no longer remain and no stump 
of 10-inch birch; iron pipe has been disturbed and at time visited 
was half filled Vv^ith water.) 

Cap on pipe 594.38 

Bolt in tile 590.44 

Blanding, at east corner of road, oposite general store, 1.7 feet south- 
west of fence; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 27, 631".. 631.354 

T. 27 N., R. 1 E., 0.13 mile east of center of section 16, public road 
crossing, south of road on bank, 40 feet west of railroad, 8 feet 
west of line of railroad right-of-way fence; iron post stamped 
"614" 614.008 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 77 

Feet. 

Galena Junction, in southeast corner of cap on south pier of Chicago, 
Burlington and Nashville Railroad drawbridge across Galena 
river; aluminum tablet stamped "606" 606.212 

Galena Junction, on northeast corner of south pier of Illinois Central 
Railroad drawbridge over Galena river, one foot from north side, 6 
inches from east end, on cap, cross in center of black painted spot 
with ring of white around it (Mississippi River Commission tem- 
porary bench mark 15-L. B.) 606.240 

Galena, at northeast corner of Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Rail- 
road station grounds, 36.3 feet northeast of northeast corner of 
building, 3.6 feet from telephone pole, 7.1 feet southwest of south- 
west corner of public bridge over Galena river; iron post stamped 
"603" 603.191 

T. 28 N., R. 1 W., east of quarter corner between sections 2 and 11, 
east of road in school grounds, in root on southwest side of large 
soft maple tree second in row from north vv^est end; nail 840.39 

T. 28 N., R. 1 W., near north quarter corner of section 2, at northwest 
corner of Y road, in field, 14 feet north of east and west fence, 1.7 
feet west of north and south fence; iron post stamped "867" .... 866.763 

T. 29 N., R. 1 W., near center of section 24, at northeast corner of 
crossroads, in field, 3.5 feet north of east and west fence, 3 feet east 
of north and south fence; iron post stamped "929" 928.699 

{Line turns east.) 

Day's Siding, west of center of section 22, T. N., R. 1 E., road cross- 
ing Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, 15 yards north of rail- 
road at intersection, 1.5 feet south of old board and wire fence, 
hear an old braced telephone pole; iron post stamped "670" 669.313 

T. 29 N., R. 1 E., near center of section 27, at northeast corner of Y 
road, 1.6 feet south of east and west fence, 8 feet east of fence 
corner; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 23, 864" 863.510 

Council Hill, section 25, T. 29 N., R. 1 E., in masonry foundation to 
Methodist Episcopal Church, 1.7 feet from north corner in north- 
west face of northeast wing; aluminum tablet stamped "926" 925.374 

T. 29 N., R. 2 E., in southwest quarter of section 30, at northeast 
corner of T road, in root on northwest side of 24-inch oak tree; 
nail 851.37 

(Turn east on Illinois Central Railroad from Council Hill station.) 

T. .29 N., R. 2 E., in southwest quarter of section 21, 2.57 miles east 
of Council Hill station, 290 feet west of wagon road which passes 
under stone culvert "W-155-56" in right of way, 2 feet south of 
fence; iron post stamped "835" 834.690 

Scales Mound, 22 paces north of Illinois Central Railroad, 25 paces 
southwest of James Allen's general store, in center of small tri- 
angle; iron post stamped "948" 948.006 

MOKLEY SCHOOL WEST, TO GALENA. 

T. 28 N., R. 2 E., in southeast quarter of section 26, at southwest 
corner of T road, 25 feet east of fence corner, on opposite side of 
"road from Mount Morley schoolhouse; iron post stamped "Prim. 
Trav. Sta. No. 18, 1043" ... 1,042.721 

T. 28 N., R. 2 E., near center of section 29, 570 feet east of Y road, 
north of road in field, 2 feet north of fence; iron post stamped 
"1067" 1,066.176 

T. 28 N., R. 1 E., near corner of sections 22, 23, 26 and 27, at north- 
east corner of Y road, in southwest corner of Mt. Hope school- 
house grounds, 4 feet from edge of bank, 8.5 feet southwest of 36- 
inch hard maple tree; iron post stamped "834" 833.732 



78 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 
Galena, at northeast corner of intersection of Bogges and Bout- 

hillier streets, in foot on west side of 36-inch soft maple tree; nail 785.20 

SCALES MOUND SOUTH TWO MILES. 

Scales Mound, at southwest corner of schoolhouse grounds, 2.8 feet 
north of wooden sidewalk running east and west on north side 
of schoolhouse; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No, 17, 956". . 955.640 

T, 28 N., R. 2 E., near center of section 2, at cheese factory at Y 
road, 400 feet east of Y, in top of south side of west abutment 
wall to iron bridge; aluminum tablet stamped "833" 832.926 

Apple River Quadrangle. 

scales mound east, via apple river, to near warren, thence south, via 
stockton, to township line, thence west, to pleasant hill school. 

Sawsiding, 0.6 mile west of, southeast corner of southwest quarter 
of section 20, T. 29 N., R. 3 B., in corner of field, 20 paces south 
of south rail of Illinois Central Railroad, 3 paces east of wagon 
road which crosses track; iron post stamped "987" 986.293 

T. 29 N., R. 3 E., near northeast corner of section 22, 2.5 miles west 
of Apple River, at southwest corner of north and south road cross- 
ing Illinois Central Railroad, in field, 5.7 feet west of fence, 14 
feet south of fence; iron post stamped "1007" 1,006.885 

Apple River, in southwest corner of yard of W. H. Smith; iron post 

stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 16, 994" 994.043 

Apple River, at northeast corner of Railroad and Main streets, in 
face of concrete walk in front of Anschutz Brother's general store, 
2.4 feet east of north and south crossing walk, 0.9 foot below pave- 
ment level; aluminum tablet stamped "996" 995.536 

T. 29 N., R. 4 E., near south quarter corner of section 14, about 
1.25 miles northwest of Warren, at southwest corner of road 
crossing west of road; iron post stamped "994" 993.187 

T. 29 N., R. 4 E., north quarter corner of section 26, 0.25 mile south 
of T road, at southwest corner of schoolhouse grounds, west of road 
south of corner, in root on east side of 15-inch hard maple tree 
first in row, nail; marked "G. S. B. M. 993.2" 992.86 

T. 29 N., R. 4 E., about 0.13 mile west of east quarter corner of sec- 
tion 35, at southwest corner of T road, in field, 1.5 feet south of 
fence, 2 feet west of fence; iron post stamped "993" 992.997 

T. 28 N., R. 4 E., in southeast quarter of section 14, at Y road, in 
field at northwest corner of Y, at Robinson schoolhouse, 11 feet 
north of fence, 8 feet west of fence; iron post stamped "868" . . 867.421 

T. 28 N., R. 4 E., near quarter corner between sections 35 and 36, at 
northeast corner of crossroads in field, 5 feet east of north and 
south fence, 3 feet north of east and west fence; iron post stamped 
"973" 972.921 

T. 27 N., R. 4 E., corner of sections 11, 12, 13 and 14, at southeast 
corner of T road, in field, 2.7 feet south from east and west fence, 
3.4 feet east of north and south fence; iron post stamped "1018". .1,017.724 

T. 27 N., R. 4 E., quarter corner between sections 23 and 26, south 
of road at crossroads, about 40 feet east of corner and 5 feet south 
of fence, in root on north side of 18-inch oak tree; nail 808.49 

T. 27 N., R. 4 E., in southwest quarter of section 35, at southwest 
corner of Y road, in field, 4 feet v/est of north and south fence, 
5.3 feet south of east and west fence; iron post stamped "862". . . . 862.290 

T. 27 N., R. 4 E., in southeast quarter of section 32, 150 feet east of 
iron bridge over (?) creek, south of road, in field, 4 feet south of 
fence, 4 feet east of a fence running of£ to south; iron post 
stamped "781" 780.987 



HERRON.] . TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 79 

Feet. 

T. 26 N., R. 3 E., in northwest quarter of section 2, at Y roarl, on 
west side of road at Y, in field, 4 feet northwest of corner fence 
post; iron post stamped "990" 989.992 

T. 26 N., R. 3 E., corner of sections 8, 9, 16 and 17, at northwest cor- 
ner of crossroads, in foundation of east wall 0.6 foot north of 
southeast corner of Dermda Center schoolhouse; aluminum tablet 
stamped "809" 809.204 

FORMER SITE OF RUSH POST-OFFICE, WEST TO SCHAPVILLE, THENCE NORTH ONE 

AND A HALF MILES. 

T. 28 N., R. 4 E., in southwest quarter of section 28, at northeast 
corner of crossroads (formerly "Rush post office"), in field, 3.5 
feet east of fence, 4.5 feet north of fence, 1.5 feet west of small 
narrow ditch drain; iron post stamped "996" 995.733 

T. 28 N., R. 4 E., in northwest quarter of section 29, north of road 
opposite T. Uren's house, in root on south side of lone oak tree; 
nail 969.59 

T. 28 N., R. 3 and 4 E., about 0.25 mile south of corner of sections 
19, 24, 25 and 30, at T road, north of road, in southwest corner 
of field, 4,5 feet east of fence, 4.5 feet north of fence; iron post 
stamped "932" 931.396 

T. 28 N., R. 3 E., in southeast quarter of section 23, at southwest 

corner of T road, in root on north side of 48-inch elm tree; nail. . 708.78 

T. 28 N., R. 3 E., in southeast quarter of section 22, north of road 
in field,, 60 feet west of stone arch culvert, just east of gate to 
lane running north to house of L. Schultz, 2.5 feet north of fence; 
iron post stamped "766" 765.386 

Schapville, in northeast quarter of section 30, T. 28 N., R. 3 E., 
at northwest corner of Y road, in east wall 14.4 feet north of 
southeast corner of Zion Presbyterian Church (German) ; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "859" 859.030 

T. 28 N., R. 3 E., in northeast quarter of section 19, 0.22 mile north- 
west of Y road, 3.7 feet below top in west face of north arch 
abutment wall to iron bridge; aluminum tablet stamped "731"... 730.563 

Cordova Qiuidrangle — Henry, Eock Island and Whiteside Counties. — 
The elevations in the following list are based on the Mississippi Eiver 
Commission bench mark at Albany^ a copper bolt in the west side of the 
southwest corner of foundation of brick store occupied b}- Hopper and 
Son, and marked "U. S. P. B. M." The elevation of this bench mark 
is accepted as 595.968 feet above mean sea level in accord with the 
1907 adjustment. The leveling was done in 1896 by Mr. G. W. Newell, 
levelman. 

This work v,^as done prior to cooperation. 

Cordova Quadrangle. 

WHITESIDE COUNTY, ALBANY TOWNSHIP. Feet. 

T 20 N., R. 2 E., sec. 1, fourth principal meridian, half section line, 

on south line; iron post stamped "678" .• 679.573 

WHITESIDE COUNTY, NEWTON TOWNSHIP. 

T. 20 N., R. 3 E., sec. 2, near northeast corner of southeast quarter 
of northeast quarter of, junction of roads on east line of section; 
iroji post stamped "702" 703.586 



80 * YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

WHITESIDE COUNTY, FENTON TOWNSHIP. Feet. 

Fenton, south side of sidewalk, about 100 feet west of Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy railroad; iron post stamped "621" (marked 
wrong, should be "602") 602.458 

WPIITESIDE COUNTY, ERIE TOWNSHIP. 

Erie, small triangular park in public square; iron post stamped 

"587" 588.435 

HENRY COUNTY, PHENIX TOWNSHIP. 

T. 18 N., R. 3 E., sec. 12, northwest corner of northeast quarter of 
northwest quarter, junction of roads, 0.25 mile west of Sharon 
post-office; iron post stamped "597" 598.324 

HENRY COUNTY, LORAINE TOWNSHIP. 

T. 18 N., R. 4 E., sec. 6, near southeast corner of, junction of roads 
at William Ornett's (Sharon Stock Farm); iron post stamped 
"627" • 628.228 

ROCK ISLAND COUNTY, COE TOWNSHIP. 

Hillsdale, 90 feet east of north end of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 

railroad station; iron post stamped "598" (should be "578" 578.246 

ROCK ISLAND COUNTY, ZUMA TOWNSHIP. 

Joslin, northeast corner W. H. Whiteside's yard, by Chicago, Burl- 
ington & Quincy railroad; iron post stamped "581" 582.343 

T. 19 N., R. 2 B., sec. 23, southeast corner of; iron post stamped 

"679" 680.426 



Evanston, Higliivood and WauJcegan Quadrangles — Cooh and Lahe 
Counties. — The elevations in the 'following lists are based upon a Chi- 
cago City bench mark, a sqiiare cut on the corner of iron plate doorstep 
at foot of round iron pillar at northeast corner of two-story brick build- 
ing at southwest corner of Lincoln and Foster avenues, the elevation of 
which is now accepted as 610.696 feet above mean sea level; they are 
also adjusted to agree with the corrected elevation of bench marks of 
the Chicago Sanitary District at Niles Center and DesPlaines. The cor- 
rected elevations are derived by adding 579.938 feet to the elevations 
given upon the Chicago City datum. The reference plane of which is 
the level of the city directrix, the zero of the lake gage and low water of 
1847. 

The leveling done in 1897 prior to cooperation was by Mr. E. S. 
Smith, levelman. In 1906 leveling was done by Mr. Heiiry Bucher, 
levelman, checking levels of 1897 on the High wood quadrangle and ex- 
tending levels through the Waukegan quadrangle. 

The standard bench marks established by Mr. E. S. Smith are stamped 
"Chgo'^ in addition to figures of elevation in a few cases greatly in er- 
ror. Those established by Mr. Bucher being stamped "Adj 1905" in ad- 
dition to the figures of elevation. 



HERRON ] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 81 

BVANSTON QUADE ANGLE, 
CHICAGO NORTH VIA EVANSTON TO WINNETKA, Feet. 

Chicago, southwest corner of Clark street and Pratt avenue, north- 
east corner of two-story brick building; base of iron column 604.126 

About T. 44 N., R. 14 E., Evanston, Evanston City Hall, north side 
of east entrance, in face of stone work of 18-inches above sill; 
bronze tablet stamped "CHiGO 601" 602.153 

Winnetka, old town hall, 30 feet north of northeast corner of; iron 

post stamped "CHGO-651" 651.300 

HiGHWooD Quadrangle. 

EVANSTON WEST TO EAST EDGE OF MAIN TOWNSHIP, THENCE NORTH TO SHERMAN- 
VILLE, THENCE EAST TO WINNETKA. 

Niles Center, near southeast corner of St. Peters Church, projecting 
buttress front face of stone v/ater table; bronze tablet stamped 
"C'HGO 663" : 623.397 

T. 42 N., R. 12 E., road crossing on half section line between sec- 
tion 15 and 16, 0.75 mile south of Shermerville; iron post stamped 
"CHiGO 650" 650.920 

MORTO WEST VIA DES PLAINES TO SEC. 16, ELK GROVE TOWNSHIP, THENCE NORTH VIA 
ARLINGTON APTAKISIC AND HALF DAY TO SEC. 33 LIBERTY TOWNSHIP. 

DesPlaines, southwest wing of north abutment of Chicago and North 
"Western Railway bridge over DesPlaines river, on southwest cor- 
ner of lower step; chiseled cross .*. 630.908 

DesPlaines, stone foundation east side of town hall; bronze tablet 

stamped "CHGO 642" 642.881 

T. 41 N., R. 11 E,, center of sec. 24, south of road at angle, 0.5 mile 
east of crossroads and 130 feet east of road to house of H. Beer, 
0.6 feet north of fence and 2.5 feet east of north and south line 
fence; iron post stamped ''666 AD J 1905" 665.617 

T. 41 N., R. 11 E., sec. 16, northeast quarter of, at southeast corner 
of cheese factory, south face of brickwork near foundation; 
bronze tablet stamped "716 ADJ 1905" 715.922 

T. 42 N., R. 11 E., sec. 29, Arlington Hieight high school building 
(old), front face of stone water table, at southwest corner of front 
projection; bronze tablet stamped "704 ADJ 1905" 703.820 

T. 42 N., R. 11 E., sec. 8, northwest corner, 0.25 miles east of, T road 
to south, at southwest corner of T on west side of road, 8.4 feet 
south of fence corner and 1 foot east of fence; iron post stamped 
"705 ADJ 1905" 705.137 

T. 43 N., R. 11 E., southeast quarter, 0.5 mile south of Aptakisic, 9 
feet south of forks of road, west side of road, 15 feet east of wire 
fence; iron post stamped "682 ADJ 1905" 681.566 

Aptakisic, crossing of Wisconsin Central Railroad, top of southwest 
rail 685.4 

T. 43 N., R. 11 E., sec. 15, Half Day school building, front face of 
northwest corner of foundation; bronze tablet stamped "669 
CHGO" 667.628 

T. 43 N., R. 11 E., sec. 15, Dalf Day, bridge over Indian Creek, at 
southwest corner of, top of stone abutment, 6 feet southwest of 
end of iron truss; aluminum tablet stamped "654 ADJ 1905" 653.640 

T. 44 N., R. 11 E., sec. 34, near southwest corner of, crossroads, 1400 
feet east of, on south side of, south side of road, 9.7 feet west of 
southwest corner of iron truss of wagon bridge over DesPlaines 
river; primary traverse post No. 13 stamped "651 ADJ 1905" 650.883 

-6 G 



82 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [BULL. NO. 14 

HALF DAY EAST TO KOAD CROSSING, CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL RAILEOAD 
IN SECTION 17, WEST DEEEFIELD TOWNSHIP, THENCE NORTH AND 

EAST TO LAKE I'OREST. Feet. 

T. 43 N., R. 12 E., sec. 17, southwest quarter of, water subway under 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad, at road crossing, east 
face, at northeast corner of stone work; bronze tablet stamped 
"667 ADJ 1905" (see foot note) 667.017 

T. 43 N., R. 12 E., sec. 7, Everett station, in front of; top of rail 680.7 

T, 44 N., R. 12 E., sec. 31, southeast corner, 0,2 mile west of, and 
road to east, at southeast corner and on south side of road, 50 feet '' 
east of fence corner, 1 foot north of fence; iron post stamped "675 
ADJ 1905" 675.139 

Durpath, T. 44 N., R. 12 E., sec. 32, at crossing of Chicago & North- 
western railroad; top of rail 674.1 

Note — The elevation of this bench mark is checked also by old line from 
Shermerville. ♦ 

Waukegan Quadrangle, 

section 33, liberty township, north via libertyville to rosecrans, thence 
east and south to zion city and south to lake forest. 

T. 44 N., R. 11 E., sec. 33, in northeast quarter of; top of rail at 
crossing of Elgin, Joliet & Eastern railroad 673.5 

Libertyville station, T. 44 N., R. 11 E., sec. 21, crossing of Chicago 

& Milwaukee Electric railroad; top of rail 699.0 

Libertyville, T. 44 N.,. R. 11- E., sec. 16, in town hall, east front, 
at southeast corner of building, in stone foundation 1.3 feet above 
ground; aluminum tablet stamped "698 ADJ 1905" -. 698.173 

Libertyville, T. 44 N,, R. 11 E., sec. 16, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 

Paul railroad station, in front of; top of rail.. 692.4 

T. 44 N., R. 11 E., sec, 4, west quarter corner, 0.2 mile east of, T 
road west, on east side of road, opposite T, on line with east and 

' west fence line, 1.2 feet west of fence and 45 feet south of tele- 
graph pole; iron post stamped "660 ADJ 1905" 659.433 

T. 45 N., R. 11 E,, sec. 32, in northwest quarter .of, T. road south, 
southeast corner of, on east side of road, 2.1 feet west of old fence 
line and 21 feet south of new east and west fence line; iron post 
stamped "766 ADJ 1905" 765.949 

T. 45 N., R. 11 E., sec. 20, east quarter corner of, crossroads, at north- 
vfest corner of, in school yard, on north side of road inside of 
fence line, 1 foot north of fence and 4.2 feet west of fence corner, 
at southeast corner of school yard; iron post stamped "760 ADJ 
1905" 759.773 

T. 45 N., R. 11 E., sec. 5, east quarter corner, of, crossroads at north- 
east corner, on north side of road, 40 feet east of fence corner, 1 
foot south of fence; iron post stamped "720 ADJ 190t)", , , 719.437 

T. 46 N., R. 11 E., sec. 29, north quarter corner of, crossroads, south- 
east corner of, east side of road, 20 feet south of fence- corner, 1.2 
feet west of fence; iron post stamped "713 ADJ 1905" 762.518 

T. 46 N., R. 11 E., sec. 16, center of, crossroads at Rosecrans, at 
northwest corner of, on north side of road, 1 foot south of fence, 
11 feet west of fence corner; iron post stamped "722 ADJ 1905". . . 722.230 

T. 46 N., R. 11 E., sec. 15, near center of, crossing of Chicago, Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul Railroad; top of rail ■ 697.8 

T, 46 N., R. 11 E., sec. 14, east quarter corner of, crossroads, at south- 
east corner, on east side of road and 8 feet south of fence corner; 
iron post stamped "701 ADJ 1905" -. 700.974 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 88 

Feet. 

T. 46 N., R. 11 E., sec. 13, west quarter corner, 0.3 mile east of, cross- 
ing of Chicago and North Western Railroad; top of rail 695.8 

T. 46 N., R. 12 B., sec. 18, 0.3 mile west of, crossroads, at northwest 
corner of, on north side of road (on bank), 2.3 feet south of old 
board fence, and 14.5 feet west of east line of fence; iron post 
stamped "714 ADJ 1905" 713.751 

T. 46 N., R. 12 E., sec. 21, Zion City, crossing of Chicago and North 
Western Railroad; top of rail 630.3 

T. 46 N., R. 12 E., sec. 21, southeast corner of, crossroads at Lake 
Mound Cemetery, Zion City, southeast corner of crossroads, east 
side of road, 1 foot west of cemetery fence; iron post stamped 
"633 ADJ 1905"....' .^ 632.519 

T. 45 N., R. 12 E., sec. 4, southeast corner, 0.2 mile west of, T road 
to west, at southwest corner of T, south side of road, 1.2 feet north 
of fence, 9 feet west of fence corner; iron post stamped "647 ADJ 
1905" * 646.570 

T. 45 N., R. 12 E., sec. 16, east quarter corner, 0.3 mile west of T 
road to west, northwest corner of T, top of fire plug, Sheridan 
Road and Glen Flora Avenue 642.970 

Waukegan, northeast corner of stone window sill, in east front of 

Lake County Courthouse (City bench marks, no marks) 664.115 

Waukegan, T. 45 N., R. 12 E., sec. 21, Lake County Courthouse, east 
entrance, in stone base of two columns, on north side of entrance; 
aluminum tablet stamped "669 ADJ 1905" . 668.387 

T. 45 N., R. 12 E., sec. 4, northwest quarter of, 18th street station 
Chicago, Milwaukee Electric Railroad, Elgin, Joliet and Eastern 
Railroad bridge over Chicago and North Western, C. & M. Electric 
Railroad and wagon road, west abutment wall, in top of projection 
of bottom course of masonry, 4.2 feet north of south end of wall 
and 1.5 feet above pavement; aluminum tablet stamped "659 ADJ 
1905" 658.935 

T. 44 N., R. 12 E., sec. 20, Lake Bluff, Chicago and North Western 
Railroad, bridge over wagon road and Chicago and Milwaukee 
Electric road, south of station, in top of stone foundation v/all 
supporting iron column, between Electric ( Liberty ville branch), 
and wagon roaa, in top of wall, 3 feet northwest of southeast end 
of; aluminum tablet stamped "671 ADJ 1905" 670.778 

T. 44 N., R. 12 E., sec. 33, Lake Forest, at southeast corner of city 
hall grounds; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Post. No. 12-713- 
ADJ-1905" 712.913 



Wheaton Quadrangle — DuPage County. — The elevations in the follow- 
ing list upon bench marks established at Bartlett and Eoselle by the 
U. S. Army Engineers, and upon the 1907 adjustment datum. 

The leveling was done in 1905 by Mr. E. C. Howard. 

The work was done in cooperation with the State and the standard 
bench marks are stamped with the State name. 

Wheaton Quadkangle. 

bartlett south along highways to west chicago, thence east by chicago, 
and northwesteen railway to glen ellyn, thence north along highway 
and chicago and great western railway to eoselle. feet. 

Bartlett, U. S. A. Engineers B. M. No. 89, 150 meters northwest of 
station; 100 meters north of Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. 
track, in stone foundation of Congregational Church, center of 
copper bolt leaded horizontally on east face of southeast corner... 804.055 



84 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 

T. 40 N., R. 9 E., near northeast cor. sec. 9, stone bridge over small 
stream; in southeast corner of east wall; aluminum tablet stamped 
"787 ILLINOIS 1905" 787.419 

Ingalton T. 40 N., R. 9 E., cor. sees. 27, 28, 33 and 34, 0.25 mile west 
of, Ingalton schoolhouse, south wall, southwest corner; aluminum 
tablet stamped "795 ILLINOIS 1905" 794.837 

West Chicago, City Hall, east wall, 2 feet from southeast corner; 

aluminum tablet stamped "784 ILLINOIS 1905" 784.078^ 

Winfield, 150 feet east of station, 75 feet south of C. & N. W. Ry., 
stone culvert, east side of road; aluminum tablet stamped "727 
ILLINOIS 1905" 726.667 

Wheaton, courthouse, north side of west entrance; aluminum tablet 

stamped "753 ILLINOIS 1905" 752.87a 

Glen Ellyn, high school, north wall, 6 feet west of entrance; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "766 Ii^i^INOIS 1905" 766.058 

Bloomingdale, Kolbusch & Hauseminn store building, west v/all, 35 
feet south of north wall; aluminum tablet stamped "771 ILLINOIS 
1905" 771.127 

Roselle, Du Page Co., 111., on southeast corner of Cnicago St. and 
road crossing it, in north face of foundation wall of brick business 
building of Mathew Seeker, sta'nding about 80 meters north of 
track, center of copper bolt leaded horizontally, 3 feet from north- 
east corner and 2 feet above ground (Army Engineers P. B. M. 90) 772.156 

GLEN ELLYN SOUTH ALONG HIGHWAYS TO LISLE, THENCE WEST AND NORTH BY 
NAPERVILLE AND WAEEENHUEST TO WEST CHICAGO. 

T. 39 N., R. 0.0 E., sec. 35, near southwest corner northwest quarter 
of, west side, south abutment, small bridge; aluminum tablet 
stamped "697 ILLINOIS 1905" 697.502 

Lisle, 0.2 mile west of, C. B. & Q. Ry. bridge over east branch 
Du Page River, east abutment, north side; aluminum tablet 
stamped "674 ILLINOIS 1905" 674.469- 

Naperville, in front of station; top of rail 715.5 

Naperville, Nicholas Library Building, southeast corner Van Buren 
Ave., and Washington street, west wall, northwest corner; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "693 ILLINOIS 1905" 693.310 

T. 38 N., R. 9 E., sec. 16, near southeast corner of northeast quarter; 
rock culvert, east abutment, north side; -aluminum tablet stamped 
"697 ILLINOIS ^1905" 697.311 

Warrenhurst, 275 feet east of railway track, 50 feet north of road, 
south wall, rock foundation Daw Bros, house, 10 feet west of 
southeast corner; aluminum tablet stamped "732 ILLINOIS 1905". 732.328: 

AT ITASKA. 

Itaska, 80 meters north of track of C. M. & St. P. R. R., in a north- 
easterly direction from station, in east foundation wall frame store 
building of Dr. E. Smith; being center of copper bolt leaded hori- 
zontally, 2 feet from southeast corner (Army Engineers P. B. 
M. 91) 699.10T 



Hennepin, LaSalle anS Toluca Quadrangles — Bureau, LaSalle and 
Putnam Counties. — The elevations in the following list are based upon 
the U. S. Army Engineers^ precise level line along the Illinois river, 
and upon the 1907 adjustment datum. 

The leveling was done in 1903 by Henry Blicher. 

The work was done in cooperation with the State and the standard' 
bench marks are stamped with the State name. 



JIERRON.J TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. ' 85 

Hennepin Quadeangle. 

two miles west of granville, via hennepin, to chicago, rock island and 
pacific railroad near bureau. 

Feet. 

T. 32 N., R. 1 W., 0.12 mile west of quarter corner between sections 
7 and 8, at southeast corner of T road, on line of east and west 
fence, 13.7 feet east of north and south fence line; iron post 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 5 690" 690.677 

T. 32 N., R. 2 W., 0.25 mile west of quarter corner between sections 
11 and 12, southwest corner of crossroads, west of road, 14.6 feet 
south of fence corner, 1.1 feet east of fence; iron post stamped 
"556" 555.946 

Hennepin courthouse, southeast corner of grounds, 2.5 feet north of 

hitching rack; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 13 505"... 505.407 

Hennepin, on west bank of Illinois River, 90 feet north of road, near 
edge 01 water, in root oi large cottonwood tree; railroad spike. . . . 443.42 

Permanent Bench Mark 69, Illinois River Survey 462.792 

BUREAU SOUTHWEST, TO SOUTHWEST CORNER SEC. 29, T. 15 N., E. 9 E., THENCE 
NORTH, TO PRINCETON, THENCE NORTHEAST ALONG DOVER EOAD ABOUT 4 MILES* 
THENCE EAST, TO SECOND CROSSING CHICAGO, BURLINGTON AND QUINCY RAILROAD. 

Temporary Bench Mark, Illinois River Survey } check line be- 472.386 

Permanent Bench Mark 69, Illinois River Survey f tween benches. 462.792 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., southwest quarter of section 25, in northvs^est angle 

of road, in fence line, in root of lone oak tree; nail 648.93 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 26 and 35, T road 
at schoolhouse district No. 174, northwest corner of school yard, 
opposite T road, 14 feet east of fence corner; iron post stamped 
"656" 655.744 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 27 and 34, south- 
west corner of T road, at fence corner, in root on north side of 
hard maple tree; nail 654.86 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., northeast corner of section 32, 350 feet east of T 
road, in top 1.8 feet from east end of north wall of concrete cul- 
vert; chiseled square 633.34 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., northeast corner of section 31, southeast corner of 
crossroads, south of road, on line of east and west fence; iron post 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 12 687" 687.351 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., in southeast quarter of section 7, northeast corner 

of T road, 4.9 feet east of fence corner; iron post stamped "512". . 511.536 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., near northwest corner of section 8, west of road, in 
yard of W. H. Bryant, 100 feet south of northeast fence corner, 
in spread root 2.5 feet east of trunk of oak tree; nail 639.17 

T. 16 N., R. 9 E., center of section 32, at southeast corner of T road, 
on east side of road, 10 feet south of fence corner; iron post 
stamped "686" 685.645 

T. 16 N., R. 9 E., in southeast quarter of section 29, near southwest 
corner of school yard on east side of T road, in root of maple 
tree; nail ' 696.91 

Princeton, Bureau County Courthouse, in southeast corner of 
grounds, 35.7 feet north of curb line around south edge of grounds 
(South street), 3.6 feet west of west edge of concrete walk along 
east side of grounds (Second street); iron post stamped "719".... 718.767 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., 0.1 mile west of quarter corner between sections 
3 and 10, northeast corner of crossroads, in Meyers (?) school 
yard; iron post stamped "735" 735.452 

T. 16 N., R. 9 E., northwest corner of section 2, 0.25 mile east of, at 
northeast corner of crossroads, in field, in root at southwest side 
of lone soft maple tree; nail 730.77 



86 . YEAK-BQOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

T. 16 and 17 N., R. 9 and 10 E., township corner, southeast corner 
of crossroads, east of road, 25 feet south of fence corner, 1 foot 
west of fence; iron post stamped "715" 714.827 

T. 16 and 17 N., R. 10 E., corner of sections 5, 6, 31 and 32, south- 
west corner of T road, in field, in north side in root of large soft 
maple tree nearest to fence corner; nail 698.84 

T, 16 N., R. 10 E., northern boundary of section 3, quarter corner, 
southeast of junction of two T roads, 25 feet east of fence corner, 
1 foot north of fence; iron post stamped "728" 727.546 

T. 16 and 17 N., R. 10 and 11 E., township corner, north side of T 
road, 26 feet west of fence corner opposite T, 1.2 feet south of 
fence; iron post stamped "687" 686.699 

T. 16 N., R. 11 E., northeast corner of section 6, southwest corner of 
crossroads, in school yard, near fence corner, in root on northwest 
side of large soft maple tree; nail 678.75 

PRINCETON NORTHWEST AND NORTH, THENCE EAST, VIA LIMERICK, TO PRINCE 

SCHOOL. 

T. 16 N., R. 9 E., near quarter corner between sections 4 and 5, 50 
feet north of Y road, in field on east side of road, in top of con- 
crete wall; chiseled square; marked "671.8" 671.78 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., quarter corner between section 29 and 32', south- 
west corner of Y road, south of road, 39 feet west of fence corner, 
1.3 feet north of fence; iron post stamped "669" 669.224 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., west of quarter corner betv\^een sections 18 and 19, 
northwest corner of Y road, north of road, 12.5 feet west of fence 
corner, 1 foot south of fence; iron post stamped "693" . .^ 692.53^ 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 6 and 7, southwest 
corner of crossroads, in root on northwest side of soft maple tree 
18 inches in diameter, nail; marked "G. S. B. M. 717.8" 717.80 

T. 17 N„ R. 9 E., north quarter of section 6, southeast corner 
of T road, 1.9 feet northwest of corner fence post; iron post 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 10, 740" 739.661 

Limerick, 0.25 mile east of northwest corner of section 4, T. 17 N., 
R. 9 E., at crossroads, 20 feet east of fence corner, south. of road, 
in yard, in root on northwest side of 30-inch soft maple tree; nail; 
marked "733.3" 733.41 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., northwest corner of section 2, at northwest corner 
of crossroads, north of road, 26 feet west of iarge sort maple tree 
at fence corner, 0.7 foot south of fence; iron post stamped "736". . . 735.987 

T. 17 and 18 N., R. 9 and 10 E., township corner, at T road, west of 
road, in field, in root on east side of oak tree 26 inches in 
diameter, nail; marked "G. S. B. M. 738.2" 738.33 

T. 17 N., R. 10 E., northwest corner of section 5, at southeast corner 
of crossroads, 1.3 feet northwest of fence corner; iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 9, 749" 748.858 

T. 17 N., R. 10 E., just east of northwest corner of section 1, at 
southwest corner of crossroads, south of road, 11.6 feet west of 
fence corner, 2.3 feet north of fence; iron post stamped by mis- 
take "726" 767.218 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., near northwest corner of section 6, 5 feet from 

west end of north wall of concrete culvert; chiseled square 764.02 

INTERSECTION OF TOWNSHIP LINE WITH PRINCETON-DOVER ROAD NORTH, TO CHI- 
CAGO, BURLINGTON AND QUINCY RAILROAD. 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 26 and 27, north- 
west corner of crossroads, in house yard, in root on southeast 
side of 16-inch hard maple tree nearest fence corner, nail; marked 
"698.5" 698.39 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 87 

Feet. 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., northeast o£ west quarter of section 23, center of 
triangle at Y road, in root on .southwest side of 18-inch ash tree, 
nail; marked "708.9" 708.83 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., corner of sections 2, 3, 10 and 11, northeast corner 
of crossroads, west side of school yard, in root on west side of 
24-inch elm tree nearest to southwest corner of yard, nail; 
marked "721.9" 721.75 

LaSalle Quadeangle. 

from noethwest coener sec. 5, t. 16 n., e. 11 e., east along highway foe 12* 

miles, thence soueh, via utica, to lowell, thence 

west, via ticona, to granvili.e. 

{For Ticona see Toluca Quadrangle.) 

T. 16 N., R. 11 E., corner of sections 4, 5, 32 and 33, at crossroads, 
at northeast corner of iron bridge over Negro creek, on top of 
concrete abutment, chiseled square; marked "653.7", 653.64 

T. 16 N., R. 11 E., corner of sections 3, 4, 33 and 34, at junction of 
two T roads, north of road, opposite T, 54 feet west of fence cor- 
• ner at northwest corner of junction of two T roads, 1.3 feet south 
of fence; iron post stamped "675" 674.808 

T. 16 N., R. 11 E., northeast corner of section 1, northwest corner 
of T road, 12.5 feet w^est of fence corner, 1.1 feet south of fence; 
iron post stamped "663" 663.265 

T. 34 N., R. 1 E., 0.6 mile west of corner of sections 17 ,18, 19 and 
20, at northeast corner of small iron bridge over Spring creek, 
on top of stone abutment 2.5 feet southwest of northeast corner 
and 0.4 foot from west edge; chiseled square 640.68 

T. 34 N., R. 1 E., corner of sections 15, 16, 21 and 22, at northwest 
corner of crossroads, in southeast corner of Center schoolhouse 
District No. 175 yard, 17 feet west of fence corner, 1.2 feet north 
of fence; iron post stamped "659" 658.869 

T. 34 N., R. 1 E., east of corner of sections 14, 15, 22 and 23, north- 
east corner of iron bridge over Vermilion river, on top of east 
end of wing wall, chiseled square; marked "G. S. B. M." 599.90 

T. 34 N., R. 1 E., 0.16 mile east of corner of sections 13, 14, 23 and 
24, south end of east concrete abutment to bridge over Toma- 
hawk creek, on top of bridge seat, 0.7 foot south of south etdge 
of truss, 0.7 foot east of west edge of abutment, chiseled square; 
marked "613" 612.78 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E., corner of sections 17, 18, 19 and 20, 100 feet east 
of crossroads, in yard on south side of road, in root on northeast 
side of 24-inch poplar tree; nail 683.58 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E., corner of sections 16, 17, 20 and 21, southeast cor- 
ner of crossroads, south of road, 3.5 feet east of fence corner, 0.9 
foot north of fence; iron post stamped "640" 640.095 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E., 0.25 mile south of corner* of sections 20, 21, 28 
and 29, on top of concrete abutment at southwest corner of 
bridge over Peumsaugum creek; chiseled square ;.. 595.91 

T. 33 N., R. 2 E., quarter corner between sections 4 and 5, at north- 
west corner of crossroads, on line of fence running east and west, 
3.7 feet east of fence corner; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. 
No. 8, 619" 619.081 

T. 33 N., R. 2 E., west of east quarter corner of section 8, west 
of Y road, on top of masonry abutment near northeast corner of 
small bridge, chiseled square; marked "496.8" 496.63 



88 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. . [BULL. no. 14 

Feet. 

Utiea, about 1 mile south of, on top of northeast end stone of lowest 
stepped course below bridge seat of east wing wall of north stone 
abutment of Utica bridge over the Illinois river, chiseled square; 
marked "U.[]S." 454.645 

T. 33 N., R. 2 E., southeast quarter of section 18, 1.3 miles west of 
Utica bridge over Illinois river, near junction of river road and 
road to Utica, 2.33 feet west of east fence of north and south road, 
66.7 feet north of center of wagon track of river road, 61.5 feet 
north of junction jof above mentioned fence with north fence of 
river road, 16.5 feet north of small box elder tree; stone, pipe . 

, j Elevation of bolt in stone 451.421 

^^^ ^^^ I Elevation of cap 455.376 

Utica, 1 mile south of, in top of concrete cap of first pier south of 
north end of wagon bridge over Illinois river; aluminum tablet 
stamped ''468" *. 467.707 

T. 33 N., R. 2 E., quarter corner between sections 32 and 313, in south- 
west corner of Clayton School District No. 169 yard, opposite cen- 
ter of T road, 7.8 feet east of old fence corner, 1.1 feet north 
of old fence; iron post stamped "651" 650.559 

T. 32 N., R. 2 E., quarter corner between sections 4 and 5, lane to 
east and road angle to southwest, in center of triangle, in root 
on northv/est side of 18-inch hickory tree, nail; marked "647.3".. 647.33 

T. 32 N., R. 2 E., southeast quarter of section 8, in top of south- 
east corner of concrete wing wall of iron bridge over Vermilion 
river, 0.8 foot southeast of north edge and 0.1 foot west of east 
edge; chiseled square 533.84 

Lowell, 0.25 mile south of, 0.25 mile south of corner of sections 8, 
9, 16 and 17, T. 32 N., R. 2 E., at northwest corner of crossroads, 
1.5 feet east of fence line, 1.8 feet south of fence line, 1.8 feet 
southeast of fence corner; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. 
No. 7, 632" 631.623 

T. 32 N., R. 2 E., near center of section 17, 100 feet northeast of 
T road, in top of stone abutment at southeast corner of iron bridge, 
chiseled square; marked "636.5" 636.65 

T. 32 N., R. 1 E., 0.13 mile west of corner of sections 11, 12, 13 and 
14, 100 feet west of center of Illinois Central Railroad, south of ' 
road, 10 feet east of small wild cherry tree, 0.8 foot north of fence; 
iron post stamped "665" 665.334 

T. 32 N., R. 1 E., quarter corner between sections 10 and 15, at north- 
east corner of T road, in yard, in root on west side of 19-inch box 
elder tree near fence corner, nail; marked on fence "669.0" 669.22 

T. 32 N., R. 1 E., northwest corner of section 16, southeast corner 
of crossroads, east of road, 1.8 feet south of fence corner 1.4 feet 
west of fence; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 6, 668"... 668.487 

T. 32 N., R. 1 E., corner of sections 7, 8, 17 and 18, 150 feet west 
of crossroads, south of road, in root on north side of large branch- 
ing elm tree, nail; marked "G. S. B. M." 679.14 

T. 32 N., R. 1 W., at quarter corner east side of section 12, at T 
road, south of road, 20 feet west of fence corner, 1 foot north of 
fence; iron post stamped "679" 679.431 

Standard, at southeast corner of crossroads at, quarter corner be- 
tween sections 11 and 12, T. 32 N., R. 1 W., in front of E. W. 
Berta's saloon, 0.1 foot east of curb edge and on line with north 
line of saloon building, on concrete pavement, chiseled square; 
marked "684.1" , 684.12 

T. 32 N., R. 1 W., quarter corner between sections 9 and 10, at cross- 
roads at southeast corner of GranvilleChicago-Milwaukee and St. 
Paul Railroad crossing, just north of grain elevator and foundry 
and machine shops, north of road, 22 feet west of fence corner, 1 
foot south of fence; iron post stamped "688" 688.060 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 89 

Feet. 

T. 32 N., R. 1 W., east of center of section 9, south of road, in field, 
east of main north and south street in Granville, in root on west 
side of 24-inch maple tree, nail; marked "689.8" 689.80 

T. 32 N., R. 1 W., quarter corner between sections 8 and 9, 0.25 mile 
west of, southwest corner of T road, in house yard near fence 
corner, in root on northwest side of 13-inch ash tree, nail; marked 
on fence "717.0" - 717.12 

PEICE SCHOOL, EAST TO TRIUMPH, THENCE SOUTH TO ABOVE LINE. 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., northwest corner of section 4, southeast corner 
of crossroads at Price school, road by' school house; iron post 
stamped ("776" Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 3) 775.354 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., northwest corner of section 1, southwest corner 
of T road, south of road, 22,4 feet west of fence corner, 1.4 feet 
north of fence; iron post stamped "722" 721.402 

T. 35 N., R. 1 B., northeast corner of section 20, northwest corner 
of crossroads, 7 feet west of hedge corner, 2 feet south of hedge, 
2.6 feet west of telephone pole; iron post stamped "Prim, Trav. 
Sta. No. 2, 703" 707.709 

T. 35 N., R. 1 E., 0.25 mile west of center of section 23, southwest 
corner of crossroads, 1 foot south of north end of concrete step at 
entrance on east side of Christian church, 1 foot east of build- 
ing; aluminum tablet stamped "684" 684.340 

T. 35 N., R. 1 E., center of section 24, 180 feet east of T road, in top 
of concrete wing wall near west edge of abutment at southwest 
corner of small iron bridge, chiseled square; marked "650.2" .... 650.15 

Triumph, in concrete walk at northwest corner of First National 
Bank, 0.5 foot west of building and 0.8 foot south of north edge 
of building; aluminum tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 1, 
670" : 670.601 

T. 35 N., R. 2 E., northwest corner of section 28, southeast corner of 
crossroads, in root on south side of 31-inch cottonwood tree, nail; 
marked "657.0" 656.99 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E., northeast corner of section 5, southwest corner 
of junction of two T roads, south of road, 9.5 feet west of fence 
corner, 1.1 feet north of fence; iron post stamped "673" 672.676 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E., quarter corner between sections 4 and 5 southwest 
corner of crossroads, in root on north side of 47-inch cottonwood 
tree, nail; marked "706.5" 706.50 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E., northeast corner of section 20, southwest corner 

of crossroads, on top of concrete culvert; chiseled square 640.10 

FOUR CORNERS AT NEGRO CREEK, NORTH, VIA ARLINGTON, TO PRICE SCHOOL. 

T. 16 N. and 17 N., R. 11 E., corner of sections 4, 5, 32 and 33, on 

abutment of bridge over Negro creek; chiseled square 653.64 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., quarter corner between sections 20 ahd 21, at 
north side of crossroads, at southeast corner of small iron bridge, 
on I beam embedded in edge of small concrete abutment, chiseled 
cross; marked "685.7" 685.53 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., quarter corner between sections 16 and 17, south- 
west corner of crossroads, south of road, 22 feet west of fence 
corner, 1.2 feet north of fence; iron post stamped "724" 723.522 

PERU SOUTLI, TO CEDAR POINT. 

Peru, at foot of Marion street, in top of bridge seat course of pier 
at north end of draw span of highway bridge over Illinois river, 
1:3 feet from north face and 1.25 feet from west end of pier; top 
of copper bolt; marked "U. S. (.) P. B. M." (U. S. Army En- 
gineers' bench mark) 458.954 



90 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 

T. 33 N., R. 1 E., near southeast corner of section 20, on top near 
northeast corner of first course of masonry below bridge seat of 
abutment at southeast corner of iron bridge over slough; chis- 
eled square 458.33 

T. 33 N., R. 1 E., center of section 32, northwest corner of T road, 
west of road, 1.2 feet east of fence, 32 feet north of east and west 

fence line on north side of road; iron post stamped "645" 645.433 

T. 32 N., R. 1 E., near east quarter corner of section 5, on top of 
masonry abutment near northwest corner of small iron "bridge; 
chiseled square 625.29, 

ToLucA Quadrangle. 

LOWELL, TO TieONA, THENCE NOETHWEST. 

Ticona station, in southeast quarter of section 24, T. 32 N., R. I.E., 
at road crossing on Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, 
southeast side of road, 95 feet northeast of center of track, 11 
feet northeast of old fence corner, 1 foot northwest of old fence, 
22.5 feet northeast of telephone pole; iron post stamped "645" .. 645.040 

T. 32 N., R. 1 E., quarter corner between sections 13 and 24, east 
of T road, inside fence, at north edge of woods, the nearest tree 
to gate and farthest north, in root on west side of 25-inch oak 
tree, nail; marked on fence "660.5" 660.64 



Peoria Quadrangle — Peoria and Tazewell Counties. — The elevations 
in the following list are based upon an aluminum tablet in the west 
side of Bradley Pol3^t8chnic Institute buildings Peoria.^ Illnois, stamped 
"607 Peoria/^ the elevation of which is determined to be 607.749 feet 
above mean sea level. 

The initial points from which the corrected elevations have been ob- 
tained are the standard bench marks at Pekin and Mackinaw river 
bridge^ whch have been recovered by the recent precise level lines of the 
Arni}^ Engineers, along the Illinois river. The correction applying at 
Pekin to the engineers' figures based upon the "Memphis'' datum^ is 
6.892 feet^ to accord w4th the 1907 adjustment. 

The leveling was done in 1902 by Mr. Carleton McEae, levelman. 

This work was done prior to cooperation. 

Standard bench marks set in the course of this work are stamped 
mostly one foot lower than the corrected values. 

Peoeia Quadeangle. 

peoeia west along faemington egad 7 miles, thence south 4 miles, thence 
east to hollis, thence noetheast to peoeia. 

Peoria, water gage at foot of Bridge street; gage mark reading 

130 feet below Lake Michigan 451.42 

Peoria, Bradley Polytechnic Institute, in west side of; aluminum tab- 
let stamped "607 PEORIA" 607.599 

Peoria, 7 miles west of; at crossroads, north limestone M. E. church, 
in middle of west foundation; bronze tablet stamped "708 PEO- 
RIA" 708.733 

Hollis township, on line between sections 4 and 5, 200 yards west of 
north and south road, 300 yards north of T road to east, in north- 
west corner of foundation of C. P. Goetze house; aluminum tablet 
stamped "622 PEORIA" 622.712 



HERRON.] ■ TOPOGRAPHIC SUEVEYS. ' • 9X 

PEORIA TO POINT 25 MILES EAST OF UPPER FREE BRIDGE, THENCE SOUTH TO FARM- 
INGDALE, THENCE WEST TO PEORIA. 

Feet. 
Peoria, 6.25 miles northeast of, 2.5 miles east of Free Bridge, house 
of J. Grosenbach, water tank at foundation of, east side of; 
bronze tablet stamped "693 PEORIA" 693.804 

FARMINGDALE SOUTH TO GROVELAND, THENCE WEST TO PEKIN. 

Groveland, southwest corner of Baptist Church; aluminum (?) tablet 
stamped "778 PEORIA" 778.768 

HOLLIS SCHOOL NO. 4 SOUTH TO MAPLETON, THENCE EAST TO PEKIN, THENCE NORTH 
TO HOIXIS STATION, THENCE RETURN TO PEKIN. 

Groveland, southwest corner of Baptist Church; aluminum (?) tablet 
of steel wagon bridge over Big LaMache creek 455.39 

Pekin, Catch Basin, in northeast corner of County Clerk's Office, in 
courthouse grounds; aluminum (?) tablet stamped "478 PEO- 
RIA" (Elevation by Army Engineers 485.973 MIEMPHIS DATUM) 479.081 

PEKIN SOUTHWEST ALONG RIVER ROAD TO MACKINAW RIVER BRIDGE, THENCE SOUTH 
4 MILES, THENCE EAST TO NEAR HAWLEY, THENCE NORTH TO PEKIN. 

Mackinaw River Bridge (iron), on south wing of west abutment; aluminum 
tablet (?) stamped "453 PEORIA" (Elevation by Army Engineers, 
461.205, Memphis datum) 454.313 

Hawley station, 0.65 mile east of, on southeast wing of abutment of 
wagon bridge over north and south road; aluminum tablet stamped 
"513 PEORIA" 513.802 

HAWLEY NORTHEASTERLY TO GROVELAND. 

Hawley, 1 mile south and '0.5 mile east of; iron bridge over small 
branch, south wing of east abutment; aluminum tablet stamped 
"511 PEORIA" 511.579 

Groveland, 6 m.iles south of, 1.5 miles west of Tremont, wagon bridge 
on east and west road, east abutment, north wing; aluminum 
tablet stamped "611 PEORIA" 612.185 



Mahomet and Urhana Quadrangles — Champaign and Piatt Coun- 
ties. — The elevations in the following list depend on a bench mark es- 
tablished by a precise line of levels at Champaign fifty-three feet south- 
east of southeast corner of Engineering buildings University of Illinois, 
iron post stamped ^Trim. Trav. *Sta. No. 1/^ its accepted elevation being 
'721.103 feet, as determined by the 1907 adjustment. 

The leveling was done in 1905 by Mr. E. C. Howard, levelman. 

The WG-rk was done in cooperation with the State and the standard 
bench marks are stamped with the State name. 

Urbana Quadrangle, 
urbana along highway east to champaign and south and east to philo. 

Champaign, University of Illinois, southeast corner of Engineering 

Hall; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 1 F" 721.103 

T. 18 N., R. 9 E., northwest corner sec. 6; southeast angle of cross- 
roads; iron post stamped "717 ILLINOIS 1905" 717.926 



92 ' ' YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

* 

Feet. 
T. 18 N., R. 9 E., southwest corner sec. 17, north side, east abutment 

bridge; aluminum tablet stamped "680 ILLINOIS 1905" 680.345 

Philo, Philo Exchange Bank, east side water table 12 feet south of 

wall; aluminum tablet stamped "737 ILLINOIS 1905" 736.833 

PHILO ALONG HIGHWAY EAST AND NORTH TO ST. JOSEPH, THENCE WEST TO UEBANA. 

Sidney, high school, south side, southwest corner; aluminum tablet 
stamped "673 ILLINOIS 1905" 672.576 

T. 19- N., R. 10 B., cor. sees. 27, 28, 33 and 34, 0.25 mile east of; south 
abutment, west side iron bridge over Salt River; aluminum tablet 
stamped "655 ILLINOIS 1905" 655.104 

T. 19 N., R. 10 E., northeast corner sec. 15, 0.6 mile west of St. 
Joseph, west abutment north side bridge over Salt River; alumi- 
. num tablet stamped "663 ILLINOIS 1905" 662.702 

Mayview station, 0.1 mile east of, T. 19 N., R. 10 E., sec. 8, southwest 
corner of; southwest corner intersection road, concrete right of 
way post marked "P. & E. property line," west side post; alumi- ~ 
num tablet stamped "681 ILLINOIS 1905" 680.715 

TIayview, in front of station; top of north rail 686. 

ST. JOSEPH NOETH ALONG HIGHWAY TO SECTION 2, T. 20 N., E. 10 E., THENCE3 
WEST ON TOWNSHIP LINE TO SEC. 6, T. 20 N., E. 9 E., THENCE SOUTH TO 
CHAMPAIGN. 

T. 20 N., R. 10 E., near center of line between sees. 22 and 23, B. F. 
Youman's house, west of road, in south wall, brick foundation; 
aluminum tablet stamped "676 ILLINOIS 1905" 676.013 

T. 20 N., R. 10 E., sees. 2, 3, 10 and 11, 0.25 mile south of corner, 
east of road, Henry Dintsman's house, south side, brick founda- 
tion; aluminum tablet stamped "677 ILLINOIS 1905^' 677.446 

T. 21 N., R. 10 E., southwest corner sec. 32, west side, north abut- 
ment bridge; aluminum tablet stamped "688 ILLINOIS 1905" 687.569 

T. 20 N., R. 9 E., northwest corner sec. 6, north of road, south side 
of J. W. James' house, brick foundation; aluminum tablet stamped 
"748 ILLINOIS 1905" ,. 748.187 

T. 20 N., R. 9 E., sec. 18, 0.5 mile south of northwest corner of; west 
side, north abutment bridge; aluminum tablet stamped "728 ILLI- 
NOIS 1905" 727.746 

' Mahomet Quadeangle. 
neae champaign west over illinois centeal eailway to neae seymoue, 

thence SOUTH ALONG HIGHWAYS TO SOUTHWEST COENER OF SEC. 7, T. 18 N., 
R. 7 E., THENCE EAST TO SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SEC. 12, T. 18 N., E. 8. 

Staley, in front of station; top of north rail 740.6 

T. 19 N., R. 8 E., southwest corner sec. 9, northeast corner road;. 

iron post stamped "734 ILLINOIS 1905" 734.425 

Bondville, in front of station; top of north rail 716.2 

Bondville, 300 feet east of station, 50 feet north of track; iron post 

stamped "717 ILLINOIS 1905" 716.738 

Seymour, in front of station; top of north rail 699.0 

Seymour, 100 feet west of station, north side of right of way; iron 

post stamped "698 ILLINOIS 1905" 697.650 

T 19 N R. 7 E., southwest corner sec. 18, north of road; iron post 

"stamped "707 ILLINOIS 1905" 707.015 

T 19 N R 7 E., southwest corner sec. 31, southwest corner of road; 
, 'iron post stamped "708 ILLINOIS 1905" 708.339 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SUEVEYS. 98 

Feet. 

T. 18 N., R. 7 E., southwest corner sec. 7, northwest corner road; 
iron post stamped "702 ILLINOIS 1905" ^ 702.240 

T. 18 N., R. 7 E., southwest corner sec. 10, northeast angle of cross- 
roads, intersection; iron post stamped "692 ILLINOIS 1905" 691.892 

T. 18 N., R. 7 and 8 E., southwest corner sec. 7, southwest corner of 

road; iron post stamped "690 ILLINOIS 1905" 690.339 

T. 18 N., R. 8 E., southwest corner sec. 10, northeast corner of road, 
southwest corner schoolyard; iron post stamped "728 ILLINOIS 
1905" 728.474 

MAHOMET EAST ALONG HIGHWAY, TO SOUTHWEST COENER SEC. 7, T. 20 N., E. 9 E. 

Mahomet, 230 feet west of station; 15 feet north of track; iron post 

stamped " ? " 712.170 

T. 20 N., R. 7 E. and 8 B., sees. 13 and 18, north of road; iron post 

stamped "747 ILLINOIS 1905". 747.206 

T. 20 N., R. 8 E., sec. 10, southwest corner of; northeast corner of 

road; iron post stamped "772 ILLINOIS 1905" 772.516 



DanviMe Quadrangle — Vermilion County. — The elevations in the fol- 
lowing list were originally based on the elevation of the Chicago and 
Eastern Illinois Eailroad, in front of station at Danville Junction^ 613.5 
feet above mean sea level. Dependent on this, the central datum tablet, 
placed in the post office building, is starijped "Dnvl. 603.'^ In 1906, the 
bench mark at Catlin was connected by spur precise line with the pre- 
cise level line run from Olney via Fairmount to Champaign, the bench 
mark at the latter place having been established in 1905 by the precise 
level line run from Pekin. As a result of the 1907 adjustment a cor- 
rection of 1.027 feet has been applied to original elevations on the Dan- 
ville quadrangle to reduce them, to mean sea level. 

Bench marks set \ in 1897 are stamped "Dnvl" in addition to figures 
of elevation. 

The leveling was done in 1897 by Mr. John L. McCalman, levelman. 

The work was done prior to cooperation. 

Danvilije Quadeangle. 

Danville Junction, in front of station, railroad crossing; top of rail. . 612.4 
Danville, in front of Chicago and Eastern Illinois R. R. station; 

top of rail 597.1 

Danville, in front of station of Wabash Railroad; top of rail. . . 597.7 

Danville, in front of Chicago, Cleveland, Cincinnati and St. Louis 

railroad station ; top of rail 604.2 

Danville, post-office building, east face of north balustrade, 1.5 feet 

above sidewalk; bronze tablet stamped "DNVL 603" 601.499 

Danville, courthouse, just south of step to west entrance, second 

course above sidewalk; bronze tablet stamped "Dnvl 604" 602.769 

Westville, T. 18 N., R. 11 E., sec. 5, southwest corner of; iron post 

stamped "DNVL 672" 671.063 

T. 19 N., R. 11 W., sec. 27, in north half of; floor of bridge over Ver- 
milion River on Grape Creek road 532.4 

Catlin, T. 19 N., R. 12 W., sec. 34, near center of; iron post stamped 

'DNVL 658" 657.396 

T. 20 N., R. 10 W., sec. 18, quarter corner east side of, on State 

line; iron post stamped "DNVL 720" 718.917 

'i'. 20 N., R. 11 W., sec. 11, northeast corner of; rock at section 

corner ". 698.2 



94 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

Feet. 
T. 20 N., R. 11 W., sec. 17, quarter corner north side of; iron post 

stamped "DNVL 655' 654.084 

T. 2o N., R. 12 W., sec. 35, southwest corner of; iron post stamped 

"DNVL 649" : . . 648.033 



Havana, Petersburg, Saidora, Springfield and Tallula Quadrangles—- 
Mason, Menard and Sangamon Counties. — ^The elevations in the follow- 
ing list depend on a bench mark established by TJ. S. Army Engineers 
at Havana^ Illinois, at south end of east pier of highway bridge over 
Illinois river, three feet from west side, top of copper bolt; its value 
corrected to 1907 adjustment being 451.360 feet. A double rodded line 
was run over the Chicago, Peoria • and St. Louis Eailroad to Athens ; the 
balance of the leveling was run in circuits with a single rod. 

The leveling on the double . rodded line and most of the leveling on 
Springfield quadrangle was done in 1905 by Mr. E. C. Howard. Most of 
the leveling on the Tallula quadrangle and part on Springfield quadrangle 
was done in 1906 by Henry Blicher, levelman. 

The work was done in cooperation with the State and the standard 
bench marks are stamped with the State name. 

Havana Quadrangle. 

AT HAVANA. Feet. 

Havana, Army Engineers bench mark, iron highway bridge over 
niinois River, on top of south end of east pier, top of copper bolt 3 
feet from west side of pier 451.360 

Saidoea Quadrangle, 
havana south along the chicago, peoria and st. louis railroad to kil- 

BOURNE. 

(Douhle Rodded Line.) 
Long Branch, 255 feet south of engine room, of grain elevator, in 
west wall, 5.4 feet north of south wall, 4.6 feet south of north 
wall, 5.5 feet above ground; aluminum tablet stamped "498 AD J 

1905" 491.281 

Kilbourne, in front of station, main line; top of east rail 494. 

Kilbourne, McFaddens Elevator, in north side of northwest founda- 
tion pillar; aluminum tablet stamped "502 AD J 1905".... 495.565 

PeterseTurg Quadrangle. 

kilbourne southeast along chicago, peoria and st. louis railroad to 

petersburg. 

(Douhle Rodded Line.) 

Oakford, C. Lutz's store, in west wall brick foundation, 2 feet from 

southwest corner; aluminum tablet stamped "502 ADJ 1905"..... 495.159 

Atterbury, W. C. Koppleens grain elevator, northwest corner of, rock 

foundation; aluminum tablet stamped "609 ADJ 1905" 601.764 

Hilltop, top of east rail of main line in front of station 603. 

Petersburg, in front of station; top of east rail. ..,..., 505.5 

Petersburg, Menard County courthouse, north wall, 2 feet east of 
entrance, 4 feet above ground; aluminum tablet stamped "524 
ADJ 1905". 523.706 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIO SURVEYS. ' 95 

Tallula Quadrangle. 

PETEESBUEG SOUTHEAST ALONG CHICAGO, PEORIA AND ST. LOUIS RAILEOAD TO 
' ATHENS. 

(DouUe Rodded Line.) Feet. 
Tice schoolliouse, west side, brick foundation, 12 feet east of, north 

side; aluminum tablet stamped "610 ADJ 1905". 610.511 

Tice, in front of station; top of rail 616. 

PETERSBURG SOUTHWEST ALONG CHICAGO AND ALTON RAILROAD TO POINT 0.8 MILE 
SOHTHWEST OF TALLULA, THENCE SOUTH ALONG HIGHWAYS TO ROAD CROSSING 
1.5 MILES WEST OF PLEASANT PLAINS, THENCE EAST ALONG BALTIMORE AND 
OHIO SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD TO SPRINGFIELD. 

T. 18 N., R. 7 W., sec. 28, center of, 0.7 mile southwest of north and 
south road crossing, southwest corner of stone culvert, square cut 
in top of (Railroad bench mark) 605.416 

Taliula, 2.8 miles northeast of, T. 18 N., R. 7 W., sec. 33, near north- 
west corner of, 350 feet southwest of road crossing from east to 
west, in northwest wall of stone culvert, in coping stone, 10 feet 
northeast of southwest corner; aluminum tablet stamped "587 
ADJ i905" 586.759 

Taliula, 0.9 mile northeast of, 320 feet northeast of milepost "Chi- 
cago 194," northwest wall of stone culvert, in first course of 
masonry below coping; aluminum tablet stamped "596 ADJ 1905". 595.554 

Taliula, 0.8 mile southwest of, T. 17 N., R. 8 W., sec. 12, 0.25 mile 
south of center, 350 feet northeast of point where wagon road 
turns south from railroad, in top of southeast wall of stone cul- 
vert, 6.5 feet southwest of northeast corner; aluminum tablet 
stamped "622 ADJ 1905" 621.890 

Pleasant Plains State Bank, water table in north front, in top of, 
0.3 foot east of west end of watertable; aluminum tablet stamped 
"615 ADJ ly05" •• 615.350 

T. 16 N., R. 7 W., sec. 14, southeast quarter of, 1.9 mile east of 
Pleasant Plains, 520 feet east of north and south road crossing, 
at bottom of fill, stone culvert, in top of south v^^all at southwest 
corner of; aluminum tablet stamped "591 ADJ 1905" 591.067 

Richland, T. 16 N., R, 7 W., sec. 11, in southeast quarter of, in south 
wall of brick gasoline storage house of the Richland Farmers 
Elevator Co., 1.5 feet east of southwest corner and 2.2 feet above 
ground; aluminum tablet stamped "612 ADJ 1905" 611.752 

T. 17 N.,.R. 8 W., sec. 36, north quarter corner of, northwest corner 
of crossroads, on west side of road, 1 foot east of fence and 23 feet 
north of fence corner at southwest corner of Bethel Church Ceme- 
tery; iron post stamped "615 ADJ 1905" 615.358 

Farniingdale, 1.2 miles west of, west of bridge over wagon road, 
T. 16 N., R. 7 W., sec. 24, road north and south is just "south of 
northeast corner of section, iron bridge No. 226, east abutment, 
in top of north wall, 15 feet west of east end of; aluminum tablet 
stamped "573 ADJ 1905" 573.089 

Bradfordton, 1.1 miles west of, north and south road crossing of 
railroad, at northwest corner of crossing, 1.7 feet east of fence 
and 40 feet north of track; iron post stamped "601 ADJ 1905" 601.470 

ROAD CROSSING OF BALTIMORE AND OHIO SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD 1.5 MILES WE^T 
OF PLEASANT PLAINS ALONG HIGHWAYS SOUTH TO BERLIN, THENCE EA'ST AND 
NORTH TO FARMINGDALE. 

T. 16 N., R. 8 W., sec. 1, south quarter corner of, T road to west, at 
southv\^est corner of junction on south side of road 1.3 feet north 
of fence, and 18 feet west of east line of fence; iron post stamped 
"618 ADJ 1905" 618.249 



96 YEAE BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. It 

Feet. 

T, 16 N., R, 8 W., sec. 25, northeast corner of, quarter mile west of, 
T road to south, on north side of road 1 foot south of fence and 
east of north arid south fence running north opposite ceilter of 
junction of roads; iron post stamped "630 ADJ 1905" 629.882 

T. 15 N„ R. 8 W., sec. 1, northeast corner, 0.25 mile west of, on west 

' side of road at northwest corner of jog in road, 1 foot east of 
fence, 60 feet north of south fence line; iron post stamped "609 
ADJ 1905" 609.327 

T. 15 N., R. 7 W., sec. 8, near center of, Old Berlin, Old Berlin school- 
house, west wall, in brick foundation, 1.1 foot north of southwest 
corner and 0.5 foot below frame structure; aluminum tablet 
stamped "640 ADJ 1905" 640.158 

T. 16 N., R. 7 W., sec. 33, southeast corner, 0.25 mile west of, T road 

. to east, on west side of road, 410 feet north of iron bridge just 
south of junction of roads, 20 feet north of fence along north side 
of house lawn and 1.4 feet east of fence; iron post stamped "587 
ADJ 1905" 586.981 

T. 15 N., R. 7 W., sec. 1, northwest corner, 0.25 mile east of, junction 
of north and south road and private road to west, on west side of 
road 2 feet east of old fence, 2.6 feet south of telegraph pole and 
45 feet north of stone in road marking town line; iron post 
stamped "609 ADJ 1905" 609.134 

T. 15 N., R. 6 W.-, sec. 6, northeast corner, 0.25 mile south of, at 
northeast corner of crossroads, on north side of road, 1.4 feet 
south of fence and 11 feet east of fence corner; iron post stamped 
"610 ADJ 1905" 610.45& 

T. 16 N., R. 6 W., sec. 19, east quarter corner of, T road west, at 
northwest corner of junction of roads, on west side of/ road, 1.4 
feet east of fence and 26 feet north of south line of fence; iron 
post stamped "598 ADJ 1905" 597.747 

FAEMINGDALE ALONG HIGHWAY NORTH 10 MILES, THENCE NORTHEAST TO ATHENS. 

T. 16 N., R. 6 W., sec. 17, in northwest quarter of, T road nortji, on 
south side of east and west road opposite junction, 1.5 feet north 
of fence and 2.5 feet east of fence corner; iron post stamped "589 
ADJ 1905" 589.27& 

Salisbury schoolhouse, T. 17 N., R. 6 W., sec. 29, in southwest quarter 
of, in east wall of schoolhouse, 29 feet north of southeast corner, 
in space between stone foundation and brick upper wall; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "592 ADJ 1905" 591.575 

T. 17 N., R. 6 W., sec. 17, near center of, T road east, at northeast 
corner of, north side of road, 0.5 foot south of fence and 30 feet 
east of junction of roads; iron post stamped "597 ADJ 1905" 597.094 

T. 17 N., R. 6 W., sec. 9, near northwest corner of, T road south, at 
southeast corner of junction, on south side of road on bank 30 feet 
east of center of junction; iron post stamped "573 ADJ 1905" 573.391 

Springfield Quadrangle. 

athens southeast and south along chicago, peoria and st. louis railway 

to springfield. 

Athens, City Hall, west wall, on watertable; aluminum tablet 

stamped "606 ADJ 1905" 605.783 

Cantrall, in front of station; top of north rail 589. 

C'antrall, Cantrall Cooperative Coal Company's store; in watertable, 
east side of building, 3 feet north of south side; aluminum tablet 
stamped "596 ADJ 1905" 596.181 

Dunlap schoolhouse, north wall, brick foundation, 2 feet from east 

VN^all; aluminum tablet stamped "584 ADJ 1905" 583.770 

Andrews, in front of station; top of west rail 583.9 



HERRON.] TOPOGKAPHIC SURVEYS. 97 

Feet. 

Springfield post-office, water table, east side, 12 feet from south- 
east corner; aluminum tablet stamped "599 AD J 1905" 598.997 

Springfield, City Bench mark, southwest entrance courthouse 
grounds, in stone post marked "City B. M. 58.44;" top of copper 
bolt . . ^ 598.319 

SPEINGFIELD EAST AND NORTH ALONG HIGHWAY VIA RIVERTON TO WILLIAM SVILLE 
THENCE WEST TO CANTRALL. 

T. 16 N., R. 4 W., near center sec. 21, in west wall of brick founda- 
tion to church; aluminum tablet stamped "576 ADJ 1905" 576.450 

Riverton Opera House, T. 16 N., R. 5 W., near southeast corner 
sec. 9, south side, southeast corner stone threshold Opera House; 
aluminum tablet stamped "553 ADJ 1905" 52.796 

T. 17 N., R. 5 W., 0.25 mile east of, center line between sees. 32 and 
33, iron highway bridge over fork of Wolf Creek, east abutment, 
southwest corner; aluminum tablet stamped "535 ADJ 1905" 528.424 

T. 17 N., R. 5 W., near center east half sec. 20, Locust Lane school- 
house, west wail brick foundation; aluminum tablet stamped "578 
ADJ 1905" 578.432 

T. 17 N., R. 5 W., near center sec. 4, Williamsville, east wall of 

Prater's Bank; aluminum tablet stamped "606 ADJ 1905" 605.649 

T. 18 N., R. 6 W., sec. 35, on south line of, north side of road, Fred 
Van Menner's house, in west wall of foundation; aluminum tablet 
stamped "591 ADJ 1905" 591.347 



St. Louis Quadrangle — Madison and St. Clair Counties. — The eleva- 
tions in the following list depend on the Coast and Geodetic Survey 
bench mark h, being a mark on a large bronze plate with the inscrip- 
tion "U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Bench Mark 1882/^ in the south 
face of the eastern land pier of the great bridge at East St. Louis, its 
accepted elevation being 413.966 feet above mean sea level as determined 
by latest adjustment. 

The leveling was done in 1903 by Mr. L. Scott Smith, levelman. 

The bench marks are stamped ''St. Louis" in addition to figures of 
elevation. 

St. Louis Quadrangle. 

east st. louis great bridge along highway to edgemont, thence north to 
molienbock, thence west to granite city, 

Feet. 
East St. Louis, a mark on large bronze plate on east land pier of 

"Great Bridge," inscribed "U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey B. M. 

182— I, 413.966 

Caseyville, 0.25 mile east of, north end west abutment railroad 

bridge; aluminum tablet stamped "449 ST. LOUIS" 449.160 

Molienbock, Horseshoe Lake, northeast end of bayou, southeast 

abutment iron bridge over; aluminum tablet stamped "415 ST. 

LOUIS" 414.795 

Granite City, northwest face, northeast wing public schoolhouse, top 

of stone foundation; aluminum tablet stamped "431 ST. LOUIS". 430.978 
Granite City, signal tower opposite Union Station, southwest corner 

of foundation (standard city B. M.) 425.888 

—7 a 



98 YEAE-B.OOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

EDGEMONT SOUTH ALONG HIGHWAY TO OGLES, THENCE WEST TO SCHNAFF HOUSE. 

(Single Spur Line.) Feet. 

Ogles, 100 yards north of west bound track of Illinois Central Rail- 
road, on east side of road, south foundation of large brick house; 
aluminum tablet stamped "576 ST. LOUIS" 576.129 

T. 1 N., R. 9 W., sec. 17, 0.25 mile west of center of, 1.2 miles north- 
east of Imbs, in northwest corner of foundation of John Schnaff's 
house; aluminum tablet stamped "517 ST. LOUIS" 517.085 



Belleville and Breese Quadrangles — Bond, Madison and 8t. Glair 
Counties. — The elevations in the following list depend on an alnminnm 
tablet set in 1903 in west abutment of Baltimore and Ohio railroad 
bridge. 0.25 mile east of Caseyville, stamped "449/^ the elevation of 
which is accepted as 449.160 feet. 

All bench marks are stamped "ADJ^^ in addition to the figiTres of ele- 
vation. 

The leveling on the Belleville quadrangle was done by Mr. C. S. Blair, 
levelman, and of the Breese quadrangle by Mr. C. F. Wood, levelman, 
both in 1905. 

Belleville Quadk angle. 

near caseyville via baltimore and ohio eaileoad to ridge prairie thence 
along highways south to bellevili,e, east to 4 miles east of grass- 
land, north to summerfield and west along baltimore and 

OHIO RAILROAD TO RIDGE PRAIRIE. Feet. 

Ridge Prairie, at southwest corner of road crossing; 0.25 mile east 

of Furmans, 20 feet south of track, iron post stamped "564 ADJ". 563.164 

Belleville, northeast corner of courthouse yard, iron post stamped 

"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 15, ADJ 531" 530.682 

Grassland, 100 feet east of, 200 feet south of station; iron post 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 16, 435 ADJ" 434.306 

Grassland, 4 miles east of; northeast corner of road crossing, south- 
west corner of field of J. B. Freeze, iron post stamped "Prim. 
Trav. Sta. No. 17, 469 ADJ" 468.778 

Summerfield, schoolhouse, southeast corner of; aluminum tablet 

stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 18, 478 ADJ" 478.074 

Lebanon, stone step, just west of main entrance to St. Joseph's 

church, aluminum tablet stamped "467 ADJ" 466.296 

O'Fallon, southwest corner of brick platform, at B. & 0. station; 

iron post stamped "551 ADJ" 550.520 

NEAR CASEYVILLE VIA VANDALIA RAILROAD TO ST. JACOBS, THENCE SOUTH ALONG 
HIGHWAYS TO SUMMERVILLE, 

Collinsville, at northwest corner of road crossing; just west of sta- 
tion; opposite saloon of Schmacker Bros., iron post stamped 
"474 ADJ" 472.974 

Formosa, northeast corner of stone platform, iron post stamped "571 

ADJ" 570.155 

Troy, 100 feet north of northwest corner of station; iron post 

stamped "549 ADJ" 548.626 

St. Jacobs, 0.25 mile west of; south side of stone bridge, aluminum 
tablet stamped "506 ADJ" 504.883 

Summerfield, 3.5 miles north of; at southwest corner of junction, 30 

feet west of cottonwood, iron post stamped "507 ADJ" 506.257 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 99 

Beeese Quadrangle. 

four miles east of grassland east along highways " to germantown and 
north to beeese, thence west along baltimore and ohio 

EAILEOAD TO SUMMEEFIELD. Feet. 

New Baden, in bank building, aluminum tablet stamped "463 ADJ" 462.069 

Albers, in Louis Foytman's house, second one north of railroad, 

west side of street, aluminum tablet stamped "445 ADJ" 444.477 

Germantown, Boniface's school, in northeast corner, aluminum tab- 
let stamped "433 ADJ" 432.236 

Breese, in northwest corner of St. Dominic school building, tablet 

stamped "458 ADJ" 458.120 

Aviston, east side of entrance, south side of brick catholic church, 

tablet stamped "475 ADJ" 474.385 

Trenton, in southeast corner of city hall, tablet stamped "498 ADJ". 497.606 

ST. JACOBS VIA VANDALIA LINE TO HIGHLAND, THENCE EAST AND SOUTH ALONGj 
fllGHWAYS VIA SEBASTOPOL TO BREESE. 

Highland, in First National Bank of Highland, aluminum tablet 

stamped "545 ADJ" 544.680 

Sebastopol, in south side of old brick building, aluminum tablet 

stamped "545 ADJ" 545.325 

St. Rose, in north side of catholic church, in door sill, aluminum 

tablet stamped "504 ADJ" 503.977 

Breese, 3.5 miles north of; in east side of house of August Lager, 

aluminum tablet stamped "473 ADJ" 472.934 



Baldivin, Carlyle, Centralia, Chester, New Athens, Okawville and 
Sparta Quadrangle — Clinton, Monroe, St. Clair and Washington Coun- 
ties. — The elevations in the following list are based upon the 1903 ad- 
justment. No Coast and Geodetic Survey bench marks were recovered 
on Carlyle quadrangle. 

The leveling was done in 1907 by Mr. W. A. Gelbach, levelman. The 
leveling on the Chester quadrangle and part of Baldwin quadrangle 
was done by Mr. P. E. Fletcher, Eesident Engineer, under the direction 
of Dr. H. Foster Bain, Director of the State Geological Survey, the other 
work was done in cooperation and the standard bench marks are all 
stamped with the State name. 

Okawville Quadrangle. 

bartelso south to covington, thence southwest along highways to okaw- 
ville, thence west along louisville and nashville 

RAILROAD TO MASCOUTAH. Foet. 

Okawville, 3 miles east of, 0.5 mile west of Frogtown, southwest 

corner of crossroads; iron post stamped "448 1907" 448.427 

Okawville, southwest corner of schoolyard; iron post stamped "445" 444.681 

Venedy, 50 feet south of station by picket fence; iron post stamped 

"410 1907" , 410.508 

New Miemphis, railroad crossing west of station, south of track and 

west of wagon road; iron post stamped "409" 409.492 

New Memphis, 3 miles west of station, 250 feet north of railroad at 
crossroads, southwest corner of crossroads; iron post stamped 
"424" 425.395 



100 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 

VENEDY STATION SOUTHWEST ALONG HIGHWAYS TO POINT 2 MILES EAST OF 

MARIS S A. 

F^eet. 

Venedy, nortli end of town, on road leading to Venedy station, south- 
west corner of T road west; iron post stamped "428 1907" 426.945 

T. 2 S.. R. 5 W., sees. 6 and 7, 0.25 mile north of quarter corner be- 
tween, southwest corner of crossroads; iron post stamped "424 
1907" 423.06a 

St. Libory, 1 mile east of, junction of four roads, south side of road 

leading east; iron post stamped "430 1907" 428.889 

St. Libory. 1 mile south and 0.5 mile east of, southwest corner of 
crossroads; iron post stamped "432 1907" 431.671 

Darmstadt 1 mile south by 0.5 mile east of, southwest corner of T 

road south; iron post stamped "432 1907" 431.240 

Oak Grove Saloon, 150 feet south of, west side of road; iron post 

stamped "448 1907" •. 447.715 

ST. LIBORY WEST TO FAYETTEVIIXE. 

Fayetteville, 2.5 miles east of, southeast corner of schoolhouse, in 
brick foundation: aluminum tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 
19, 1907 ILLINOIS 410" 409.995 

New Athens Quadrangle, 
mascoutah west along louisville and nashville railroad to belleville. 

Mascoutah, railway crossing, 0.25 mile east of station, west side of 
street 4 feet north of railroad right of way; iron post stamped 
"424 1907" 424.619 

Rentchlers, 0.25 miles east of station, 40 feet north of track, east of 

wagon road; iron post stamped "458 1907" 458.052^ 

Rentchlers, 2 miles west of, railway crossing by brick schoolhouse, 
north part of schoolyard, 30 feet from, corner of yard, 2 feet from 
right of way fence; iron post stamped "464 1907" 464.427 

MASCOUTAH SOUTH ALONG HIGHWAY TO FAYETTEVILLE. 

Mascoutah, 3 miles south of, southeast corner of schoolyard of 

"Crossroads School;" iron post stamped "442 1907" 442.129 

Fayetteville, 1 mile north from, north and west sides of road at road 

fork; iron post stamped "417 1907" 417.271 

FAYETTEVILLE WEST VIA FIVE FORKS TO NEAR SMITHTON, THENCE NORTHERLY TO 

BELLEVILLE. 

Fayetteville, 1.25 miles west of, south and east sides of road at road 

fork south; iron post stamped "412 1907" 412.339 

T. 2 S., R. 7 W., corner sees. 10, 11, 14, 15, southwest corner of T 

road west; iron post stamped "405 1907" 404.887 

New Athens, 3.5 miles northwest of, "Five Forks," southeast corner 

of schoolyard; iron post stamped "446 1907" 446.165 

T. 2 S., R. 8 W., corner sees. 11, 12, 13 and 14, northwest corner of 

crossroads; iron post stamped "440 1907" 440.000 

Smithton, 2 miles south of, northeast corner of T road east; iron 

post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 22, 1907 ILLINOIS 467 1907" 466.383 
Smithton, 1.5 miles east of, east side of road at T road west at 

junction of 4 roads; iron post stamped "431 1907" 431.213 



HERRON.J TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 101 

Feet. 

Freeburg, 1.5 miles west of, T. 1 S., R. 7 W., middle sec. 24, north 

east corner of T road north; iron post stamped "513 1907" .... 512.515 

Freeburg, 1.5 miles west by 3 miles north of, northwest corner of 
schoolyard of brick school on Freebnrg-Belleville plank road; iron 
post stamped "483 1907" 482.209 

riVE FORKS SOUTH VIA NEW ATHENS TO FOUR CORNERS, THENCE SOUTHEAST TO 
MIDDLE OF SECTION 22, T. 3 S., R. 7 W. 

New Athens, northwest corner of schoolyard; iron post stamped 

"430 1907" 429.865 

T. 3 S., R. 7 W., quarter corner between sees. 4 and 5, 0.25 mile east 
of, north side of road at T road south; iron post stamped "415 
1907" 414.678 

T. 3 S., R. 7 W., quarter corner between sees. 16 and 17, 0.25 mile 
east of, southwest corner of crossroads; iron post stamped "414 
1907" 414.040 

T. 3 S., R. 7 W., middle sec. 22, southeast corner of crossroads; 

iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 20, 1907 ILLINOIS 1907". 406.160 

FROM FOUR CORNERS 4 MILES SOUTH OF NEW ATHENS TO POINT 2 MILES NORTH 

OF REDBUD. 

T. 3 S., R. 8 W., quarter corner between sees. 23 and 26, 0.25 mile 
north of, northeast corner of crossroads; iron post stamped "391 
1907" 390.762 

FROM POINT 2 MILES NORTH OF REDBUD ALONG HIGHWAYS NORTH TO BELLEVILLE. 

T. 3 S., R. 8 W., quarter corner between sees. 9 and 10, 0.25 mile east 
of, northwest corner of T road north; iron post stamped "438 
1907" 438.162 

New Athens, 4 miles due west of, near center of Spanish Survey 
No. 607, southwest corner of schoolyard "Klein school;" iron post 

stamped "429 1907" 428.839 

Chester Quadrangle. 

chester north along illinois southern railroad to missouri junction. 

32 Kaskaskia, 1.75 miles below town of, on west side of Kaskaskia 
and Chester road, at foot of bluffs, just inside of field of J. 
Watier, being a Miss. Riv. Comm. bench mark; top of iron post 392.83 
(The correction applied, here to reduce from Memphis datum was 6.85 ft.) 

Kerley's Lake, northwest corner of station platform, near south end 
of Edgar's Mill creek trestle, in top of concrete post; aluminum 
tablet stamped ' ? " 385.113 

Missouri Junction, at turn of Missouri Junction and Ellis creek road, 
900 feet northeast of station; in top of concrete post; aluminum 
tablet stamped " ? " 407.467 

Baldwin Quadrangle. 

missouri junction along illinois southern railroad to point 2 miles east 
of evansville thence north along highways to point middle of section 

- 22, T. 3 S., R. 7 W. 

Nine Mile Creek bridge of Illinois Southern R. R., on v>^est end of 
north abutment; plate 383.809 

Evansville, 50 feet south of west station platform at east side of 
road, in top of concrete post; aluminum tablet stamped " ? " 
414.375 



102 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 

T. 5 S., R. 7 W., sec. 8, quarter corner south side of, northeast corner 
of crossroads, in top of concrete post; aluminum tablet stamped 

? " 450.069 

T. 4 S., R. 7 W., sec. 28, southwest quarter of, at junction of Evans- 
ville-Baldwin, and Baldwin-Preston roads, in top of concrete post; 
aluminum tablet stamped " ? " " 454.822 

T. 4 S., R. 7 W., sec. 3, quarter corner east side of, in top of concrete 
post; aluminum tablet stamped " ? " 429.264 

T. 3 S., R. 7 W., sec. 27, at center of, in top of concrete post; alumi- 
num tablet stamped " ? " 409.150 

AT POINT 2 MILES NORTH OF RED BUD. 

Red Bud, 2 miles north of, T. 3 S., R. 8 W., quarter corner between 
sees. 28 and 29, northwest corner of crossroads; iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 21, 1907 ILLINOIS 447, 1907" 446.473 

MAEISSA WEST TO MIDDLE OF SECTION 22, T. 3 S., R. 7 W. 

T. 3 S., R. 6 and 7 W., corner sees. 19, 24, 25 and 30, 0.25 mile west 
of, 3.5 miles west of Marissa, southeast corner of crossroads; iron 
post stamped "411, 1907" 410.940 

Marissa, southwest corner of schoolyard; iron post stamped "449, 

1907" 448.378 

Sparta Quadrangle. 

MARISSA east 2 MILES TO SOUTHWEST CORNER SEC. 24, T. 3 S., R. 6 W. 

T. 3 S., R. 6 W., corner sees. 23, 24, 25 and 26, 2 miles east of Marissa, 
northeast corner of crossroads; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. 
■ Sta. No. 18, 1907 ILLINOIS 433, 1907" 432.942 

Caelyle Quadrangle. 

breese east along baltimore and ohio southwestern railroad to huey, 
thei>[ce south along highways to hoffman, thence w^est along southern 
railway to baetelso, thence north along highway to beckemeyee. 

Beckemeyer, railway crossing at west end of town, 5Q feet north of 

track, by roadside; iron post stamped "451" 451.287 

Carlyle, southeast corner of courtyard; iron post stamped "461" 460.787 

Huey, railway crossing at east end of station, south of track, on 
east side of wagon road, 4 feet south of corner fence post; iron 
post stamped "454" 453.861 

Hoffman, 1.75 miles north of, north side of road at fork, 8 feet east 
of corner fence post; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 4, 
1907; 454" 453.582 

Hoffman, 200 feet east of railway station, 50 feet north of tracks, 

iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 3, 1907; 456" 456.185 

Posey, 0.5 mile east of station, 40 feet north of track and east of 

v>^agon road; iron post stamped "451" 450.544 

Zachary Siding, 0.25 mile east of, 60 feet north of tracks, 20 feet 

west of wagon road; iron post stamped "418" 417.504 

Bartelso, 60 feet south of tracks and 150 feet east of station, corner 
of lot by H. F. Johnson's saloon, 2 ft. inside of sidewalk; iron 
post stamped "450" 449.572 

Beckemeyer, 2.75 miles south of, at crossroads, north and east sides 
of roads respectively, 3 feet east of corner fencepost; iron post 
stamped "459" 459.300 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 103 

HUEY ALONG HIGHWAYS TO POINT 7.5 MILES NORTHEAST OF HUEY. 

Feet. 
Hiiey, 2 miles north by 1 mile east of, ''White School House," south- 
east corner of schoolyard; iron post stamped "463 462.043 

BECKEMEYER NORTHWEST VIA FROGTOWN TO ST. ROSE. 

Frogtown, road fork, north and west sides of roads respectively; 
iron post stamped "455" 454.872 

KEYESPORT WEST AND SOUTHWEST ALONG HIGHWAYS TO FROGTOWN. 

Keyesport, east railway crossing just south of station, south side of 

high bank; iron post stamped "453" 453.147 

Keyesport, 1 mile west from, south and west sides of roads respect- 
ively; iron post stamped "473" 473.081 

Keyesport, 5 miles west of, intersection of Clinton-Bond County line, 
and Carlyle-Greenville road, north and west sides of roads respect- 
ively; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 7, 1907, 512" 512.456 

Keyesport, 8 miles west of, crossroads, Bond-Clinton County line, 
south and east sides of roads respectively; iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 8, 1907 473" 473.008 

Jamestown, 2.5 miles east of, Bond-Clinton County line, road fork, 
north side of county road; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. 
No. 9, 1907 480" 480.023 

Frogtown, 3.5 miles north and 1 mile east of, road fork, 0.5 mile 
west of catholic church, south side of road; iron post stamped 
"467" 467.610 

Frogtown, 2 miles north of, road forks, west side of road; iron post 
stamped "463" 463.238 

Centralia Quadrangle. 

POINT 7.5 miles northeast of HUEY NORTHERLY TO KEYESPORT THEN TO BOULDER. 

Boulder, 2.25 miles south by 0.5 mile west of, northwest corner of 

schoolyard; iron post stamped "470" 470.398 

Boulder, 1.5 miles northwest of, east side of railroad at crossing, 

north side of wagon road; iron post stamped "442" 442.459 



HardinviUe, Merom, Olney and RusseUville Quadrangles — Crawford, 
Jasyer, Lawrence and Richland Counties. — The elevations in the follow- 
ing list are based upon bench mark Bs of the Coast and G-eodetic Survey 
at Olney, Illinois, a square cut at the base of one of the cokimns of the 
north face of the court house. The elevation now accepted is 486.117 
feet above mean sea level as determined by the 1907 adjustment. 

The leveling was done in 1907 by Mr. Henry Biicher, levelman. 

The work was done in cooperation with the Stat© and the bench 
marks are stamped with the State name. 

Olney Quadrangle. 

OLNEY east 4 miles ALONG BALTIMORE AND OHIO SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 

(Mean of Direct and Reverse Leveling.) 

B, Olney, Richland County Courthouse, cut at the base of one of the 
columns of north face of; lettered "B., 

BflM 
USC&GS 
1882" 486.117 



104 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull, no. 14 

No. Ill, Olney, near the southeast corner of grounds of public school, 
on the monument marking the U. S. Engineers Base Line; the top 
of the monument bears the inscription "U. S.," and the bench 
mark is the center of the space inclosed by the lower curve of 
the S. Feet. 

Note: This monument is loose on its foundation; it rocks. (1907 

adjustment Coast and Geodetic Survey elevation 480.376) 480.395 

Olney, in front of station; top of rail 473.48 

Olney, 2.70 miles east of, 1200 feet east of road crossing, in coping 
stone at southeast corner of south wall of stone culvert, 1.1 feet 
west of east end and 0.8 foot north of south end; aluminum tab- 
let stamped "495 ADJ" 496.114 

Hardinville Quadrangle. 

hickory point school along highw^ays north, to t. 6 n., r. 14 w., northeast 
corner section 10, thence east, to t. 6 n., r. 12 w., northeast corner sec- 
tion '7, thence north, to indianapolis southern railroad and east along 
latter 2 miles, to robinson. 

T. 4 N., R. 14 W., 0.25 mile south of northwest corner of section 27, 
southeast corner of T road, on east side of road, 1.3 feet west of 
fence, 15 feet south of fence corner; iron post stamped "510 
ADJ" 510.502 

T. 4 N., R. 14 W., southwest corner of section 3, northeast corner 
of crossroads, east side of road, 1.1 feet west of fence, 11 feet north 
of fence corner; iron post stamped "508 ADJ" 509.121 

T. 5 N., R. 14 W., northeast corner of section 34, at southwest cor- 
ner of crossroads, on west side of road, 1.1 feet east of fence, 7 
feet south of fence corner; iron post stamped "496 ADJ" 496.574 

T. 5 N., R. 14 W., southwest corner of section 15, northeast corner 
of crossroads, on north side of road near old rail fence, about 14 
feet east of north and south fence line, on east side of north and 
south road (New Light Christian church (?) is at southeast 
corner of crossroads); iron post stamped "457 ADJ" 457.555 

T. 5 N., R. 14 W., southeast corner of section 3, northwest corner 
of crossroads, west side of road, 6 feet east of fence and 4 feet 
north of fence corner; iron post stamped "462 ADJ" 463.263 

T. 6 N., R. 14 W., northeast corner of section 27, southwest corner 
of crossroads, west side of road, 1.2 feet east of fence, 5.6 feet 
south of fence corner; iron post stamped "483 ADJ" 483.969 

T. 6 N., R. 14 W., 0.25 mile east of southwest corner of section 2, 
T road (the branch to west is very dim), outside of road at T, 
1.3 feet south of fence, 15 feet east of north and south fence at 
fence corner (north of center of T) ; iron post stamped "478 
ADJ" 1 . c 478.367 

T. 6 N., R. 13 W., northeast corner of section 7, at southwest corner 
of T road, on west side of road, 1.2 feet east of fence, 7.5 feet south 
of fence corner; iron post stamped "483 ADJ" 483.298 

T. 6 N., R. 13 W., southwest corner of section 2, (crossroads) 0.75 
mile south of Stoy, on small bank by pipe line, 1 foot east of fence, 
76 feet north of east and west fence line on north side of east and 
west road; iron post stamped "475 ADJ" 476.261 

T. 6 N., R. 12 W., northeast corner of section 7, T road, on south 
side of road opposite the Wilson Schoolhouse, 0.7 foot north of 
fence, 12 feet east of fence corner, on edge of lane to south; iron 
post stamped "581 ADJ" 531.481 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 105 

FROM POINT 0.75 MILE SOUTH OF STOY SOUTH ALONG HIGHWAYS TO T. 4 N., R. 13 
W., NEAR SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SECTION 29. 

Feet. 

T. 6 N., R. 13 W., northwest corner of section 23, T road, on bank 
on south side of road at T, 1.5 feet north of fence, 34.5 feet east 
of north and south section line fence; iron post stamped "484 
ADJ" 485.269 

H'ardinville, section 34, T. 6 N., R. 13 W., on east side of main north 
and south road just north of Christian church, 500 feet south of 
crossroads, 4.2 feet north of fence line between McCarty (south 
side) and Newman (north side), 6.8 feet west of an old fence line 
north in correct position; iron post stamped "510 AD J" 510.903 

T. 5 N., R. 13 W., 0.25 mile north of southwest corner of section 4, 
southeast corner of T road, at T, on south side of road, 0.9 feet 
north of fence, 39 feet east of north and south fence line, on east 
side of north and south road; iron post stamped "463 AD J" .... 463.826 

Chauncey, southwest corner of section 28, T. 5 N., R. 13 W., at north- 
east corner of crossroads, on east side of road, 1.2 feet west of 
fence, 6.6 feet north of fence corner; iron post stamped "488 
ADJ" 488.708 

T. 4 N., R. 13 "W., 0.25 mile north of southeast corner or section 8, 
northwest corner of T road, north side of road between 2 walnut 
trees, 1.2 feet south of fence, 28 feet west of north and south 
fence line on west side of north and south road; iron post stamped 
"492 ADJ" 492.990 

FROM T. 6 N., R. 12 W., NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECTION 29, ALONG HIGHWAYS 
SOUTH, TO FAIRVIEW CHURCH. 

T. 6 N., R. 12 W., quarter corner east side of section 29, T road at 
southwest corner, on south side of road, 1.1 feet north of fence 
7 feet west of 2-foot oak tree at fence corner; iron post stamped 
"512 ADJ" 512.750 

T. 5 N., R. 12 W., northwest corner of section 9, at southeast corner 
of crossroads, on east side of road, 0.8 foot west of fence, 6 feet 
south of fence corner; iron post stamped "523 ADJ" 523.318 

T. 5 N., R. 12 W., 0.25 mile east of northwest corner of section 28, 
southeast corner of crossroads, 0.8 foot west of fence, 6 feet south 
of fence corner; iron post stamped "442 ADJ" 442.767 

Westfort, section 32, T. 5 N., R. 12 W., iron truss bridge over Em- 
barrass river at southwest corner, in highest part of masonry 
support, 1.1 feet from east edge, 0.3 feet from south edge; alum- 
inum tablet stamped "437 ADJ" 437.339 

T. 4 N., R. 12 W., northeast corner of section 18, southwest corner 
of crossroads, south side of road, 1.3 feet north of fence, 22 feet 
west of north and south fence line on west side of north and south 
road; iron post stamped "436 ADJ" 436.534 

T. 4 N., R. 12 W., northwest corner of section 29, at crossroads, on 
south side of road at T, 2.1 feet north of fence line, 23 feet east 
of north and south fence line at fence corner; iron post stamped 
"455 ADJ" 455.678 

Merom Quadrangle. 

at robinson. 

Robinson, at east edge of station; top of rail 536.7 

Robinson, on south side of courthouse, on west side of concrete walk, 
in top of concrete post at edge of wall; aluminum tablet stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 13, 534 ADJ" 534.529 



106 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

RUSSELLVILLE QUADRANGLE. 

ROBINSON SOUTH ALONG HIGHWAY, TO T. 6n., R. 12 W., NORTHEAST CORNER OF 

SECTION 29. 

Feet. 
T. 6 N., R. 12 W., center of northeast quarter of section 16, cross- 
roads, at south east corner, on east side of road, 0.8 feet west of 
fence, 3.9 feet south of fence corner; iron post stamped "533 AD J" 533.542 



Bridgeport, Carmi and Mt. Carmel Quadrangles — Edwards, Lawrence, 
Richland, Wabash and White Counties. — The elevations in the following 
list are based upon the 1907 adjustment. The work on Mt. Carmel 
quadrangle was extended originally from adjoining work in Indiana, 
via Grayville, but the elevations are now corrected tO' agree with level- 
ing of 1908 upon Bridgeport quadrangle based upon the 1907 Coast and 
G-eodetic Survey adjustment, elevation of a bench mark at Olney, which 
is 0.785 foot greater than by 1903 adjustment, and an adjustment has 
been made through Carmi quadrangle to accord with elevations brought 
by precise leveling of 1906 from Duquoin, Illinois, corrected to agree 
with the 1907 adjustment at that point, which is 0.336 foot greater 
than by the 1903 adjustment. 

The leveling was done as follows : On Mt. Carmel quadrangle mostly 
in 1902 by H. G. Lowe, on Bridgeport and Carmi quadrangles mostly 
and on Mt. Carmel quadrangle partially, in 1908 by W. A. Gelbach; 
on Bridgeport also, in 1907, by H. Biicher, and on Carmi also, in 1905, 
by C. S. Blair. 

The work done in 1905 and later years was in cooperation with the 
State and the standard bench marks established since 1905 inclusive, 
are stamped with the State name. 

Mt. Carmel Quadrangle. 

grayville northeast along big four railroad, via cowling, keensburg and 
schrodts station, to mt. carmel. 

Feet. 

Grayville, at milepost E 32, at northwest corner of bridge 289; head 
of bolt : 386.36 

Grayville, 100 feet south of station, 6 feet east of track; iron post 
stamped "392 VIN" 392.113 

Cowling, T. 2 S., R. 14 W., 8 inches north from northeast corner of 
Big Four station, 6 inches above ground; iron post stamped "397 
VIN" 396.812 

Keensburg, T. 2 S., R. 14 W., northwest corner of M. E. Church 
(frame), in face of foundation wall on north side; aluminum tab- 
let stamped "430 VIN" 429.672 

Sugar Creek (Schrodts station), T. 1 S., R. 13 W., at northeast cor- 
ner of Peter Schrodts store, 1 foot north; iron post stamped 
"458 VIN" 458.066 

Mt. Carmel Courthouse, at southwest side, in southeast vang on west 

sill in wall; bronze tablet stamped "465 VIN" 464.841 

MT. CARMEL (juuction of Big Four and Southern Railways), west along 

SOUTHERN railway, VIA MAUD", TO BELMONT. 

Maud, T. 1 S., R. 13 W., northeast corner of Christian Church, east 

side in face of foundation wall; bronze tablet stamped "442 VIN". 441.384 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIO SURVEYS. 107 

KEENSBUEG NORTHWEST, TO BELMONT, THENCE WEST ALONG SOUTHERN RAILWAY 

TO BROWNS. 

Feet. 

Bellmont, T. 1 S., R. 14 W., Town Hall, at southwest corner of south 
side in face of wall, 3 feet above ground; aluminum tablet stamped 
"431 VIN" 430.846 

Browns, T. 1 S., R. 14 W., in southeast corner of red brick M. E. 
Church, in face of south wall, 3 feet above ground; aluminum 
tablet stamped "402 VIN" 401.728 

GRAYVILLE NORTH ALONG ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD AND PUBLIC ROADS, VIA 

BROWNS, TO BONE GAP. 

Bone Gap, T. 1 S., R. 14 W., northwest corner of Miss M. D. Rice's 
millinery store, north side in brick foundation; bronze tablet 
stamped "459 VIN" 458.746 

BONE GAP ALONG PUBIC ROADS, VIA GARD's POINT AND FBIENDSVILLE, TO PATTON, 
THENCE SOUTH ALONG BIG FOUR RAILROAD, TO MT. CARMEL. 

Gard's Point, T. 1 S., R. 13 W., at east side of northeast corner of 
Lick Prairie Church; iron post stamped "434 VIN" 433.428 

Patton, T. 1 S., R. 12 W., 1 foot southwest of southeast corner of 
frame building of J. W. Elliott, 8 inches above ground; iron post 
stamped "416 VIN" : . . . . 416.146 

A CIRCUIT RUN IN 1907 BY W. A. GELBACH CONNECTED MT. CARMEL BENCH MARK 
WITH PATTON AND ESTABLISHED THE FOLLOWING: 

Mt. Carmel, on pier of Southern Railway bridge; zero of gage 372.05 

Grand Rapids, land side of government locks at; top of coping of 
pier (Wabash River Survey bench mark; Engineer's elevation 
given being 395.913, based upon 1903 adjustment elevation at Vin- 
cennes, but the 1907 adjustment would raise it 0.663 foot which 

is 0.113 foot greater than the adjusted elevation here given) 396.463 

T. 1 N., R. 12 W., corner of sections 20, 21, 28 and 29, in front of 
T road west; iron post stamped "416-1908" 416.593 

Carmi Quadrangle. 

grayville southwest along cairo division of the big four railroad, to 

norris city. 

Grayville, 100 feet south of station, 6 feet east of track; iron post 
stamped "VIN 392" 392.113 

Carmi, 2 blocks east of station, at southv^'■est corner opposite electric 

plant, in root of large tree; spike 398.28 

Carmi, west side of main entrance in stone step to First Presby- 
terian Church; aluminum tablet stamped "399" 399.057 

Brownsville, at southwest corner of stone platform; iron post 

stamped "417" 416.768 

Stokes, in southeast corner of yard of J. Pyle's store; iron post 
stamped "415" 414.578 

BROWNSVILLE EAST, TO MAUNIE. 

Brownsville, 1.5 miles south of, at southeast corner of crossroads; 
iron post stamped "442—1908" 442.458 

T. 6 S., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 9 and 10, at T road 
west, in center of triangular grass plot in road fork; iron post 
stamped "360—1908" 360.278 



108 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 

T. 5 S., R. 9 E., southwest corner of section 36, in front of T road 

north; iron post stamped "424 — 1908" 424.004 

Epworth, 2 miles south of, at northeast corner of crossroads, 15 

feet east of corner fence post; iron post stamped "398 — 1908" 398.514 

Maunie, Louisville and Nashville Railway bridge over Wabash River, 
on coping south end of east pier, 1 foot from edge; chiseled circle 
(Wabash River Survey bench mark No. 32, Engineer's elevations 
is 370.471, based on 1903 adjustment value at Vincennes. The 
elevation by that line corrected to 1907 adjustment is 0.663 foot 
greater) 373.600 

Maunie, in middle of northwest face of foundation wall to Metho- 
dist Church, 2 feet above ground; aluminum tablet stamped 
"375— ILLINOIS— 1903" 375.417 

MAUNIE NORTH, TO NEAR GRAYVILLE. 

T. 5 S., R. 10 E., northeast corner of section 24, in front of T road 
east; iron post stamped "369—1908" 369.468 

T. 5 S., R. 14 W., near corner of sections 5, 6, 7 and 8, in southwest 
corner of schoolyard, in front of T road west; iron post stamped 
"378—1908" ; 378.655 

Phillipstov>^n, 1 mile north of, at northeast corner of crossroads 
on bank; iron post stamped "498 — 1908" 498.359- 

Calvin, Union-Methodist and Baptist Church, in middle of north 
foundation wall about 1.5 feet above ground; aluminum tablet 
stamped "448— ILLINOIS— 1908" 448.738 

Grayville, below, Illinois Central Railway bridge over Wabash River, 
south end of east bank pier; U. S. E. [] B. M. (Wabash River 
Survey Engineer's elevation 388,590, based on 1903 adjustment 
from Vincennes, but corrected to 1907 adjustment datum its eleva- 
tion would be 0.663 foot greater) 389.420 

T. 3 S., R. 14 W., at corner of sections 29, 30, 31 and 32; on top of 
corner stone ' 402.79 

T. 3 S., R. 14 AV., at corner of sections 19, 20, 29 and 30, front of 
and 20 feet east of center line of T road south; iron post stamped 
"398—1908" 398.186 

NEAR GRAYVILLE V^^EST, TO LITTLE WABASH RIVER, THENCE SOUTH, TO CARMI. 

T. 3 S., R. 10 E., corner of sections 22, 23, 26 and 27, in front of T 
road south; iron post stamped "392—1908" 392.544 

High Shoals, 0.75 mile w^est of bridge over Little Wabash River, in 
front of T road south; iron post stamped "383—1908" 383.823 

T. 3 and 4 S., R. 10 E., 0.25 mile east of quarter corner between sec- 
tions 32 and 5, at southeast corner of T road south, 4 feet south 
of corner fence post; iron post stamped "383 — 1908" 383.012 

T. 4 S., R. 10 E., middle of section 21, at northeast corner of T road 
north ; iron post stamped "390—1908" ' 390.313 

T. 4 S., R. 10 E., quarter corner between sections 28 and 29, in south- 
east corner of school yard, at northwest corner of crossroads, in 
tree root; nail 387.04 

Simpson Switch on Big Four Railroad, 3.25 miles northeast of Carmi, 
80 feet north of track, on west side of wagon road, by wire fence: 
iron post stamped "388—1908" 388.749 

Carmi, 0.25 mile northeast of, 400 feet east of junction of Louisville 
and Nashville and Big Four tracks, east of railway bridge over 
Little Wabash river, 6 feet high north of Big Four track, near rail- 
road crossing, in southeast corner of bridge on railing; top of bolt 
head 382.27 



HERRON.] TOPOGKAPHIC SURVEYS. 109 

FROM LITTLE WABASH RIVER WEST, TO BURNT PRAIRIE, THENCE SOUTH, TO 

BROWNSVILLE. 

Feet. 

T. 3 S., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 23 and 24, in front 
of T road south, at corner of house jard; iron post stamped 
"386—1908" 385.991 

T. 3 S., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 20 and 21, in front 

of T road south; iron post stamped "425 — 1908" 425.415 

T. 4 S., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 8 and 9, at north- 
east corner of crossroads; iron post stamped "388 — 1908" 387.893 

T. 4 S., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 29 and 32, at south- 
west corner of school yard, at northeast corner of T road east; 
iron post stamped "388—1908" c 388.809 

Trumbull, 0.1 mile westof, at southeast corner of crossroads, at foot 

of bank; iron post stamped "419—1908" 419.637 

Bridgeport Quadrangle. 

from point 4 miles east of olney east along baltimore and ohio south- 
western railroad, to claremont, thence along highways north, to* 
hickory point school. 

(Mean of Direct and Reverse Leveling.) 
Claremont station, 0.36 mile west of, south end of small artificial 
lake, in top of east wing of masonry dam, 0.9 foot from west edge 
and 1.8 feet from north edge, in northwest corner; aluminuni 

tablet stamped "498 ADJ" 498.826 

Claremont, at station crossing; top of south rail 509.8 

FROM CROSSROADS 0.93 MILE NORTH OF CLAREMONT EAST ALONG HIGHWAY TO T 
ROAD 0.25 MILE EAST OF NORTHEAST CORNER SECTION 5, T. 3 N., R. 13 W., THENCE 
NORTH 1 MILE. 

T. 4 N., R. 14 W., southwest corner of section 36, at northeast corner 
of crossroads, on east side of road, 0.7 foot west of fence, 22 feet 
north of fence corner; iron post stamped "509 ADJ" 510.263 

T. 3 N., R. 13 W., 0.25 mile east of northwest corner of section 4, 
at T road, 0.7 foot north of fence, 24.5 feet east of telegraph pole, 
about 11 feet east of center line of north and south road; iron post 
stamped "483 ADJ" 484.085 

T. 4 N., R. 13 W., 0.25 mile east of northwest corner of section 33, 
at T road, on west side of road, 2.2 feet east of fence, in concrete 
post flush with ground; aluminum tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. 
Sta. No. 10, 489 ADJ" 490.408 

FROM T. 3 N., R. 13 W., SEC. 5, 0.25 MILE EAST OF NORTHEAST CORNER, EAST TO 
T. 4 N., R. 12 W., NORTHEAST CORNER SECTION 32, THENCE NORTH, TO FAIR-' 
VIEW CHURCH. 

T. 4 N., R. 13 W., southwest corner of section 36, opposite U. B. Union 
Chapel, at northeast corner of crossroads, on east side of road, 1.1 
•feet west of fence, 62 feet north of fence; iron post stamped "570 
ADJ" 571.168 

T. 3 N., R. 12 W., northwest corner of section 4, at crossroads, State 
road east to west, on south side of road, on bank a little east of 

- center of road to north, 0.9 foot north of fence, 18.5 feet east of 
telegraph pole; iron post stamped "457 ADJ" 457.461 



110 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [BULL. NO. 14 

FEOM POINT 2 MILES NORTH OF BRIDGEPORT SOUTH, TO GRANT SCHOOL, THENCE 
WEST 5.6 MILES, THENCE NORTH, TO SUMNER. 

Feet. 

Bridgeport, 100 feet north of railroad, on front face at southeast 
corner of yellow brick building owned by F. W. Cox, about 3 feet 
about sidewalk; aluminum tablet stamped "449 1908" 448.591 

T. 3 N., R. 12 W., corner of sections 20, 21, 28 and 29, at north- 
west corner of crossroads; iron post stamped "489 1908" 489.774 

Grant School, corner of sections 4, 5, 8 and 9, T. 2 N., R. 12 W., 
at northwest corner of crossroads, in southeast corner of school 
yard; iron post stamped "446 1908" 446.892 

T. 2 N., R. 13 W., quarter corner between sections 4 and 9, at south- 
west corner of crossroads, 3 feet west of corner of John White's 
yard; iron post stamped "476 1908" ^ 477.274 

Sumner, on Main street, 250 feet south of railroad, at northeast cor- 
ner of street crossing in brick building owned by Mart Wagner, 
in south face on foot from southwest corner and 3 feet above 
ground; aluminum tablet stamped "461 ILLINOIS 1908" 462.148 

Sumner, railroad crossing on Main street; top of rail 460.5 

FROM POINT 5.6 MILES WEST OF GRANT SCHOOL WEST, TO BROWNSVILLE, THENCE 

NORTH, TO CLAREMONT. 

T. 2 N., Rs. 13 and 14 W., corner of sections 1, 6, 7 and 12, Law- 
rence-Richland county line, at northwest corner of crossroads, in 
root of tree; spike 537.90 

Preston School, corner of sections 3, 4, 9 and 10, T. 2 N., R. 14 W., 
in front of T road east, 600 feet south of T road west, in south- 
east corner of school yard; iron post stamped "456 1908" 456.244 

Black Oak School, corner of sections 27, 28, 33 and 34, T. 3 N., R. 14 
W., at northwest corner of crossroads, in southeast corner of 
school yard, in tree root; spike 497.20 

T. 3 N., R. 13 W., at corner of sections 21, 22, 27 and 28, at south- 
west corner of crossroads, by picket fence; iron post stamped 
"506 1908" 505.920 

Claremont, in front of station; top of rail 509.7 

GRANT SCHOOL SOUTH, TO NEAR PATTON. 

T. 2 N., R. 12 W., quarter corner between sections 20 and 21, at 
northeast corner of crossroads, in southwest corner of school 
yard; iron post stamped "445 1908" 445.641 

T. 1. N., R. 12 W., corner of sections 8, 9, 16 and 17, at northwest 
corner of crossroads, by picket fence; iron post stamped "462 
1908" 462.325 

FROM POINT 5.6 MILES WEST *0F GRANT SCHOOL SOUTH AND EAST, VIA FRIENDS- 

VILLE, TO NEAR PATTON. 

T. 2 N., R. 13 W., quarter corner between sections 21 and 28, in 
front of T road west at schoolhouse, 4 feet south of corner fence 
post; iron post stamped "460 1908" 460.636 

Lancaster, 400 feet east by 400 feet south of middle of section 4, 
T. 1 N., R. 13 W., in west face of Lutheran church directly under 
window south of entrance, about 2.5 feet above ground; aluminum 
tablet stamped "494 ILLINOIS 1908" '. . . 494.584 

Stoeltz Schoolhouse, quarter corner between sections 20 and 21, T. 
1 N., R. 13 W., at southwest corner of crossroads, in northeast 
corner of school yard; iron post stamped "459 1908" 459.431 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. Ill 

Feet. 
Friendsville, quarter corner between sections 23 and 24, T. 1 N., 
R. 13 W., in east side of brick house of Dr. C. S. Couch, near 
southeast corner, about 3 feet above ground; bronze tablet stamped 
"482 VIN" 481.722 

FEOM STOELTZ SCHOOL WEST, TO PINHOOK, THEXCE NORTH, TO BEOWNSVIIXE. 

T, 1 N., R. 13 and 14 W., 0.25 mile north of quarter corner between 
sections 19 and 24, in front of and about 20 feet south of center 
line of T road east; iron post stamped ''409 1908" 409.460 

Pinhook, quarter corner between sections 21 and 22, T. 1 N., R. 14 
W., at northeast corner of T road north; iron post stamped "435 
1908" 435.611 

T. 1 and 2 N., R. 14 W., about 0.1 mile east of quarter corner be- 
tween sections 4 and 33, at northwest corner of crossroads, opposite 
small white house; iron post stamped "458 1908" 458.416 

Red Head Schoolhouse, quarter corner between sections 16 and 21, 
T. 2 N., R. 14 W., at southwest corner of crossroads, in northeast 
corner of school yard; iron post stamped "462 1908" 462.584 

Preston School, corner of sections 3, 4, 9 and 10, T. 2 R. 14 W., in 
front of T road east, 600 feet south of T road west, in south- 
east corner of school yard; iron post stamped "456 1908" 456.244 



Eldorado; Enfield and Nevj Haven Quadrangles — Gallatin, Hamilton, 
Saline and White Counties. — The elevations in the follow^ing list are 
based upon the nnadjiisted precise level line of 1906, DiiQnoin to 
Shawneetown, which recovered the standard hench mark of this list 
at Eldorado. The elevations accepted at Duqnoin, Illinois, are by precise 
leveling of the Coast and Geodetic Survey corrected in accord with. the 
adjustment of 1907. 

All bench marks are stamped "ADJ^^ in addition to the figures of 
elevation. 

The leveling was done n 1905 by Mr. C. B. Blair, levelman. - 

Enfield Quadrangle. 

stokes over cairo division of cleveland, cincinnati, chicago and st. louis 
railway to norris city, 

Stokep, southeast corner of yard of J. Pyles store; iron post stamped 
"4^: ADJ" 414.623 

Eldorado Quadrangle. 

norris city along highways west and south to broughton, thence along 
louisville and nashville railroad to eldorado, thence along highway 
east to ridgeway, thence north to omaha, thence over baltimore and 
and ohio railroad to norris city. 

Norris City, stone sill, at main entrance to north side of Cumberland 

Presbyterian Church; aluminum tablet stamped "444 ADJ" 443.856 

Norris City, 3.5 miles west of, at northeast corner of Jennings school 

house; iron post stamped "410 ADJ" 410.032 

Broughton, 3 miles north of, southeast corner of forks of road; iron 

post stamped "371 -ADJ" 371.193 

Broughton, northeast corner of cinder platform of L. & N. station; 

iron post stamped "379 ADJ" 378.676 



112 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 
Francis Mill, northeast corner of cinder platform; iron post stamped 

"371 ADJ" 371.116 

Eldorado, 10 feet south of southwest corner of Grand Hotel; iron 

post stamped "388 ADJ" 387.904 

Eldorado, 3.5 miles east of, at jog in road, 3 feet northeast of oak 

tree, in 3^iddle of road; iron post stamped "373 ADJ" 373.185 

Zion Church, front wall, northeast corner; aluminum tablet stamped 

"390 ADJ" : 389.882 

Ridgeway, stone foundation of Catholic Church, southeast corner, 

east of front entrance; aluminum tablet stamped "377 ADJ" 377.120 

Omaha, 90 feet south of station, 12 feet east of track; iron post 

stamped "367 ADJ" 367.101 

Middlepoint, at northeast corner of cinder platform; iron post 

stamped "433 ADJ" 432.906 

NEAR OMAHA EAST ALONG HIGHWAY 2.7 MILES. 

Omaha, 2.7 miles east of, southwest angle of forks with road running 

south; iron post stamped "405 ADJ" 405.304 

New Haven Quadrangle, 
near norris city east along highway to little chain. 

Iron, northeast corner of junction, 5 feet west of southwest corner 

of warehouse; iron post stamped "463 ADJ" 463.043 

Herald, 3 feet east of northeast corner of school house; iron post 

stamped "430 ADJ" 430.063 

Emma, southeast corner of junction 0.5 mile south of; iron post 

stamped "36u ADJ" 366.057 

Little Chain, 1.0 mile west of, southwest corner of road forks; iron 

post stamped "367 ADJ" 366.816 

NEAR EMMA SOUTH ALONG HIGHWAY TO INMAN AND WEST TO NEAR RIDGEWAY. 

New Haven, at northv\^est corner of Scudmore and Mathia Bank; 

aluminum tablet stamped "370 ADJ" 370.221 

Inman, southeast corner of forks of roads 0.5 mile east of; iron post 

stamped "379 ADJ". 378.348 

NEW HAVEN WEST ALONG HIGHWAY TO BENCH MARK 2.7 MILES EAST OF OMAHA. 

Omaha, 6.5 miles east of, northeast corner of junction with road 
running south, 12 feet west of hickory, 2 feet in diameter; iron 
post stamped "387 ADJ" 387.094 

NEW HAVEN EAST ALONG HIGHWAY TO WABASH. 

Ragland Island, 1.5 miles south of, just above Loop Slough, 75 feet 
south of large high water barn; iron pipe marked "U. S. Eng'r" 
(Engineers bench mark No. 38, elevation 343.802) 346.166 

Ragland Island, 1.5 miles south of, 75 feet south of barn, 3 feet 

east of Engineers bench mark; iron post stamped "346 ADJ".... 346.052 

S. R. PATRICKS CHURCH EAST AND SOUTH TO ROUND POND SCHOOLHOUSE, THENCE 
NORTH TO WABASH RIVER. 

Church, 0.75 mile south of, northeast corner of junction; iron post 

stamped "366 ADJ" 366.002 

Round Pond, northeast corner of schoolhouse; iron post stamped 

"362 ADJ" 362.259 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 113 

Gailatia and West Frankfort Quadrangles — FranMin, Hamilton, Saline 
and Williamson Counties. — The elevations in the following list are based 
upon the precise level line of 1906 -from Dnqnoin^ and upon the 1907 
adjustment. 

The leveling was done mostly in 1906 by F. C. Higley. Two bench 
marks on West Frankfort quadrangle were established in 1907 by 
Henry Bticher. 

The work was done in cooperation with the State and all permanent 
bench marks are stamped with the State name. 

Galatia Quadrangle. 

ealeigh noeth, to near walpole, thence westerly, to point 2 mlles north 

of thompsonville. 

Feet. 

Raleigh, 2.73 miles north of, at township line road due north of 
Raleigh, at southeast corner, edge of section 3, T. 8 S., R. 6 E.; 
iron post stamped "400 — 1906" 401.576 

Raleigh, 6.4 miles north of, north edge of section 21, T. 7 S., 
R. 6 E., county line, southwest of road corners; iron post stamped 
"381—1906" 381.803 

Raleigh, 8.7 miles north of, 0.5 mile east of Walpole, 0.25 mile south 
of section line running through Walpole, southeast of road corner; 
iron post stamped "409—1906" 409.881 

Walpole, 0.85 mile north of, 0.75 mile due north of Walpole, at inter- 
section with township line road, southwest of crossing; iron post 
stamped "443—1906" 443.945 

Walpole, 4.1 miles west of, at southwest corner of section 36, T. 6 S., 
R. 5 E., just northeast of road corner; iron post stamped 
"478—1906" 479.035 

Walpole, 6.8 miles northwest of, 575 feet west of one-half section 
line of section 3, north side of New Haven road, 6 feet west of 
6-inch walnut tree, at south road in J. Webber's field; iron post 
stamped " ? " 441.612 

Walpole, 10.85 miles west of, county line, southeast corner of inter- 
section of county line road and New Haven road, 40 feet east of 
county line; iron post stamped "593 — 1906" 593.904 

RALEIGH SOUTH, TO TOWNSHIP LINE, THENCE WEST, TO ATTILA. 

Raleigh, 1.6 miles south of, corner of sections 21, 22, 27 and 28, 
T. 8 S., R. 6 E., at southeast corner where road turns south; iron 
post stamped "373" 373.202 

Raleigh, 4.28 miles south of, middle east and west of section 4, 
T. 8 S., R. 6 E., 0.33 mile south of township line, southeast of 
second right angle in road south; iron post stamped "363" 362.959 

Raleigh, 7.41 miles southwest of, southeast of crossroads at Mt. 
Moriah Church, corner between Brushy, Raleigh and Harrisburg 
townships, 0.25 mile east; iron post stamped "459 — 1906" 459.397 

Mt. Moriah, 2.94 miles west of, southwest of crossroads at center 
of Brushy tov\^nship, at Voting House; iron post stamped 
"402—1906" 402.199 

Saline county line, 0.5 mile west of, on east and west road which 
leads into Attila; iron post stamped "487—1906" 487.440 



—8 G 



114 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

West Prankfoet Quadrangle. 

attila west, to white ash, thence north, to benton. 

Feet. 

Attila, in front of two-story brick church; iron post stamped 

"558—1906" 557.950 

Attila, 2.8 miles west of, near corner T. 8 and 9 S., R. 3 and 4 E., 58 
feet north of railroad track and east of north and south township 
line road; iron post stamped "467 — 1906" 467.138 

Pittsburg, block 21, lot 1, northwest corner, in front of drug store; 

iron post stamped "464—1906" 464.415 

White Ash, about 2 miles east of, northeast of corner at witness 
tree, between railroad right of way and township line road; 
iron post stamped "477—1906" . '. 477.547 

White Ash, southwest of intersection of Chicago and Eastern Illinois 
Railroad White Ash switch and the Johnston City Marion road, 60 
feet south of center of track; iron post stamped "449 — 1906" 449.027 

Johnston City, 1.6 miles south of; at first crossroads north of John- 
ston City limits, in corner northwest of intersection; iron post 
stamped "459—1906" 459.749 

West Frankfort, 2 miles south of, on first half section line north of 
county line at road crossing, 55 feet east of center of Chicago and 
Eastern Illinois track, southeast of road corner; iron post stamped 
"439—1906" 439.557 

West Frankfort, across road, directly north of railroad station, 25 
feet north of north side of walk, between railroad right of. way 
and store wall; iron post stamped "408—1906" 407.969 

West Frankfort, 0.81 mile south of, 1200 feet south of Chicago and 
Eastern Illinois coal chutes, at west road, southwest of road cor- 
ner; iron post stamped "396—1906" 396.036 

Benton, 4.76 miles north of, at township line road crossing, south- 
east of corner; iron post stamped "411 — 1906" 411.042 

THOMPSONVILLE NORTH 2 MILES. 

T. 4 and 6 S., R. 4 E., corner of sections 33, 34, 4 and 3, 3 miles west 
of county line, on township line, 30 feet southwest of road, 2 feet 
north of township line, in field of Akin Plaster; iron post stamped 
"459-1906" 460.476 

WEST FRANKFORT WEST, TO CHICAGO, BURLINGTON AND QUINCY RAILROAD, 

T. 7 S., R. 2 E., near southwest corner of section 22, dim cross- 
roads, on south side of road, 8 feet north of fence, 40 feet west of 
fence corner, 30 feet east of 3 foot white oak; iron post stamped 
"396 ADJ" 396.036 

WHITE ASH SOUTHWEST ALONG MISSOURI PACIFIC RAILUOAD, TO SOUTHEAST CORNER 
OF SECTION 32, T. 9 S,, R. 2 E. 

T. 8 S., R 2 E., southwest corner of section 35, on north side of Coal 
Belt Electric railway at its junction with the Missouri Pacific Rail- 
road extension to the Cartersville District Mine, 0.9 feet south 
of fence, 8.2 feet west of trolley pole and 270 feet west of line of 
the Coal Belt Electric Railway before it makes the curve to join 
the Missouri Pacific Railroad; iron post stamped "471 ADJ" 471.757 



AUo' Pass, Ilerrin and Murphi/shoro' Quadrangles — Franlivn, Jack- 
son, Perry and Williamson Counties. — ^T'he elevations in the following 
list are based upon a precise level line of the U. S. Geological Survey 
from Duquoin to Shawneetown crossing Herrin quadrangle, and upon 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 115 

the 1907 adjustment datum. Beucli marks of the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey south of Duquoin on Illinois Central Eailroad were not re- 
covered. 

For additional elevations on HeiiiU quadrangle refer to precise level 
list. 

The leveling was done in 1?07 by Henry Biicher. 

The work was done in coopeit^ion with the State and the permanent 
bench marks are stamped with the State name. 

Herein Quadrangle. 

duquoin south along illinois central eailroad, to carbondale. 

Feet. 

Duquoin, 1.8 miles south of, in top of west wall concrete culvert No. 
290 — H, on "o" of 1902 in brass plate marked "Myers Construction 
Co., 1902, St. Louis" 434.280 

Duquoin, 2.4 miles south of, west wall concrete culvert No. 290 — 

81, brass plate marked as above 420.514 

Duquoin, 2.5 miles south of, concrete culvert No. 291 — 01, in top 
of west wall at southwest corner of, 1.3 feet east of west edge and 
1.8 feet north of south edge; aluminum tablet stamped "420 AD J" 420.182 

Duquoin, 2.5 miles south of, in west wall of same culvert, brass 

plate marked "Myers, etc." 420.175 

Duquoin, 3.8 miles south of, concrete culvert No. 292 — 23, in top of 

west wall, brass plate marked "Myers, etc." 414.146 

Duquoin, 4.4 miles south of, concrete culvert No. 292 — 88, top of 

west wall, brass plate marked "Myers, etc." 401.816 

Elkville, 1.9 miles north of,, culvert 293 — 58, top of west wall, brass 

plate marked "Myers, etc." 397.636 

Elkville, 1.3 miles north of, culvert 294 — 05, in top of west wall, brass 

plate marked same as "Myers, etc." 398.696 

Elkville, at north end of station Dlatform; iron post stamped "Prim. 

Trav. Sta. 34—1906 400 ADJ" 400.509 

Hallidayboro, 0.3 mile north of, culvert 296 — 60, top of west wall, 

brass plate marked same as "Myers, etc." 404.853 

Hallidayboro, just south of station; top of rail at crossing. 407.4 

Hallidayboro, 0.8 mile south of, culvert 297 — 71, top of east wall, 
middle "c" of Chicago, in brass plate marked "Gilbert Spencer, 
Jr., Chicago 1902" 396.014 

Hallidayboro, 1.1 miles south of, east wall of culvert 298 — 01, marked 

same as "Gilbert Spencer," etc 395.086 

Hallidayboro, 1.5 miles south of, east wall of culvert 298 — 42, brass 

plate marked same as "Spencer," etc 390.364 

T. 7 S., R. 1 W., near south quarter corner of section 32, 1.7 miles 
south of Hallidayboro, road crossing at southwest corner of, on 
south side of wagon road, 1.5 feet north of fence and 32 feet west 
of west southbound rail; iron post stam^ped "394 ADJ" 393.926 

Ward station, north end of road crossing; top of west rail 409.1 

DeSoto station, 0.6 mile north of, culvert No. 301 — 28, top of east 
wall marked same, as "Spencer," etc 386.701 

DeSoto, 0.1 mile north of, east wall of culvert 301 — 78, just south 
of overhead crossing Missouri Pacific Railroad, brass plate marked 
same as "Spencer," etc 390.830 

DeSoto, about 120 feet south of station, in right of way at north- 
west corner of section house lot, 0.8 foot west of fence and 2.2 

^ feet south of fence corner, 19 feet east of east rail; iron post 

stamped "401 ADJ" -. 401.732 



116 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 
DeSoto, 2.2 miles south of, Illinois Central Railroad bridge No. 304 
— 00 over Big Muddy river, at extreme southwest corner, in top 
of west wall, 2.3 feet from south end and 2.6 feet from west end; 
aluminum tablet stamped "392 ADJ" 392.004 

NEAR CARBONDALE NORTHWEST, TO NEAR GLENAHL. 

T. 9 S., R. 1 W., corner of sections 5, 6, 7 and 8, southwest corner 
of T road, west side of road, 0.8 foot east of fence, 24 feet south 
of fence corner; iron past stamped "397 ADJ" 397.474 

FROM CHICAGO, BURLINGTON AND QUINCY RAILROAD WEST OF WEST FRANKFORT 
WEST ALONG ROAD, TO ELKVILLE. 

T. 7 S., R. 2 E., northwest corner of section 19, at northeast corner 
of crossroads, on north side of road, 0.8 foot south of fence, 20 
feet east of north and south fence line, on east side of north and 
south road; iron post stamped "398 ADJ" 398.210 

T. 7 S., R. 1 E., southwest corner of section 24, at northeast corner 
of crossroads, east side of road, 0.7 foot west of fence, 2.6 feet 
north of fence corner; iron post stamped "393 ADJ" 393.030- 

T. 7 S., R. 1 E., northwest corner of section 28, southeast corner of 
crossroads, on south side of road, 1 foot north of fence, 6.8 feet east 
of fence corner; iron post stamped "440 ADJ" 440.360' 

T. 7 S., R. 1 W., center of northeast quarter of section 25, south- 
east corner of T road east, north of straight rail fence and east of 
fence corner; iron post stamped "395 ADJ" 395. 293^ 

T. 7 S., R. 1 W., west quarter corner of section 22, 0.25 mile east 
of, at T road to south, north side of road, opposite center of road 
to south; iron post stamped "391 ADJ" 391. 64& 

FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER SEC. 32, T. 9 S., R. 2 E., WEST ALONG CHICAGO, BUR- 
LINGTON ELECTRIC RAILWAY, TO NEAR CARBONDALE. 

T. 9 S., R. 2 E., corner of sections 31, 32, 5 and 6, opposite center of 
road to north, south side of road; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. 
Sta. No. 10—464 ADJ" : 464.756- 

Fordville, at southwest end of Carterville Berrin switch and "Y;" 

top of rail of Chicago Burlington Electric Railway 460.7 

T. 9 S., R. 1 E., northeast corner of section 3, southwest corner of 
crossroads, west side of road, 0.7 foot east of fence, 6.7 feet south 
of fence corner; iron post stamped "431 ADJ" 431.05T 

T. 8 S., R. 1 E., southwest corner of sections 32, T road north, 
northeast corner of T on north side of road, 0.7 foot south of fence, 
12.5 feet east of fence corner; iron post stamped "427 ADJ" 427.790- 

T. 9 S., R. 1 W., 0.3 mile southwest of northwest corner of section 
1, T road west, east side of road opposite T, west of fence, north 
of fence corner (fence corner at north end of house lot) ; iron 
post stamped "488 ADJ" 488.601 

T. 9 S., R. 1 W., northwest corner of section 10, southeast corner 
of crossroads; 0.7 foot west of fence, 11 feet south of east and 
west fence; iron post stamped "391 ADJ" 391.216 

MURPHYSBORO QUADRANGLE. 

FROM POINT 2.7 MILES SOUTH OF DUQUOIN WEST ALONG ROAD, TO SEC. 5, T. 7 W., 
R. 3 W., THENCE SOUTH, TO MOBILE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 

T. 6 S., R. 2 W., quarter corner between sections 26 and 27, T road 
north, on south side of road, 1 foot north of fence and 38.5 feet 
west of field fence to south; iron post stamped "451 ADJ" 451.108 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 117 

Feet. 

T. 6 S., R. 2 W., center of southwest quarter of section 29, T road 
to west, on souttL of road, 2 feet north of fence and 2.2 feet west 
of fence corner; iron post stamped "405 ADJ" 405.160 

T. 6 S., R. 3 W., corner of sections 35, 36, 25 and 26, T road to south, 
north side of road, opposite T, 1.1 feet south of fence, 8 feet west 
of telephone pole, 21 feet east of small gate in fence; iron post 
stamped "409 ADJ" 409.238 

T. 7 S., R. 3 W., northeast corner of section 5, 0.25 mile south of, 
southwest corner of T road west, south side of road, 0.7 foot north 
of fence and 11 feet west of fence corner; iron post stamped "396 
ADJ" 396.593 

T. 7 S., R. 3 W., center of section 17, second class road east, south- 
east corner of T, east side of road, west of fence and south of 
fence corner; iron post stamped "522 ADJ" 522.656 

AVA EAST ALONG MOBILE AND OHIO EAILEOAD, TO OEAVILLE, THENCE ALONG ROAD, 

TO HALLIDAYBOEO. 

Ava, southwest corner of station lot, 1 foot west of sidewalk; iron 

post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 37, 1906—604 ADJ" 604.835 

T. 7 S., R. 3 W., north quarter corner of section 29, 0.25 mile south 
of, 2 miles east of Ava, road crossing, east side of wagon road, 
70 feet north of track, 25 feet north of north right of way fence, 
1 foot west of fence; iron post stamped "521 ADJ" 521.714 

3ryden, road crossing east of trestle 564 A, east side of wagon road, 
35 feet north of track and 1 foot west of fence; iron post stamped 
"415 ADJ" 416.196 

Oraville (Mobile and Ohio R. R.), at southeast corner of road cross- 
ing at station, east side of road and M. & O. R. R., 10 feet west 
of fence and 4.4 feet south of fence corner; iron post stamped 
"396 ADJ 1905" 395.944 

T. 6 S., R. 2 W., east quarter corner of section 6, at northwest cor- 
ner of crossroads, west side of road, 0.8 foot east of fence and 
3.3 feet north of fence corner; iron post stamped "396 ADJ" . . 396.828 

Pinney station, Illinois Central Railroad (St. Louis-Padernal 

branch) ; top of rail 397.8 

T. 7 S., R. 2 W., northeast corner of section 33, crossroads 0.5 mile 
north of Finney, southwest corner of crossroads, west side of 
road, 1 foot east of fence, 3. 7 feet south of fence corner; iron 
post stamped "396 ADJ" 396.299 

T. 7 and 8 S., R. 2 W., corner of sections 1, 2, 35 and 36, west 
side of road, opposite center of T road east, by old rail fence, 
4.8 feet north of telegraph pole; iron post stamped "404 ADJ".. 404.824 

NEAR GLENAHL WEST ALONG ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD AND ST. LOTJIS IRON 
MOUNTAIN AND SOUTHERN RAILROAD, TO GRIMSBY. 

T. 9 S., R. 2 W., in northwest quarter of section 12, at southwest 
corner of, west side of road, at road crossing 1.1 feet east of fence 
and on line with south right of way fence, 43 feet south of rail- 
road; iron post stamped "397 ADJ" 397.004 

Concrete culvert "G — 86 — 09", top of north wall on middle of "c" 
of Chicago in brass plate marked "J. L. Fulton Co., 

Chicago 
1898" 378.948 

Murphysboro, County Courthouse, in northwest corner of lot; iron 

post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. ? 419ADJ" 419.542 

Murphysboro, road crossing at station of St. Louis Iron Mountain 

and Southern Railroad; top of rail 409.5 



118 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908 [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 
Murphysboro, 2.2 miles southwest of, water tank, in west face of 
most northern of concrete foundation piers; aluminum tablet 
stamped "367 ADJ" 367.60S 

GEIMSBY NORTH ALONG ILLINOIS CENTEAl' EAILEOAD AND HIGHWAY, TO AVA. 

T. 8 S., R. 3 "W., northeast quarter of section 33, road crossing of 
Illinois Central Railroad on east side of wagon road, 50 feet south 
of center of track, 30 feet north of southeast corner of right of 
way fence; iron post stamped "374 ADJ" 374.553 

T. 8 S., R. 3 W., in southeast quarter of section 17, road makes jog 
to east then turns north, east side of road at point where private 
road turns south, 1 foot west of fence and 4 feet north of telegraph 
pole; iron post stamped "707 ADJ" 707.703 

T. 8 S., R. 3 W., southwest corner of section 5, T road north, just 
south of Jones' farm house, at west side of road, 40 feet north 
of center of T and standing by old rail fence; iron post stamped 
"641 ADJ" 641.609 

Alto Pass Quadrangle. 

AT GRIMSBY ( Saudridge Post Office.) 

Grimsby (Sandridge Post Office), northwest corner of T road north 
side of station, 1.5 feet south of fence, 6.5 feet west of fence corner 
iron post stamped "361 ADJ" 361.545 



State Geological Survey Leveling — (See also portion of worh on Bald- 
loin and. Chester Quadrangles.) 

St. Charles Quadrangle — Kane County. — The elevations in the follow- 
ing list are based upon the 1903 adjustment. The leveling is tied to 
bench mark at Elgin and Ingalton of the Army Engineers and the 
U. S. Geological Survey respectively. 

The leveling was done in 1907 under the direction of Dr. H. Foster 
Bain^ State G-eologist, by W. A. Gelbach, levelman. 

St. Charles Quadrangle. 

elgin south along electrig railway to st, charles, west to state boy^ 
home and return, thence east along chicago and great western eail- 
way to ingalton. 

Feet. 
B. Mi. 86 of precise level line of Army Engineers: Elgin, corner of 
State street and Highland avenue, southwest corner, northeast 
corner of large brick building (Borden's Condensed M!ilk Fac- 
tory) ; Horizontal bolt in watertable 6 inches from corner in north 

wall 717.485 

Kerber's station, top of rail at crossing 734.0 

South Elgin, front of hotel; corner of curb 710.292 

South Elgin, southeast corner of street crossing of electric railway 
and street crossing Fox river bridge, 40 feet east of track, 15 feet 
north of road; in concrete post; aluminum tablet stamped "707 
1907" 707.468 



HERRQN ] TOPOGKAPHIC SURVEYS. 119 

Feet 

Coleman's Station, 1.2 miles south of; at Smith Young and Son's 
Riverview farm, 50 feet west of track, north side of road, in con- 
crete post; aluminum tablet stamped "788 1907" 788.411 

St. Charles Cemetery, northeast corner of, on point of land between 
Electric railway and wagon road, at junction; in concrete post, 
aluminum tablet stamped "787 1907" 786.976 

St. Charles Home for Boys, in east part of farm, by fence at north- 
east corner of crossing; concrete post, aluminum tablet stamped 
"742 1907" 742.024 

St. Charles Home for Boys, in watertable of schoolhouse, east wall, 
3 feet from northeast corner; aluminum tablet stamped "802 
1907" 801.819 

St. Charles Home for Boys, opposite office, level with ground, 6 feet 
south of sidewalk; in concrete post; aluminum tablet stamped 
"794 1907" 794.22S 

St. Charles Home for Boys, northeast corner of farm, 4 feet west of 
corner fence post, in concrete post; aluminum tablet stamped 
"737 1907" 737.412 

St. Charles, corner West Main and Weeks streets, northwest corner 

of crossing, in concrete post; aluminum tablet stamped "749 1907" 749. 51& 

St. Charles, railway crossing just east of Chicago Great Western 

station, top of north rail 730.6 

St. Charles, 2 miles east of, Chicago Great Western railway crossing 
on county boundary line east side of Kane county, 80 feet north of 
track, on east side of road; in concrete post; aluminum tablet 
stamped "755 1907" 755.35$ 

The concrete posts mentioned in this list are 48 inches long, 6 by 6 
inches square at top and 8 by 8 inches quare at bottom. 



Kashaskia River Survey — Mattoon, Ramsey, SlieVoyville, St. Elmo, 
Yandalia mid Windsor QuadrangiJes — Coles, Fayette and' Shelly Coun- 
ties. — Adjusted primary elevations along Kaskaskia river north of Keyes- 
port^ based upon 1907 adjustment. The original difference of elevation 
between Keyesport and Lerna by this line has been reduced 0.570 feet. 

The leveling was done in 1907 by P. E. Fletcher^ Eesident Engineer, 
State Geological Survey. 

Vandalia Quadrangle. 

keyesport along highway north and east, via vandalia and holliday, to 

shelbyville, thence east along cleveland, cincinnati, chicago and st. 

louis railroad and southeast along p. d. & e. e, r., to lerna. 

Feet. 
T. 4 N., R. 1 W., northwest corner of northeast quarter of northeast 

quarter of section 31; iron post stamped "440" 440.030 

T. 4 N., R; 1 W., southwest corner of section 22; iron post stamped 

"467" 467.494 

T. 4 N., R. 1 W., northeast corner of section 15; iron post stamped 

"476" 475.755 

T. 4 N., R. 1 E., southwest corner of northwest quarter of southv\'^est 

quarter of section 6; iron post stamped "492" 492.228 

T. 5 N., R. 1 E., southwest corner of section 29, 0.25 mile west of 

James Kling's residence; iron post stamped "505" 504.876 

T. 5 N., R. IE., 300 feet west of northeast corner of section 21; 

iron post stamped "516" .^16.305 



120 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Feet. 

T. 6 N., R. 1 E., 30 feet north of southeast corner of section 33; iron 
post stamped "466" 465.921 

T. 6 N., R. 1 E., near southeast corner of section 16, at intersection 

of National and Shobonier road; iron post stamped "474" 474.031 

T. 5 N., R. 1 E., 0.25 mile east of intersection of National road and 
section line of sections 12 and 13, in front of Bluff City (Clarks- 
ville) schoolhouse, on top of east wing of south abutment of 
U. S. Culvert " 509.70 

RAMSEY QUADE ANGLE. 

T. 6 N., R. 1 E., northeast corner of northwest quarter of southwest 
quarter of section 12, 0.75 mile north of Bluff City (Clarksville) 
schoolhouse; iron post stamped "507" 507.483 

T. 7 N., R. 1 E., southwest corner of northwest qua,rter of southeast 
quarter of section 25, in front of B. F. Forbes' residence; iron post 
stamped "535" 535.421 

T. 7 N., R. 2 E., southwest corner of northeast quarter of section 18, 
0.25 mile north of Thomas Grandfield's residence; iron post 
stamped "501" 500.877 

T. 7 N., R. 2 E., southwest corner of section 4; iron post stamped 
"506" 506.013 

ST. ELMO QUADEANGLE. 

T. 8 N., R. 2 E., southeast corner of northwest quarter of section 

34 ; iron post stamped "509" 508.885 

T. 8 N., R. 2 E., near southeast corner of northeast quarter of north- 
east quarter of section 23, northeast corner of Hogge Schoolyard; 
iron post stamped "580" 580.188 

T. 8 N., R. 3 E., southeast corner of southwest quarter of southeast 

quarter of section 7; iron post stamped "594" 593.940 

T. 8 N., R. 3 E., northeast corner of section 5; iron post stamped 

"589" 588.922 

T. 9 N., R. 3 E., northwest corner of northeast quarter of northwest 

quarter of section 35; iron post stamped "610" 609.633 

T. 9 N., R. 3 E., southeast corner of southwest quarter of section 

10 ; iron post stamped "558" 557.562 

SHELBYVILLE QUADEANGLE. 

Cowden, 0.5 mile north by 1.0 mile east of, 600 feet west of south- 
east corner of section 34, T. 10 N., R. 3 E.; iron post stamped "607" 606.410 

T. 10 N., R. 3 E., northeast corner of section 22; iron post not 

stamped , 600.732 

T. 10 N., R. 3 E., southwest corner of section 1; iron post not 

stamped , 589.203 

T. 10 N., R. 3 E., near northwest corner of southwest quarter of 
section 1, 0.5 mile north of above iron post; on cap of southeast 
leg of Morris bridge over Kaskaskia River 540.94 

Surface of water; October 7, 1907 518. 

T. 11 N., R. 3 E., northwest corner of section 31; iron post not 

stamped 606.221 

Shelbyville, in south front of courthouse, on east end of second step; 
aluminum tablet not stamped 650.23 

WINDSOR QUADEANGLE. 

T. 11 N., R. 4 E., section 10, 1 mile west of Middlesworth, at inter- 
section of north property line of Big Four Railroad and east sec- 
tion line ; iron post not stamped 690.751 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 121 

Feet. 

T. 11 N., R. 5 E., section 5, 3.5 miles southwest of Windsor, inter- 
section of north property line of railroad and north and south 
quarter section line; iron post stamped "694" 693.705 

Windsor, at intersection of north line of Big Four Railroad and Vir- 
ginia Avenue; iron post stamped "712" .* 711.383 

T. 12 N., R. 6 E., near northwest corner of section 33, in top of con- 
crete post; aluminum tablet stamped "731" . , 730.386 

MATTOON QUADEANGLE, 

Gays, southwest corner of Block 14; in top of concrete post; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "756" 755.623 

T. 12 N., R. 7 E., section 20, at intersection of south property line of 
Big Four Railroad and east section line, in top of concrete post; 
aluminum tablet stamped "715". 714.178 

Mattoon, at intersection of P. D. & E. R. R. and 21st street, in top 

of concrete post; aluminum tablet stamped "725" 725.03 

Lerna; iron post' stamped "755" 754.316 



Beardsiown, Clinton, Dawson, Decatur, Kenney, Lincoln, Mason City, 
Niantic, Peters'burg, Saidora a\nd^ Spnngfield Quadrangles — Cass, De- 
Witt, Logan, Macon, Mason, Menard and Sangamon Counties. — The 
elevations in the following list are based upon the precise line of the 
Army Engineers from Grafton to Chicago, and npon the 1907 adjust- 
ment. 

The work was done by P. E. Fletcher, Eesident Engineer, under the 
direction of Dr. H. Foster Bain, State Geologist, for the State Geological 
Survey of Illinois. 

Beardstown Quadrangle. 

beardsto"wn east along highways, to point about 12.7 miles east of. 

Feet. 

Beardstown, east corner of Main and Washington streets, in top of 
stone step at main entrance to Odd Fellovv^s Building, 0.5 foot 
from front edge and 1.4 feet north of south edge; copper bolt 
No. 26 marked "451.27" 444.351 

Beardstown, 2 miles northeast of, at southeast corner of Louis Ceme- 
tery Lot; on stone post 454.80 

Beardstown, 5.1 miles northeast of, on land of Ed. Davis, on south 
side of road, in root on north side of 30-inch cottonwood tree; 
boat spike (bench mark No. 130) 450.73 

T. 18 N., R. 11 W., at northwest quarter of northeast quarter of 
section 16, at east entrance to brick schoolhouse; on northeast 
corner of stone step 477.42 

T. 18 N., R. 11 W., at northeast corner of section 9; concrete post. . . 443.17 

T. 18 N., R. 11 W., section 12, 10.1 miles northeast of Beardstown, 
north of highway, in southeast corner of front yard of A. H. 
vKrohe's farm house, 57.8 feet southeast of southeast corner of 
house; stone, pipe and cap No. 29 477.957 



122 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Saidoea Quadrangle. 

FEOM POIjSTT 12.7 MILES EAST OF BEAEDSTOWN EAST ALONG HIGHWAYS, TO POINT 
10.98 MILES EAST OF CHANDLEEVILLE AND ABOUT 0.60 MILE WEST OF CASS AND 
MENARD COUNTY LINE. Feet. 

T. 18 N., R. 10 W., near southwest corner of northeast quarter of 
section 9, at intersection of east line of section 9 with Beards- 
town and Chandlerville .road, 2 feet west of Angus Taylor Jr. 
mail box, in 6-inch concrete post; aluminum tablet 504.245 

T. 18 N., R. 10 W., section 10, on southeast side of road at Robert 
Fielding's farm house, in northeast corner of front yard, 97 feet 
north of northeast corner of house, stone, pipe and cap No. 30; 
top of cap (U. S. Engineers bench mark) 488.496 

Chandlerville, on north side of River street, in back yard of Mrs. 
S. L. B. Chandler's residence, 26.75 feet east of center of track, 
2.2 feet east of east right-of-way fence, 149 feet north of north 
fence of River street, 95 feet from northwest corner of the square 
upright part of Mrs. Chandler's residence, 79 feet north and 52.2 
feet west from corner; stone, pipe and cap; top of cap (U. S. Engi- 
neers bench mark No. 31) 463.753 

T. 19 N., R. 9 W., near northeast corner of southeast quarter of 
southeast quarter of section 33, in front of J. A. Harbinson's resi- 
dence; on north root of 30-inch black oak tree 502.12 

T, 19 N., R. 9 W., near southwest corner of southwest quarter of 
north v>^est quarter of section 36, in top of concrete post; aluminum 
tablet 496.807 

T. 19 N., R. 8 W., northeast corner of northwest quarter of section 
29, at southwest corner of intersection of crossroads, in top of 
6-inch concrete post; aluminum tablet 483.616 

T. 19 N., R. 8 W., 300 feet west of and 300 feet south of northeast 
corner of southeast quarter of southwest quarter of section 15; 
on west base of 12-ineh black oak tree 498.353 

Petersburg Quadrangle. 

from point 10.98 miles east of chandleeville; east, to oakford, thence 
southeast along highways, via atterbury, to peteesbueg. 

Oakford, in H. Luke and Son's brick store building on north side of 

Center street, in foundation; aluminum tablet 495.159 

T. 19 N., R. 8 W., southeast corner of southwest quarter of south- 
west quarter of section 7, at intersection of roads, in 6-incli con- 
crete post; aluminum tablet 522.490 

T. 19 N., R 7 W., southeast corner of southwest quarter of south- 
east quarter of section 11, on south side of north road fence to 
Kirby's barn yard, in southeast corner of yard, in top of 6-inch 
concrete post; aluminum tablet 550.818 

T. 19 N., R. 7 W., near southeast corner of section 26, about 4.75 
miles north of Petersburg, at fork of Bottom and Bluff roads, 
on south side of public road, in top of 6-inch concrete post; 
aluminum tablet 513.843 

T. 19- N., R. 7 W.. southwest corner of section 36, 20 feet north of 
east and west section line, 90 feet east of north and south section 
line; on base of hard maple tree 24-inches in diameter 574.638 

T. 18 N., R. 7 W., 30 feet southwest of northeast corner of section 
11, in northeast corner of James Mile's barn yard; on north base 
of 8-inch locust tree 603.87 

Petersburg, Menard County Courthouse, in north wall, 2 feet east 

of entrance, 4 feet above walk; aluminum tablet stamped "524".. 523.706 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 123 

FEOM A POINT ABOUT 2 MILES NORTHWEST OF GEEENVIEW, TO A POINT ON THE 
BEARDSTOWN-PETEESBXJKG LINE ABOUT 6.7 MILES NORTH OF PETERSBURG. 

Feet. 

T. 19 N., R. 6 W., northwest corner of northeast quarter of section 

15 ; on corner stone 505.54 

T. 19 N., R. 6 W., 700 feet west of northeast corner of section 20, 
iron bridge over Little G-rove creek; on soutjiwest corner of south 
abutment (Temporary bench mark) 509.31 

Springfield Quadrangle. 

from springfield northeast along railroad and highways, via riveeton, 
to a point 1.3 miles east. 

Springfield, in water table on east side of Post Office, 12 feet from 
southeast corner; aluminum tablet stamped "599 ADJ" 598.997 

Riverton, 2 miles southwest of, near southwest corner of Camp 
Butler National Cemetery, on north bannister of iron bridge; on 
button of name plate; marked "B — 571 — W — 566 by previous sur- . 
vey" 567.36' 

Riverton, 0.25 miles west of, Wabash railroad bridge; on floor of, 

(Also equals assumed datum "36.95" of river gage) 540.31 

Riverton, in southeast corner of stone threshold of opera house; 

aluminum tablet stamped "553 ADJ 1905" , 552.796 

Dawson Quadrangle. 

from a point 1.3 miles east of riverton southeast along highways, to a 
point about 2 miles south of mechanicsburg, thence northeast along 
the highways, to a point about 1 mile southeast of illiopolis. 

T. 16 N., R. 4 W., near southeast corner of northwest quarter of 
section 23, at intersection of public road on north and south quar- 
ter section line and public road northwest and southeast, in top of 
6-inch concrete post; aluminum tablet 578.475 

T. 16 N., R. 4 W., at southeast corner of section 25, in top of 6- 

inch concrete post; aluminum tablet 580.536 

Mt. Zion, 4.8 miles east of, Jordan M. E. church; on northeast cor- 
ner of concrete step at entrance 579.06 

T. 16 N., R. 3 W., at southwest corner of section 33, in top of 6- 

inch concrete post; aluminum tablet 593.206 

T. 15 N., R. 3 W., southeast corner of northwest quarter of sec- 
tion 2, in top of 6-inch concrete post; aluminum tablet 593.116 

T. 15 N., R. 3 W., at northeast corner of southeast quarter of north- 
east quarter of section 1; on 12-inch hickory tree 596.93 

T. 15 N., R. 2 W., northwest corner of southwest quarter of north- 
west quarter of section 5, in top of concrete post; aluminum tab- 
let 599.186 

T. 16 N., R. 2 W., in southeast corner of section 33, at southwest 
corner of crossroads, in corner of fence, in top of 6-inch concrete 
post; aluminum tablet 605.461 

T. 16 N., R. 2 W., at southwest corner of section 24, at northeast 
corner of intersection of roads, in top of 6-inch concrete, post; 
aluminum tablet 597.642 

T. 16 N., R. 1 W., near northwest corner of southwest quarter of 
section 19, 50 feet southwest of main entrance to Riverside Cem- 
etery; on west base of 30-inch black oak tree 601.68 



124 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

NiANTic Quadrangle. 

FROM A POINT ABOUT 1 MILE SOUTHEAST OF ILLIOPOLIS EAST ALONG HIGHWAYS, 
TO A POINT ABOUT 3 MILES WEST OF DECATUR. 

Feet. 

T. 16 N.; R. 1 W., at northwest corner of southwest quarter of sec- 
tion 17, at southeast corner of crossroads, in top of 6-lnch concrete 
post; aluminum tablet 572.216 

T. 16 N., R. 1 W., near southwest corner of southeast quarter of 
southwest quarter of section 14, 150 feet north of northwest corner 
of Walnut Cemetery, in top of 6-inch post; aluminum tablet 606.805 

Decatur, 14.1 miles west of, iron bridge; on east end of north con- 
crete abutment of 584.52 

T. 16 N., R. 1 E., at northwest corner of section 30, at southeast cor- 
ner of roads, in top of 6-inch concrete post; aluminum tablet .. 584.471 

T. 16 N., R. 1 E., 30 feet west and 20 feet north of southeast cor- 
ner of northeast quarter of northeast quarter of section 15; in 
top of concrete post. 6-inches square; aluminum tablet 678.645 

T. 16 N., R. 2 E., near southeast corner of northwest quarter of 

northwest quarter of section 17, in concrete post; aluminum tablet 666.390 

Decatur Quadrangle. 

FROM A point ABOUT 3 MILES WEST OF DECATUR, TO DECATUR, THENCE NORTHERLY 
ALONG ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD, TO A POINT ABOUT 1 MILE NORTH OF EMERY 
DEPOT. 

Decatur, at northwest corner of intersection of North Main street 
and Wabash Railroad right-of-way, permanent bench mark; prob- 
ably an aluminum tablet in the top of a concrete post 682.429 

T. 16 N., R. 2 E., 20 feet north of north section line of section 2, 
30 feet west of Illinois Central Railroad, in top of concrete post; 
aluminum tablet 680.833 

Forsyth, 25 feet east and 1 foot south of station, in top of 6-inch 

concrete post; aluminum tablet 678.736 

Forsyth, 1.9 miles north of, tile culvert marked "A — 759 — 83," east 

retaining wall; on bronze name plate 680.75 

Emery Station, 100 feet north of, 30 feet east of main track, in top 

of 6-inch concrete post; aluminum tablet 688.832 

Clinton Quadrangle. 

FROM A point ABOUT 1 MILE NORTH OF EMERY STATION ALONG ILLINOIS CENTRAL 
RAILROAD, TO CLINTON, THENCE SOUTHWEST ALONG ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD, 
TO A POINT ABOUT 2.7 MILES SOUTHWEST OF. 

T. 18 N., R. 2 E., 20 feet north of south section line of section 11, 
25 feet west of railroad, in top of 6-inch concrete post; alumi- 
num tablet 701.528 

Emery, 4.1 miles north of, at Maroa-Shellabarger's elevator, at 
northeast corner of main part of building; on second course of 
stone foundation 722.66 

T. 19 N., R. 2 E., on south line of section 35, 20 feet north of Macon- 
DeWitt County Line, 25 feet west of track, permanent bench mark 
probably an aluminum tablet in top of concrete post 706.138 

Clinton, DeWitt County Courthouse, in east end of first stone step 
at south entrance; aluminum tablet 745.923 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGEAPHIO SUEVEYS. 125 



Kenney Quadrangle. 



FEOM A POINT 2.7 MILES SOUTHWEST OF CLINTON SOUTHWEST ALONG ILLINOIS 
CENTRAL RAILROAD, TO A POINT ABOUT 2.25 MILES SOUTHWEST OF CHESTNUT, 
THENCE WESTERLY ALONG HIGHWAYS, TO A POINT 3 MILES NORTHEAST OF MT. 
PULASKI. 

Feet. 

T. 19 N., R. 2 E., 600 feet south of southwest corner of northeast 
quarter of northeast quarter of section 6, 175 feet east of milepost 
marked ''St.L^141," at west end of gate on south side of right-of- 
way, in top of 6-inch concrete post; aluminum tablet 743.950 

T. 19 N., R. 1 E., on west line of section 12, 75 feet east of mile- 
post marked "St.L— 139," in top of retaining wall of concrete 
bridge "D— 153 — 98"; at northwest corner 686.67 

T. 19 N., R. 1 E., on- south line of section 10, 1 mile northeast of 
Kenney, on west wall of concrete arch over public road; on letter 
"0" in date on construction company's name plate 653.69 

Kenney, 175 feet east of road crossing, 50 feet south of track, in top 
of concrete post; aluminum tablet 649.752 

Kenney, 0.8 mile southwest of, west signal block concrete base; on 

northwest corner of 644.34 

FROM A POINT 2.4 MILES SOUTHWEST OF KENNEY, TO SALT CREEK GAGE. 

(Spur Line.) 

Kenney, about 2.25 miles northwest of Kenney, Salt Creek bridge; 

on northeast iron post of 621.13 

T. 19 N., R. 1 W., section 25, north side of railroad and on west side 

of wagon road, in top of concrete post; aluminum tablet 632'.145 

T. 18 N., R. 1 W., 1400 feet south of northeast corner of southeast 
quarter of section 5, 30 feet south of track, in concrete post; 
aluminum tablet 631.739 

T. 18 N., ?t. 1 W., 30 feet north and 20 feet east of center of sec- 
tion 6, on farm of David Shellhamer; on southwest base of 18-inch 
elm tree 628.21 

Lincoln Quadrangle. 

from a point about 3 miles northeast of mt. pulaski northwest along 
highways, to lincoln, thence west and southwest along highways, to 
a point about 2.3 miles west and northwest from glenwood schoolhouse. 

T. 18 N., R. 2 W., at southeast corner of southwest quarter of section 35, 
about 3 miles north of Mt. Pulaski, in top of concrete post; alumi- 
num tablet 613.326 

Chestnut, 8.1 miles southwest of, 600 feet north of Pleasant Grove 
Church, at southwest corner of turn in road; on north base of 
36-inch black oak tree 611.45 

T. 19 N., R. 2 "W., at southwest corner of southeast quarter of south- 
east quarter of section 30, in top of concrete post; aluminum 
tablet 584.96 

T. 19 N., R. 2 W., 21 feet southeast of center of section 18, in top of 

concrete post; aluminum tablet 591.335 

Lincoln, Courthouse square, 2 feet north of post at southv/est 

entrance, in top of concrete post; aluminum tablet 590.856 

T. 20 N., R. 3 W., 300 feet east of west line of section 36, 300 feet 

east of railroad; on east end of north concrete abutment 593.14 

T. 20 N., R. 3 W., at northeast corner of southeast quarter of north- 
east quarter of section 33, at southwest corner of crossroads; 
in top of concrete post; aluminum tablet 615.411 



126 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

Feet. 
T. 19 N., R. 4 W., 30 feet west of northeast corner of northwest 
quarter of northeast quarter of section 12, about 30 feet southwest 
of intersection of private T road south with east and west road; 
in top of concrete post; aluminum tablet 595.600 

Mason City Quadrangle. 

feom a point 2,3 miles west and noethwest of glenwood schoolhouse 
northwest along highways, to a point on the chicago and alton rail- 
road 4 miles south of mason city, thence to a point 1.5 miles north of 
greenview, thence west along highways, to a point about 2 miles north- 
west of greenview. 

T. 19 N., R.' 4 W., 500 feet north of southwest corner, of southeast 
quarter of southwest quarter of section 2, 5t feet west of Millgrove 
schoolhouse; on west base of 30-inch walnut tree 593.790 

T. 19 N., R. 4 W., about 30 feet northwest of southeast corner of 

section 5, in top of concrete post; aluminum tablet 554.89 

T. 20 N., R. 4 W., 500 feet west of northeast corner of southwest 
quarter of section 31, at southv>^est corner of intersection of T road 

- south with east and west road, in top of concrete post; aluminum 
tablet 524.261 

T. 20 N., R. 5 W., at northeast corner of section 26, in southwest cor- 
ner of intersection of roads, in top of concrete post; aluminum 
tablet 513.511 

T. 20 N., R. 5 W., at northeast corner of section 29, in top of con- 
crete post; aluminum tablet 546.471 

T. 19 N., R. 6 W., 10 feet west of intersection of north line of section 
13 and Chicago and Alton railroad, in top of concrete post; alumi- 
num tablet 511.338 



PRIMARY CONTROL. 



Methods. 



In OT'der tliat the separate atlas sheets of the topographic map of 
Illinois may match exactly in position as they are extended from one 
end of the State to the other, it is essential that they be based on 
exact geodetic positions showing latitude and longitude of important 
points througout the area under survey, and azimuth or relation to 
true north and south of important lines. This work is started from 
careful base lines measured by the Coast Survey and the survey of the 
Great Lakes, which was executed some years ago. The cooperative 
survey starting from these extends by primary triangulation in some 
cases, and by lines of very careful primary traverse measured with 
compensated steel tape and large transits about the edge of each quad- 
rangle under survey. The effect is to secure geodetic positions along 
the borders of these quadrangles on which to base all the adjustment 
of public land lines, and all roads within the area of each, and assure the 
matching of the edges of adjacent sheets. The positions thus procured 
are permanently marked with metal posts or tablets, and will be of 
great utility hereafter as property becomes more valuable, in fixing 
definitely and permanently property lines and political boundaries. The 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 127 

instnictions under wliicli this class of work is executed are appended 
hereto^ as is a list of positions so determined both prior to and since co- 
operation. The necessary primary control upon which to base topo- 
graphic mapping has been obtained by running careful transit lines be- 
tween triangulation stations previously established by other Federal 
Bureaus, namely the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the U. S. Lake Survey 
and the engineer corps of the U. S. Army. These transit, or primary 
traverse lines are run by a party consisting of five men, the chief of 
party acting as observer, one recorder, two chainmen, and a rodman. 
The instrumental equipment consists of one good transit reading by 
vernier to 20" to 30" ; one 300-foot steel tape, one 100-foot steel tape, 
four hand recorders, two thermometers, two flag poles, and a good watch. 

Each deflection angle is measured at least twice and if' the measures 
differ more than 60" additional measurements are obtained which do 
not differ by that amount. 

Distances are usually obtained with the 300-foot tape, but when short 
sights only can be had, the 100-foot tape is used. 

The true direction or azimuth of the line is obtained by observations 
on Polaris at stations not more than ten miles apart. It is customary 
to observe foT azimuth on every clear night du.ring the progress of the 
work. The tape when used is kept under a certain standard tension 
by means of a spring balance, and the temperature is taken at frequent 
intervals so that a correction can be applied when the measurements 
are made .during extremely hot or cold weather. The line as run thus 
furnishes the necessary data from which as many geographic posi- 
tions can be computed as desired. Usually such positions as roads 
crossings, railroad stations, etc., are computed at intervals of one mile, 
and the positions of the permanent station marked every eight miles. 

Results of Primary Horizontal Control — 1896 to 1908} 

Primary Railroad Tra^verse. — The following geographic positions wert- 
determined in 1896 from primary railroad traverse by Mr. George T. 
Hawkins, starting at Seehorn triangulation station of the Mississippi 
Eiver Commission, and running along the Wabash Eailroad to Spring- 
field, connecting with United States Co'ast and Geodetic Survey astron- 
omic pier in Capitol grounds; then from junction of Wabash with 
Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad at Jacksonville, along the latter 
road to Springfield via Havana, and from, Havana to a point about 
ten miles northwest of Havana along the C, B. & Q. E. E. 

HULL QUADRANGLE— PIKE COUNTY. 



Position. 



Latitude. Longitude. 



Seehorn triangulation station 

Junction of railroads at Hull 

Kinderhook depot 

Barry depot , 

Corner sees. 19, 30, 25, 24, T. 4 S., R. 5, 6 W. 



39 45 38.9 

39 42 20.8 

39 42 05.5 

39 42 01.4 

39 41 54.5 



91 15 55.1 

91 12 26.2 

91 09 16.3 

91 02 27.4 

91 01 46.9 



^ The work of 1896 to 1904 was prior to cooperation, and that of 1905 and 1906-07-08 was in cooperation 
with the State. 



128 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 
BAYLIS QUADRANGLE— PIKE COUNTY. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



Position. 



Latitude. Longitude. 



Arden depot 

Corner sees. 7, 18, 13, 12, T. 4 S., R. 4, 5 W 

Baylis depot 

New Salem depot 

Jcorner sees. 19, 24, T. S., R., 3, 4 W 

Pittsfield Junetion 



39 43 17.5 

39 43 39.9 

39 43 41.8 

39 42 02.8 

39 42 01.6 

39 42 01.7 



90 56 36.9 

90 54 56.2 

90 54 30.4 

90 50 42.7 

90 47 59.1 

90 47 45.0 



NAPLES QUADRANGLE— PIKE AND SCOTT COUNTIES. 



Position. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Griggsville depot 

i eorner sees. 23, 24, T. 4 S., R. 3 W 

Valley City depot 

Middle drawbridge at Valley City 

Naples depot 

Corner sees. 7, 18, 13, 12, T. 15 N., R. 13, 14 W 
Bluffs depot 




90 43 55.4 
90 42 13.0 



07.9 
44.1 



90 36 26.2 
90 35 45.8 
90 32 10.6 



CHAPIN QUADRANGLE— MORGAN AND SCOTT COUNTIES. 



Position, 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Neeleys depot 

Morganton 

Chapin railroad junction 

Center sec. 16, T. 15 N,, R. 11 W 

Markham depot 

I eorner sees. 13, 18, T. 15, N., R. 10, 11 W 



39 45 20.5 

39 45 53.8 

39 45 54.4 

39 44 44.0 

39 44 44.0 

39 44 42.4 



90 28 34.8 

90 25 52.2 

90 24 03.4 

90 19 39.2 

90 19 38.8 

90 15 41.5 



JACKSONVILLE QUADRANGLE— MORGAN COUNTY. 



Position. 



Latitude. 


Longitude. 


39 44 11.9 
39 44 06.5 
39 43 19.0 
39 43 25.9 
39 43 26.4 


O 1 II 

90 13 11.0 
90 11 46.1 
90 08 40.3 
90 04 45.7 
90 02 21.0 



Jacksonville, junction Wabash and Chicago, Peoria and St. Louis rail- 
roads 

Section eorner 2 miles east of Jacksonville and 600 feet north of railroad 

Arnold depot 

Orleans depot 

Alexander depot 



NEW BERLIN QUADRANGLE— MORGAN AND SANGAMON COUNTIES. 



Position. 



Latitude. Longitude. 



Browns Crossing depot , 

Island Grove depot 

Corner sees. 19, 30, 25, 24, T. 15 N., R. 7, 8 W 

Berlin depot 

Bates depot 

Curran depot 

\ corner sees. 16, 21, T. 15 N., R. 6 W 

Junetion of Wabash and Chicago, Peoria and St. Louis railroads 



39 


43 


27.0 


89 


59 


04.4 


39 


43 


27.2 


. 89 


57 


39.3 


39 


43 


33.2 


89 


55 


38.9 


38 


43 


27.6 


89 


54 


42.6 


39 


43 


28.1 


89 


50 


54.9 


39 


44 


30.2 


89 


46 


17.5 


39 


44 


31.8 


89 


46 


17.1 


39 


44 


38.1 


89 


45 


43.9 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIO SUEVEYS. 

SPRINGFIELD QUADRANGLE— SANGAMON COUNTY. 



129 



Position. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 




; // 

39 45 13.8 
39 45 53.1 
39 46 19.0 

39 47 56 8 


o / // 

89 43 11.4 


i corner sees 78T15N R5W. 


89 41 10.8 




89 39 09.0 


Springfield pier (United States Coast and Geodetic Survey) 


89 39 19.4 









VIRGINIA QUADRANGLE— CASS AND MORGAN COUNTIES. 



Position. 



Corner sees. 3, 4, T. 15, 16 N., R. 10 W 

Leiterberry depot 

Corner sees. 2, 3, T. 16, 17, N., R. 10 W.... 

Little Indian depot 

Corner sees. 14, 15, 22, 23, T. 17 N., R 10 W 

Railway junction, Virginia 

1 corner sees. 2, 35, T. 17, 18 N., R. 10 W.. 
Anderson depot 



Latitude. 



39 47 09.2 

39 51 08.1 

39 52 23.6 

39 53 14.3 

39 55 00.3 

39 56 58.5 

39 57 37.8 

39 58 54.7 



Longitude. 



90 12 38.2 

90 11 58.8 

90 12 06.8 

90 12 06.6 

90 12 05.9 

90 12 05.1 

90 11 31.2 

90 09 35.7 



SAIDORA QUADRANGLE— CASS AND MORGAN COUNTIES. 



Position. 



Latitude. 


Longitude. 


o 


, 


„ 


o 


, 


„ 


40 


02 


59.7 


90 


09 


08.6 


40 


03 


51.1 


90 


08 


43.7 


40 


06 


16.5 


90 


08 


44.3 


40 


06 


17.8 


90 


08 


44.3 


40 


08 


00.6 


90 


08 


44.7 


40 


11 


28.4 


90 


08 


19.0 


40 


•13 


50.7 


90 


06 


20.8 


40 


16 


28.9 


90 


0?$ 


24.0 


40 


10 


37.6 


90 


01 


27,4 


40 


09 


08,3 


90 


00 


43.7 



Chandlerville depot 

Corner sees. 29, 30, 31, 32, T. 18, 19, N., R. 9 W 

Corner sees. 7, 8, 17, 18, at Saidora 

Saidora depot 

Corner sees. 5, 6, 31, 32, T. 19 20 N., R. 9 W.... 

Bath depot 

icorner secs.27, 34, T. 21 N., R. 9 W 

Corner sees. 7, 18, 13, 12, T. 21 N., R. 8, 9 W... 

i corner sees. 17, 20, T.20N., R. 8 W 

Kilbourne depot 



ATTERBURG QUADRANGLE— MASON AND MENARD COUNTIES. 



Position. 




Longitude. 



Oakford depot 

Atterbury depot 

Corner sees. 29, 30, 31, 32, T. 19 N., R. 7 W 
Corner at Hilltop, 340 feet north of railroad 
Petersburg depot 



89 



55.1 
29.9 
21.7 
29,7 
46.4 



TALLULA QUADRANGLE— MENARD COUNTY. 



Position. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Corner sees. 19,30, 25, 24, T. 18 N., R. 6, 7 W 


39 59 21.8 
39 59 07,7 
39 58 57.9 


89 49 38 8 


Tice depot 


89 47 42 8 


^corner sees. 26, 27, T. 18 N., R. 6 W 


89 45 07 7 







9 G 



180 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. ^ [bull. no. 14 

SPRINGFIELD QUADRANGLE— SANGAMON COUNTY. 



Position. 



I 
Latitude. I Longitude. 



Athens depot 

Cantral] depot 

Corner (?) sees. 15, 16, 21, 22, T. 17 N., R. 5 W 

J corner sees. 27, 28, 1 mile north of Cora 

Cora depot 

Junction of Chicago and Alton with Chicago, Peoria and St. Louis rail 

roads 

Junction of Chicago and Alton with Baltimore and Ohio railroads 



39 57 53.1 

39 56 14.8 

39 55 56.6 

39 54 38.6 

39 53 45.7 

39 49 51.5 

39 48 16.8 



89 43 27.9 

89 40 32.4 

89 39 54.6 

89 38 42.6 

89 38 07.0 

89 38 03.8 

89 39 05.6 



HAVANA QUADRANGLE— MASON COUNTY. 



Position. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Havana depot 

West Havana depot 

Centersec.il, T.4N., R.3 E 

Corner sees. 1, 2, 11, 12, T.4N., R.3 E 

SW corner NE i of NE. i sec. 3, T. 4 N., R. 3 E 



40 17 37.2 

40 17 55.3 

40 19 39.3 

40 20 58.8 

40 21 37.5 



90 03 56.0 

90 04 15.7 

90 06 54.6 

90 07 28.5 

90 08 53.5 



The following geographic positions were determined in 1897 by Mr. 
George T. Hawkins by primary traverse between Lake Survey triangu- 
lation station Fairmount and the Indiana-Illinois State line. Traverse 
follows the Wabash Railroad. 

DANVILLE QUADRANGLE— VERMILION COUNTY. 



Position. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Fairmount triangulation station 

Fairmount depot 

Junction, Wabash and Chicago Eastern Illinois railroads 

Catlin depot 

Permanent bench mark at Catlin 

One-fourth corner sections 24 and 25, T . 19 N ., R. 12 W 

Crossing at Tilton 

Junction, Wabash and Chicago Eastern Illinois railroads 

Danville, Wabash depot 

Junction, Wabash and "Big 4" railroads 

Corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35, T. 20 N., R. 11 W 

Crossing of Wabash Railroads and Indiana-Illinois State line 




87 50 

87 49 

87 48 

87 42 

87 42 

87 40 

87 38 

87 38 

87 37 

87 37 

87 35 

87 31 



48.8 
54.2 
22.4 
13.9 
02.8 
03.4 
53.4 
37.8 
31.2 
05.0 
01.1 
51.0 



The following geographic positions were determined by primary tra- 
verse by Mr. George T. Hawkins, topographer, in Angnst, 1901. 

The line starts from an adjusted position established in 1899 near 
Evansville, and follows the Evansville and Terre Haute Railroad to 
"Vincennes, where it was tied to the Coast and Geodetic Survey astro- 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGEAPHIC SUEVEYS. 



131 



nomic pier. From a point on this line at Princeton, Ind., a line was run 
along the Air Line Eailroad to Mt. Carmel, 111., thence by Louisville 
& Nashville Eailroad to Evansville, Ind., and tied to original point. 

MOUNT CARMEL QUADRANGLE— EDWARDS AND WABASH COUNTIES. 



Station. 




Longitude. 



Mount Carmel station, Air Line Railroad 

Air Line and" Big 4" Railway Junction, point 300 feet southwest of, on 

"Big 4" Railway 

T. 1 S., R. 12 W., center section 30 

Sehrodt's, road crossing at 

Keen station 

T. 2 S., R. 13 W., one-fourth corner between sections 18 and 19 

Cowling station 

Grayville station, "Big 4" Railway 

Orayville, crossing at ferry 



87 45 25.7 



87 46 

87 47 

87 49 

87 52 

87 54 



27.8 
13.9 
21.3 
02.6 
00.0 
87 56 13.1 
87 59 29.4 
87 59 27.7 



CARMI QUADRANGLE— EDWARDS AND WABASH COUNTIES. 



Station. 




Longitude. 



€alvin, one-fourth mile northeast of, corner on township line 

Calvin station 

T. 4 S., R. 10 and 11 W., corner sections 7, 12, 13 and 18 

Crossville station 

Road crossing, north and south 

Carmi, junction of "Big 4" and Louisville and Nashville railroads 



88 00 38.8 

88 01 01.7 

88 02 23.5 

88 03 49.4 

88 05 43.7 

88 09 20.4 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG LOUISVILLE AND NASHVILLE RAILROAD FROM 
CARML ILL.. TO MAUMEE, IND. 



Position. 




Longitude. 



ILLINOIS. 

Epworth ,road crossing at 

T. 5 S., R. 10 W., corner sections 21, 22, 27 and 28 
Maunee, road crossing at 



88 06 20.2 
88 05 46.9 
88 02 45.9 



Peoria Quadrangle — Peoria and Tazewell Counties. — The following 
geo'graphic positions were determined by primary traverse run in 1902 
by Mr. J. E. Ellis. Starting from adjusted position of the Chicago, 
Peoria & St. Louis Eailway station at Havana, the line follows that 
railway to a point about 3.5 miles northeast of Parkland, thence north 
to Morton, thence north on Vandalia Eailway to Farmdale, thence north 
and west through Peoria, thence west and south by wagon roads to Eeed 
City, thence east by Toledo, Peoria & Western Eailway to Pekin, thence 
southwest to point where line first left railway over Chicago, Peoria & 
St. Louis Eailway. 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE CHICAGO, 


PEORIA & ST. LOUIS RAILWAY. 


Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Havana station 


o / // 

40 17 37.2 
40 29 51.3 


90 03 56 


Road crossing north and south (private) 


89 43 07 1 







182 



YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. 
GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



[BULL, NO. 14 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 24 N., R. 5 W., corner sections 29, 30, 31 and 32 

T. 24 N., R. 5 W., corner sections 28, 29, 31 and 32 

T. 24 N., R. 5 W., corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35 

T. 24 N., R. 5 W., corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36 

T. 23 and 24 N., R 4 and 5 W., corner of 

T. 24 N., R. 4 W., corner section 28, 29, 32 and 33 

T. 24 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 27, 28, 33 and 34 

T. 24 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35 

T. 24 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36 

T. 24 N., R. 3 and 4 W., corner sections 25, 30, 31 and 36 
T. 24 N., R. 4 W., i corner between sections 25 and 30 . . 

Road, corner in 

Road east and west 

T. 24 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 7, 8, 17 and 18 

T. 24 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 5, 6, 7 and 8 

T, 24 and 25 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 5, 6, 31 and 32 . 
Maple Grove school house, road corner at 



40 


29 


37.0 


89 


42 


07 7 


40 


29 


38.7 


89 


48 


58 3 


40 


29 


39.9 


89 


38 


41 2 


40 


29 


40.4 


89 


37 


32.7 


40 


28 


49.2 


89 


36 


22.5 


40 


29 


41,8 


89 


34 


05.5 


40 


29 


42.2 


89 


32 


58 2 


40 


29 


42.9 


89 


31 


49 9 


40 


29 


43.4 


89 


30 


42 3 


40 


29 


43.9 


89 


29 


34 4 


40 


30 


10.6 


89 


29 


34 7 


40 


30 


11,5 


89 


28 


18 6 


40 


31 


30.0 


89 


28 


20 1 


40 


32 


22.1 


89 


28 


37.7 


40 


33 


14.4 


89 


28 


38.9 


40 


34 


06.6 


89 


28 


42.2 


40 


35 


25.3 


89 


28 


30.6 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE VANDALIA RAILWAY 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Morton crossing of Tremont and St. Louis Railway- 
Road crossing east and west 

Road crossing east and west 

Road crossing north and south 



40 36 30.7 

40 37 25.5 

40 39 35.8 

40 40 16.1 



89 



27 48.1 

29 00,2 

30 06.3 

31 21.5 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Three roads, junction of 

Creek northwest, bridge over , 

Creek west, bridge over , 

T. 26 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 1, 2, 11 and 12 

Pit and mound 45 feet south of road on top of hill 

Illinois river, center draw to wagon bridge, over 

Peoria, North Perry street and Abingdon avenue, corner of 

Peoria, Knoxville and Frye avenues, corner of 

Peoria. Elizabeth and Nebraska avenues, corner of , 

Peoria, Main and Franklin streets, corner of 

Road west 

Pottstown, railway crossing at 

T. 9 N., R. 7 E., J corner between sections 27 and 34 , 

T. 9 N., R. 11 E., corner sections 27, 28, 33 and 34 

T. road north 

T . road east 

T. 8 and 9 N., R. 7 E., J corner between sections 6 and 31.. . 

Hale, crossing Iowa Central Railway at 

T.8N., R. 6 and 7 E., corner 7, 12, 13 and 18 , 

Gravel road east and west 

T. 7 and 8N., R. 6 and 7 E., corner 7, 12, 13 and 18 , 

T. road east 

T. road east 



40 


40 


57.7 


89 


33 


13 4 


40 


41 


41.8 


89 


32 


26 7 


40 


42 


49.0 


89 


31 


46 6 


40 


43 


30.7 


89 


31 


24 5 


40 


43 


56.8 


89 


31 


18 8 


40 


43 


58.2 


89 


30 


30.8 


40 


43 


27.9 


89 


32 


52,9 


40 


42 


35.3 


89 


34 


17.6 


40 


42 


44.4 


89 


35 


38. 8 


40 


42 


37.9 


89 


36 


13,5 


40 


41 


59.4 


89 


36 


33.6 


40 


42 


17.0 


89 


38 


08.9 


40 


43 


05.3 


89 


39 


39.5 


40 


43 


32.1 


89 


41 


23 3 


40 


43 


32.2 


89 


41 


57.6 


40 


43 


32.3 


89 


43 


06 7 


40 


43 


06.1 


89 


44 


50 1 


40 


42 


39.9 


89 


44 


50 6 


40 


41 


29.3 


89 


44 


49 6 


40 


40 


55.1 


89 


45 


25 2 


40 


39 


38.3 


89 


46 


07.6 


40 


37 


27.0 


89 


45 


24.4 


40 


36 


20,8 


89 


45 


23.6 


40 


35 


16.0 


89 


45 


22,9 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGEAPHIO SURVEYS. 



18H 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE TOLEDO, PEORIA AND WESTERN RAILWAY. 



Station. 




Longitude. 



Reed City, railway crossing at 

Road crossing north and south 

Road crossing north, east, south and west 

Road crossing east and west , 

Orchard Mines, road crossing at 

Pekin, center of draw in wagon bridge 



03.2 
50.2 
31.5 
30.0 
41.5 
18.2 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE CHICAGO, PEORIA & ST. LOUIS RAILWAY. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railway and Peoria & Pekin Union Rail 

way, crossing at 

Globe Distillery, east and west road crossing at 

Road crossing east and west 

T. 24 N., R. 5 W., i corner between sections 17 and 20 



40 33 38.8 

40 33 03.5 

40 32 16.1 

40 31 22.8 



89 39 21.8 

89 39 55.9 

89 40 44.7 

89 41 35.0 



Primary Quadrangle Traverse — Gallatin and White Counties- — New- 
Haven Quadrangle. — The following geographic positions were located 
by primary traverse in 1903 by Mr. J. E. Ellis. The line starts from an 
adjusted traverse position at MJannee and follows highways, sonth to 
border of quadrangle; thence west to northwest corner of quadrangle; 
thence south along west border of quadrangle to Eidgeway; thence east 
to Uniontown, Ky., connecting at the latter place with spur line from 
Henderson, Ky. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 



Latitude. 


Longitude. 


38 


02 


10.5 


88 


02 


45.9 


38 


01 


29.2 


88 


02 


29.8 


37 


00 


02.6 


88 


02 


30.3 


37 


58 


52.3 


88 


04 


10.3 


37 


58 


52.9 


88 


04 


42.7 


37 


58 


53.4 


88 


05 


49.7 


37 


58 


53.7 


88 


07 


11.7 


37 


58 


40.7 


88 


07 


08.5 


37 


58 


01.4 


88 


07 


13.3 


37 


58 


02.0 


88 


08 


03.0 


37 


58 


02.7 


88 


09 


08.6 


37 


58 


02.8 


88 


10 


14.8 


37 


58 


03.2 


88 


11 


21.5 


37 


58 


03.8 


88 


14 


08.2 


37 


57 


51.0 


88 


15 


09.8 


37 


57 


51.0 


88 


15 


48.3 


37 


57 


11.2 


88 


15 


48.2 


37 


55 


27.1 


88 


15 


43,9 


37 


54 


36.0 


88 


15 


43.9 


37 


53 


43.6 


88 


15 


43,1 


37 


52 


50.1 


88 


15 


44,3 


37 


52 


23.6 


88 


15 


53,2 


37 


51 


30.0 


88 


15 


02.5 


37 


50 


38.4 


88 


14 


45,7 


37 


49 


47.8 


88 


14 


48,0 


37 


48 


54.8 


88 


14 


46.6 


37 


48 


02.2 


88 


14 


46,9 


37 


47 


35.8 


88 




47.1 


37 


47 


34.5 


88 


13 


40.5 



Maunee, road crossing at 

T. 6 S., R. 10 and 11 E., corner sections 1, 6, 7 and 12 

T. 6 S., R. 10 and 11 E., quarter corner between sections 13 and 18 

T. 7 S., R. 10 E., quarter corner between sections 23 and 26. 

T. 6 S., R. 10 E., corner sections 22, 23, 26 and 27 

T. 6 S., R. 10 E., corner sections 21, 22, 27 and 28 

Emma, crossroads at church in north part of 

Emma, T road south at ' 

Emma, crossroads 0.75 mile south of 

T. 6 S., R. 10 E., corner sections 29, 30, 31 and 32 

T. 6 S., R. 9 and 10 E., corner sections 25, 30, 31 and 36 

R. 6 S., R. 9 E., corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36 

T. 6 S., R. 9 E., corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35 

T. road north 

Range line road at T road east 

Road at T road east 

T. 6 and 7 S., R. Sand 9 E., corner sections 31, 36, 1 and 6 

T. 7 S., R. 8 and 9 E., corner sections 7, 12, 13 and 18 

T. 7 S., R. 8 and 9 E., corner sections 13, 18, 19 and 24 

T. 7 S., R. 8 and 9 E., corner sections 19, 24, 25 and 30 

T. 7 S., R. 8 and 9 E., corner sections 25, 30, 31 and 36 

T. road west 

T . road west 

T. road east 

T . road east 

T. road east 

Ridgeway, crossroads 0.5 mile east of 

T. 8 S., R. 9 E., corner sections 29, 30, 31 and 32 

T . 8 S., R. 9 E., corner sections 28, 29, 32 and 33 



134 YEAE-BOOK FOK 1908. [BULL. no. 14 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS— Cowimwed. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 8 S., R. 9 E., corner sections 27, 28, 33 and 34 

T. 8 S., R. 9 E., corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35 

T. 8 S., R. 9 E., corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36 

T road south 

T. 8 S., R. 10 E., quarter corner between sections 30 and 31 

Intersection of northwest and southeast road and road east to Sandy 

Ford •. 

Intersection of roads at mouth of lane just east of sawmill 

Schoolhouse, T road east about 2,000 feet south of 

Schoolhouse, T road south at house about 3,000 feet north of 



37 47 32.9 

37 47 33.4 

37 47 33.7 

37 47 33.6 

37 47 33.0 

37 47 24.1 

37 47 03.2 

37 48 07.5 

37 48 47.4 



32 
11 
10 

88 09 
88 08 



88 



33.5 
29.9 
24.2 
16.4 
45.3 



08 07.7 

08 14.8 

06 49.4 

05 19.2 



Gallatin, Hamilton, Saline and White Counties — Eldorado Quad- 
rangle. — The line starts .from adjusted traverse position at Ridgeway and 
follows Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Eailroad south to point about 
one mile northwest of Cypress Junction, thence along Louisville & 
Nashville Eailroad through Equality, Eldorado, and Broughton to point 
0.5 mile south of Dale, thence along north border of quadrangle by 
public highways, connecting with adjusted traverse position about five 
miles east of Norris City. 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO SOUTHWESTERN 

RAILROAD. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Ridgeway, street crossing Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern Railroad 

at station 

Road crossing east and west 

Bartley, east and west road crossing 



37 47 59.0 
37 46 19.5 
37 45 17.3 



88 



15 36.9 
15 17.7 
15 09.5 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Troadnorth ■. 37 43 58.8 

T. 9 S., R. 9 E., corner sections 17, 18, 19 and 20 37 43 58.9 



14 59.0 

14 48.2 



HERRON.] TOPOGEAPHIC SUEVEYS. 135 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE LOUISVILLE AND NASHVILLE RAILROAD 



Station. 



Latitude. 


Longitude. 


37 


43 


46.1 


88 


17 


II 
03,8 


37 


43 


49.9 


88 


18 


10,5 


37 


44 


00.6 


88 


20 


23.2 


37 


43 


58.4 


88 


20 


57.8 


37 


44 


53.3 


88 


22 


53.8 


37 


46 


11.6 


88 


24 


04.4 


37 


47 


25.5 


88 


25 


06 2 


37 


47 


59.0 


88 


25 


42.5 


37 


48 


53.8 


88 


26 


00,1 


37 


50 


09.3 


88 


26 


24.3 


37 


50 


09.2 


88 


26 


14.3 


37 


51 


14.9 


88 


26 


33.1 


37 


52 


19.7 


88 


26 


41.8 


37 


53 


38.5 


88 


26 


52.2 


37 


54 


30.9 


88 


26 


59.2 


37 


54 


30.9 


88 


27 


06.5 


37 


55 


12.0 


88 


27 


06.4 


37 


56 


15.9 


88 


27 


35.5 


37 


57 


41.9 


88 


28 


23. ii 


37 


58 


27.4 


88 


28 


48.6 


37 


59 


06.7 


88 


29 


10.5 



Road crossing north and south 

Road crossing north and south 

Equality, road crossing north and south just west of water tank. , 
Equality, road crossing north and south 180 feet west of station. . 

T. 9 S., R. 7 E., quarter corner between sections 12 and 13 

Road crossing east and west 

Road crossing north and south 

Road crossing north and south 

Eldorado, crossing Louisville & Nashville and Big Four railroads 

Road crossing east and west 

T.8S., R.7E., quarter corner between sections 9 and 16 

Road crossing east and west 

Road crossing east and west 

Francis Mills, ro?id crossing 

Road crossing east and west 

T. 8 S., R. 7 E., corner sections, 16, 17, 20 and 21 

Road crossing east and west 

Broughton, road crossing 500 feet north of station 

Road crossing east and west near spur head block 

Road crossing east and west 

Dale, road crossing 0, 5 mile south of 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T road north 

T. road south at quarter corner 

Road south 

T. 6 S., R. 7 E., corner sees. 22, 23, 26 and 27 

T. 6 S., R. 7 E., corner sees. 23, 24, 25 and 26 

T. 6 S., R. 7 and 8 E., corner sees. 19, 24, 25 and 30 

T. 6 S., R. 8 E., corner sees. 19, 20, 29 and 30 

T.6 S., R. 8 E., corner sees. 20, 21, 28 and 29 

T. 6 S., R. 8 E., corner sees. 21, 22, 27, and 28 

T. 6 S., R. 8 E., corner sees. 22, 23, 26 and 27 

T. 6 S., R. 8 E., corner sees. 23, 24, 25 and 26 

T. 6 S., R. 8 and 9 E., corner sees. 19, 24, 25 and 30 



37 59 

37 58 

37 58 

37 58 

37 58 

37 58 

37 58 

37 58 

37 58 

37 58 

37 58 

37 58 



06.4 
53.7 
54.0 
54.4 
54.7 
56.5 
56.2 
56.1 
56.0 
56.2 
56.5 
56.3 



88 



03.7 
21.7 
30.6 
36.1 
30.0 
24.2 
18.1 
12.3 
06.1 
00.0 
54.2 
48.5 



Geographic Positions Established in 1905-1906 — Madison and St. 
Glair Gounties — Belleville Quadrangle. — The following geographic posi- 
tions on the United States standard datnm were determined by primary 
traverse in 1905 by Mr. J. E. Ellis, assistant topographer. ' The line 
starts from United States Coast and Geodetic Survey triangnlation 
station, Sugarloaf, follows highways south to Belleville; thence east 
along the Southern Eailway to east edge of quadrangle; thence along 
highways north to northeast corner of quadrangle, connecting with 
Berger triangnlation station and Parkinson triangulation station ; thence 
west along highways to northwest comer of quadrangle, and south to 
Sugarloaf triangulation station. 



136 



YEAK-BOOK FOE 1908. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



[BULL. NO. U 



Station . 



Latitude. 



Sugarloaf triangulation station: Near middle o north line of NE . I, sec. 
20, T. 3 N., R. 8 W., on blufl overlooking American Bottom, 3 miles 
northwest of Collins ville on land of C. Witte, on top of prominent 

mound, which is 50 feet above the ground to the east and 150 to 200 feet 
above American Bottom on west. Station mark: A marble post 
6 by 6 inches by 2^ feet long, top 1 inch above ground and marked 



thus: 



u. 


s. 


C. &G. 


s. 



Center of iron bridge near road corner. . . 

Collinsville crossing of Combs avenue and Clay street 

CoUinsville and Belleville road crossing Pennsylvania Railroad at elec- 
tric power house 

CollinsVille, 3 miles southeast of; in southwest corner of stone foundation 
of Bethel Church, aluminum, tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 
14, 1905. " 

T. 2 N., R. 8 W., sees. 10, 11, 14 and 15, road crossing near corner 

T. 2 N., R. 8 W., quarter corner between sees. 22 and 23, T road east. . 

Ridge Prairie saloon, crossroads at 

Hy Pfeifer's saloon and hotel, 1 mile south of road west 

T. road west at schoolhouse 

Road crossing, O' Fallon branch Louisville and Nashville Railroad, 100 
feet north of milepost 18 

Belleville, street crossing Louisville and Nashville Railroad, main line 

Belleville, in northeast corner of court-house yard, iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 15, 1905." 



38 42 05.3 



38 41 17.5 
38 40 05.9 



38 39 



38 38 41.1 

38 37 17.9 

38 36 20.8 

38 35 33.4 

38 34 23.8 

38 33 35.9 

38 32 26.6 

38 31 48.6 

38 30 47.3 



Longitude. 



90 00 27.5 



90 00 28,0 
89 59 41.0 



89 58 56.4 



57 42.1 

57 58.3 

57 58.2 

57 58.1 

57 57.7 

57 56.2 

57 52.0 
59 00.9 

58 50.3 



89 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG SOUTHERN RAILWAY FROM BELLEVILLE EAST- 
WARD. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Belleville ,crossing of Southern Railway under Louisville and Nashville 
Railroad near city reservoir . 


/ // 

38 31 35.6 
38 32 01.6 
38 32 00.9 
38 32 01.4 
38 32 02.3 
38 32 02.8 
38 32 00.7 

38 31 57.1 
38 31 58.1 
38 31 57.1 


89 58 50 3 




89 57 50.0 


Road crossing north and south 


89 56 49 3 


T. 1 N , R. 8 W., quarter corner between sees, 13 and 14 '.. 


89 56 49 3 


Road crossing, north and south, 760 feet east of telegraph office 


89 55 43.4 
89 53 55.7 


Road crossing north and south between mileposts 23 and 24 


89 52 07 6 


Grassland on property of Chas. Griffin, northeast corner of postofBce, 
bears S. 85° 40' W., distant 110 feet, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. 
Sta No 16 1,905" .. . . 


89 50 19 7 




89 48 25.1 


Road crossing north and south 170 feet west of milepost 28 . . 


89 47 18 







GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


North and south road crossing of Southern Railway, near southwest 
corner of field of J. B. Freese, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. 
No 17 1905 " . . 


38 31 55.6 
38 33 13.8 


89 45 38 9 


T. 1 N., R. 6 W., near quarter corner between sees. 3 and 10, crossroads 


89 45 06.6 



HERRON.J TOPOGEAPHIC SUEVEYS. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG B.IGJ1W AYS— Continued. 



137 



station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Truss Bridge 

T. 2 N., R. 6 W., quarter corner between sections 27 and 34, crossroads. . 

Summerfield, in water table at southeast corner of public school build 
ing, aluminum tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 18, 1905." — 

Berger triangulation station, near northwest corner of NE. J of NW. { 
section 22, T. 2 N., R. 6 W., on property of Doctor Berger, 1 mile 
north of Summerfield and 3 miles east and | mile north of village of 
Lebanon. Station iiiark: An earthenware pyramid marked "U. S. 
C. S.," 36 inches below surface, above which is a marble post 30 inches 
long and 6 inches square, marked 



u. 


s. 


C. &G. 


s. 



its upper surface even with the ground. 

Western reference mark is a marble post 32 inches long, 4 inches square 
in range with eastern row of trees in Doctor Berger's orchard; it is, as 
nearly as could be determined, on north boundary of section 22, which 
is boundary of Berger's land. Position of western reference mark 

T.2N., R.6W., crossroads at 100 feet north to small bridge center 

Crossroads 40 feet southwest to mail box, 36 feet northwest to culvert. . 
T. 2 and 3 N., R. 6 W., quarter corner between sections 3 and 34, 
crossroads at; also line between Madison and St. Clair counties 

T. 3 N., R. 6 W., quarter corner between sections 22 and 27, T road 
south 



T road east, 160 feet south of iron bridge 

St. Jacobs, crossroads at Nollbaner's hotel, in south part of 

Crossroads at quarter corner between sections 11 and 14 

Crossroads at quarter corner between sections 12 and 13 

Parkinson triangulation station: On land of M. A. Parkinson, in middle 
of NE. i section 12, T. 3 N., R. 6 W., and 1.5 miles west by south 
from Highland. Station mark: The vertex of a hollow square 
earthenware pyramid 3 feet below surface, with letters "U.S.C.S." 
cut on its sides, over which is a marble post 6 by 6 inches and 2.25 
feet long, on top of which letters "U. S. C. & G. S." are cut. Refer 
ence marks: Two marble posts 5 inches square, 2 . 5 feet long^ 2 inches 
above ground with a line diagonally across tops terminating m arrow- 
head, arrowhead pointing to station; northeast reference mark 18 feet 
8| inches to station center; southeast mark 18 feet 8^ inches to station 
center; from center of northeast mark to southeast mark, 25 feet 8 
inches; from station center to surveyors rock, 16 feet 9J inches 

Highland, about 2 miles west of; road crossing north and south, 480 
feet east of water tank 

In southwest corner of wood pasture owned by John Regel, iron post 
stamped "Prin. Trav. Sta. No. 19," corner stone in center of road 
bears S. 2° W., distant 17 feet. 

T road north, 16 feet northeast to cross on fence post, 19 feet northwest 
to west end of culvert 

T road west at Marine cemetery 

T road east 1 . 5 miles west of Marine cemetery 

Silver Creek^ national road over west fork of, center of iron bridge on. . 

Troy, 5.2 miles northeast of; in northwest corner of pasture owned by 
Henry Wendler, at forks of road, iron post stamped ''Prim. Trav. 
Sta. No . 20, 1905. " 

T. 4 N., R. 7 W., corner sections 27, 28, 33 and 34, T road south 

T. 4 N., R. 7 W., corner sections 28, 29, 32 and 33, stone 

T road west, 12 feet southeast to stone in north and south road 



38 34 04.0 
38 34 57.5 



38 35 56.3 



38 36 42.4 

38 37 34.4 

38 38 13.8 

38 39 18.8 

38 41 04.3 

38 41 57.5 

38 42 50.8 

38 42 49.5 

38 42 47.9 



38 43 26.9 

38 44 02.9 

38 44 32.5 

38 44 32.9 

38 44 59.7 

38 45 00.7 

45 18.6 



38 



38 44 46.3 

38 45 32.3 

38 45 32.1 

38 45 59.0 



45 07.6 
45 07.2 



45 09.8 



89 45 32.1 

89 45 06.6 

89 45 09.1 

89 45 11.4 

89 45 13.3 

89 45 47.8 

89 46 05.6 

89 44 08.4 

89 43 01.6 



89 42 44.3 

89 42 48.3 

89 44 24.2 

89 45 47.1 

89 46 54.4 

89 48 34.2 

89 49 18.4 



51 02.1 

52 27.7 

53 35.1 

54 43.2 



1B8 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD BETWEEN 

MONT AND PETERS. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Mont, Illinois Central Railroad station 

Suburban electric railroad crossing over Illinois Central Railroad 

Glen Carbon, near Illinois Central Railroad station, on property of 
Madison Coal Co., southeast of Illinois Central Railroad station, iron 
post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 21, 1905" 

Peters station, road crossing north and south 



38 46 02.1 
38 45 40.1 



38 44 45.4 
38 44 30.9 



55 50.0 
57 23.4 



89 58 59.8 

90 00 07.3 



Champaign and Piatt Counties — Mahomet Quadrangle. — ^The follow- 
ing geographic positions were obtained by primary traverse mn by Mr, 
J. E. Ellis in 1905. The line starts from a position near Thomasboro 
located by primary traverse, follows highways west, south, and east 
near borders of quadrangle, and is connected with an adjusted traverse 
position near Tolono. Positions are given on United States standard 
datum. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


T. 21 N., R. 9 E., corner sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, at crossroads 

T. 21 N., R. 9 E., northeast corner section 36, iron post stamped ''Prim. 
Trav Sta. No. 8, 1905." 


40 

40 
40 
40 
40 
40 

40 

40 

40 

40 

40 
40 
40 
40 
40 

40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 

40 

40 
40 
40 
40 


14 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 

14 
12 
11 

10 
09 

08 

08 

06 
05 
05 
04 


19.3 

18.5 
18.5 
18.0 
44.2 
43.8 

43.5 

43.7 

43.0 

16.4 

16.9 
17.2 
17.4 
17.4 
16.1 

15.9 
51.1 
34.6 
16.0 
23.6 
44.1 

04.5 

19.6 
53.6 
01.5 

08.8 


88 

88 
88 
88 
88 
88 

88 

88 

88 

88 

88 
88 
88 
88 
88 

88 
88 
88 
88 
88 
88 

88 

88 
88 
88 
88 


12 

13 
15 
16 
17 
18 

19 

20 

21 

21 

23 
25 
26 

27 
28 

30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 

30 

30 
30 
30 
30 


45.5 
54 8 


T. 21 N ., R. 9 E ., corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36, at crossroads 

T. 21 N., R. 8 E., corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35, T road east 

T. 21 N., R. 8 E., quarter corner between sections 27 and 28, crossroads 
T. 21 N., R. 8 E., quarter corner between sections 28 and 29, crossroads 
T. 21 N., R. 8 E., quarter corner between sections 29 and 30, cross- 
roads - 


03.4 
12.2 
21.2 
29.5 

39 


T. 21 N., R. 7 and 8 E., quarter corner between sections 25 and 30, T. 
road east - 


47 2 


T. 21 N., R. 7 E., quarter corner between sections 25 and 26, T road 
east - - 


54 


T. 21 N., R. 7 E-., in northeast corner section 35, stone to corner sections 
25, 26, 35 and 36 bears N. 41°50' E., distant 38 feet. Nail in blaze on 
east side of hickory tree bears S. 39°20' W., distant 29.4 feet. Iron 
post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 9, 1905" 


54 ? 


T. 21 N., R. 7 E., quarter corner between sections 27 and 34, cross- 


36 6 


T. 21 N ., R. 7 E ., corner sections 28, 29, 32 and 33, T road north 

T. 21 N., R. 7 E., corner sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, T road north 

T 21 N R 7 E corner sections 30, 31 west of T road east . 


19.8 
28.6 
36 9 


t! 21 N.' R. 6 E., corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36, T road north 

Mansfield, 1.5 miles north of; T. 21 N., R. 6 E., corner sections 26, 27, 34 
and 35, . 5 miles west of; in northwest corner of S . J. Trimmer's field at 
east and west road crossing, in limestone 30 by 10 by 8 inches, alum- 


45.8 
08.7 


Mansfield, crossing of Wabash Railway and Big Four Railway 


39.6 
19.3 




0?, 3 


T. 20 N., R. 6 E., corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35, crossroads at 

T. 20 N., R. 6 E., south corner sections 34, 35, T road north near 

T. 19 N., R. 6 E., quarter corner between sections 2 and 3, crossroads 
ngar . . . 


01.9 
01.5 

04 6 


Centerville, 1 mile south of; at T road west, in ground, in pasture owned 
by W . L. Alexander, 1 . 5 feet from north and south fence on east side ol 
road, in stone 8 by 9 by 30 inches, aluminum tablet stamped " Prim 
Trav Sta No 11" 


03.3 


T. 19 N., R. 6 E., corner sections 22, 23, 14 and 15, T road east 

T 19 N R 6 E corner sections 22 23 26 and 27 


03.3 
03.1 


T.' 19 N.' R. 6 E.' corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35, T road west 


03.3 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG BIG^'WA.Y^— Continued. 



189 



station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 19 N., R. 6 E., south corner sections 34 and 35 

T. 18 N., R. 6 E., corner sections 2, 3, 10 and 11, crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 6 E., corner sections 10, 11, 14 and 15, crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 6 E., corner sections 14, 15, 22 and 23 

T. 18 N., R. 6 E., in northwest corner section 36, at crossroads, just 
inside of field and 3 feet from corner of hedge fence, iron post stamped 
" Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 12, 1905" 

T. 18 N., R. 6 E., corner sections 23, 24, 25 and 26, crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 6 E., east corner sections 24, 25, T road west 

T. 18 N., R. 7 E., corner sections 19, 20, 29 and 30, crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 7 E., corner sections 20, 21, 27 and 28, crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 7 E., corner sections 21, 22, 27 and 28, crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 7 E., corner sections 22, 23, 26 and 27, crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 7 E., in southeast corner section 23, near southeast corner 
of L. W. Schrader's barn lot, at crossroads, 15 feet east to maple tree, 
iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 13, 1905" 

T. 18 N., R. 7 E., east corner of sections 24 and 25, crossroads, is 15 feet 
south of corner 

T. 18 N., R. 8 E., corner sections 19, 20, 29 and 30, crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 8 E., corner sections 20, 21, 28 and 29, crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 7 E., corner sections 21, 22, 27 and 28, crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 7 E., corner sections 22, 23, 26 and 27, crossroads 



40 


03 


16 8 


40 


02 


24 1 


40 


01 


31 4 


40 


00 


38.8 


39 


59 


45.8 


39 


59 


46.6 


39 


59 


47.0 


39 


59 


46.9 


39 


59 


47.3 


39 


59 


47.5 


39 


57 


47.5 


39 


59 


47.6 


39 


59 


47.8 


39 


59 


47.2 


89 


59 


46,8 


39 


59 


46.1 


39 


59 


45.2 



02.9 
02.4 
01.9 
02.0 



01.2 
53.1 
44.6 
39.0 
30.4 
22.1 
13.5 



22 05.6 



56.6 
53.4 
45.8 
37.7 
29.7 



Logan, Menard and Sangamon Counties^ — Springfield Quadrangle. — 
The following geographic positions were obtained from primary tra- 
verse by Mr. E. L. McISTair, topographer, in 1905. The line starts 
from adjusted position at Tice; follows wagon roads east, south, and 
west near border of quadrangle, and is connected with adjusted po- 
sition at the crossing of the Wabash and Alton railways in South 
Springfield. Starting again from adjusted position at Athens the line 
follows wagon roads south along west border of quadrangle and is 
connected to adjusted position at Curran, at the crossing of the Wabash 
and the Chicago, Pfeoria & St. Louis railways. Positions are given on 
the Springfield astronomic datum. 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Tice station 


39 59 07.7 

40 00 15.7 
40 00 16.0 
40 00 02.8 

40 00 10.5 

40 00 11.4 

40 00 16.2 
40 00 17.1 
40 00 17.1 
40 00 17.7 
39 59 51.9 

39 59 52.2 

39 59 53.0 

40 00 19.7 
40 00 20.2 
40 00 20.5 
39 59 30.6 


89 47 42 8 


Tice, 3 corners 1 25 miles north of 


89 47 41 6 


T. 18 N., R. 6 W., quarter corner between sections 16 and 21 


89 46 50 6 


T. 18 N., R. 6 W., in northeast corner section 22, road south 


89 45 45 4 


T. 18 N., R. 6 W., in northeast corner section 23, iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 1, 1905" 


89 44 17 5 


Indian Point Presbyterian Church, road south, 1,800 feet west of T. 18 
N., R. 6 W., section 24, northwest corner of .... . . 


89 43 46 4 


T. 18 N., R. 5 W., quarter corner northeast quarter section 19 and 
southeast quarter section 18 T road west 


89 41 56 6 


T. 18 N., R. 5 W., corner sections 16, 17, 20 and 21, T road east 

T. 18 N., R. 5 W., comer sections 15, 16, 21 and 22 


89 40 31.8 
89 39 23 9 


T. 18 N., R. 5 W., corner sections 14, 15, 22 and 23, 4 corners 


89 38 14 7 


T. 18 N., R. 5 W., corner between sections 23 and 24 


89 37 06 3 


T. 18 N., R. 4 and 5 W., quarter corner between sections 19 and 24, 

Fancy Prairie station, crossing C. & A. Railway just south of 

T. 18 N., R. 4 W., quarter corner between sections 19 and 20, T road 


89 35 58.7 
89 34 43 8 


T. 18 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 16, 17, 20 and 21 


89 33 35 4 


T. 18 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 15, 16, 21 and 22, T road south 

T. 18 N., R.4W., corner sections 14, 15, 22 and 23 


89 32 27.0 
89 31 19 2 


C. & A. Railway, crossing of 


89 30 44.5 



140 



YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [BULL. NO. 14 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG B.IGILW AYS— Concluded. 



Station. 



Latitude. 


Longitude. 


o 


, 


„ 





, 


„ 


39 
39 


58 
58 


36.6 

86.7 


89 
89 


30 
29 


43.6 
01.6 


39 
39 


58 
57 


36.9 
44.4 


89 
89 


29 
29 


01.4 
01.5 


39 
39 


56 
55 


26.0 
59.4 


89 
89 


29 
29 


00.6 
34.6 


39 


55 


07.1 


89 


29 


34.3 


39 

39 


54 
53 


15.2 

22.8 


89 
89 


29 

29 


33.8 
33.3 


39 


52 


30.1 


89 


29 


32.7 


39 


52 


29.4 


89 


30 


41.2 


39 


51 


37.0 


89 


30 


40.4 


39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 


50 
49 
49 

48 
48 
47 
46 


44.4 
27.6 
28.4 
11.9 
12.4 
19.6 
13.9 


89 
89 
89 
89 
89 
89 
89 


36 
30 
29 
29 
30 
30 
30 


23.0 
42.0 
48.0 
13.7 
05.8 
31.2 
12.7 


39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 


45 
45 
45 
45 
44 
43 


01.3 
00.8 
12.4 
21.2 
39.9 
40.0 


89 
89 
89 
89 
89 


29 
32 
33 
34 
34 
34 


54.2 
03.2 
35.5 
08.5 
41.5 
57.2 


39 
39 


43 

44 


40.4 
12.8 


89 
89 


35 
36 


46.2 
57.1 


39 
39 


44 
44 


37.7 
36.6 


89 
89 


37 

38 


48.2 
38.2 


39 


46 


19.0 


89 


39 


09.0 


39 
39 
39 
39 
39 


57 
56 
55 
54 
54 


53.1 
20.0 
27.6 
35.4 
27.5 


89 
89 
89 
89 
89 


43 
43 
43 

43 
44 


27.9 
38.1 
37.0 
19.0 

32.8 


39 
39 


53 
51 


43.7 
46.4 


89 
89 


45 
45 


47.3 
15.4 


39 
39 
39 
39 
39 


51 

49 

48 
47 

47 


14.2 

44.7 
44.5 
39.4 
13.2 


89 
89 
89 
89 
89 


45 
45 
45 
45 
45 


32.3 
30.1 
30.1 
28.0 
12.1 


39 
39 


45 
44 


24.2 
38.1 


89 
89 


45 
45 


10.3 
43.9 



T. 18 N., R. 4 W., quarter corner between sections 26 and 35, 4 corners 

T.18N. R.3and4W., corner sections 25, 36, 30 and 31, 4 corners 

Williams, T. 18 N., R. 3 and 4 W., sections 25, 46, 30 and 31, in north 

east corner of town of, 30 feet northeast of intersection of roads, iron 

post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 2" 

T. 17 and 18 N., R. 3 and 4 W., corner of , 4 corners 

T. 17 N., R. 3 and 4 W., quarter corner between sections 12 and 7, T 

road north 

T.17N.,R.4W., quarter corner between sections 12 and 13, road west 
T. 17 N., R. 4 W., quarter corner between sections 13 and 24, T road 

east 



T. 17 N., R. 4 W., quarter corner between sections 24 and 25, T road 
east 



T. 17 N., R. 6 W., quarter corner between sections 25 and 36, 4 corners 
T. 16 and 17 N., R. 4 W., quarter corner sections 1 and 36, 1.25 miles 

east of Barclay, 3.5 feet in ground, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav 

Sta. No . 3, 1905 " 

T. 16 and 17 N., R. 4 W., quarter corner sections 2 and 35, 0.25 mile 

east of Barclay, 4 corners 

T. 16 N., R. 4 W., quarter corner between sections 2 and 11, T road 

north 



Interurban Electric Railway, T. 16 N., R. 4 W., on line of sections 11 
and 14, crossing of 

rp - - 

T. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 



16 N., R. 4 W., center section 23, T road north 

16 N., R. 4 W-., near center of section 24, 4 corners 

16 N., R. 4 W., on line sections 25 and 26, T road north 

16 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36, T road south. . . 

15 and 6 N., quarter corner section 2 

15 N., R. 4 W., northeast quarter section 11, T road east 

T. 15 N., R. 4 W., quarter corner sections 13 and 14, 1.9 miles east of 
Rochester: near T road north, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta 

No. 4, 1905" 

Rochester, T. 15 N., R. 4 W., southwest quarter of section 15, 4 corners. 

T. 15 N., R. 4 W., in northeast corner section 17, T road south 

T. 15 N., R. 4 W., in northwest corner section 17, T road south 

T. 15 N., R. 4 W., quarter corner between sections 18 and 19, 4 corners. . 

T. 15 N., R. 1 W., north part of section 3o, T road west , 

T. 15 N., R. 5 W., in northeast corner section 25, center of bridge over 

Sugar Creek 

T. 15 N., R. 5 W., in southeast corner section 23, T road east 

T. 15 N., R. 5 W., corner sections 14, 15, 22 and 23, Illinois Central rail- 
road crossing 

T. 15 N., R. 5 W., quarter corner between sections 15 and 22, 4 corners. . 

Wabash and Alton railways, crossing of, T. 15 N., R. 5 W., in northeast 

corner of section 12 

THENCE ALONG WEST BOEDER OF QUADRANGLE. 



Athens station, T. 18 N., R. 6 W., in section 36 

T. 17 N., R. 6 W., quarter corner between sections 11 and 12 4 corners. . 
T. 17 N., R. 6 W., quarter corner between sections 12 and 13, 4 corners. . 

T. 17 N., R. 6 W., center sections 24, 4 corners 

T.17N.,R.6W., section 23, center of pier of bridge over Sangamon river 

T. 17 N., R. 6 W., quarter corner beteeen sections 27 and 28, T road 

south 



T. 16 N., R. 5 W., center of southeast quarter section 3, T road W 

T. 16 N., R. 6 W., near center section 10, in grass triangle near T road 

west, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 5, 1905" 

T. 16 N., R. 6 W., north part section 22, 4 corners 

T. 16 N., R. 6 W., north part section 27, T. road west 

T. 16 N., R. 6 W., center section 34, T road north 

T. 15 and 6 N., quarter corner section 3, T road south 

T. 15 N., R. 6 W., quarter corner between sections 10 and 15, 1 mile 

northeast of Curran, near T road north, iron post stamped "Prim. 

Trav. Sta. No. 6, 1905" 

Wabash and Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis railways, crossing of 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 



141 



Champaign County — Urhana Quadrangle. — The following geographic 
positions on the United States standard datum were established from 
primary tra-verse run in 1905 by Mr. J. E. Ellis, assistant topographer. 
The line starts from east tower of Illinois State University at Cham- 
paign, located by triangulation of the United States Lake Survey; fol- 
lows Illinois Central Eailroad to Tolono ; thence east along Wabash Eail- 
road to Homer, connecting with Lake Survey triangulation station, 
Lynn Grove, and Lake Survey triangulation station chimney at Sidney; 
thence by wagon road north along border of quadrangle to Thomas- 
boro ; thence southwest along Illinois Central Eailroad to starting point. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD BETWEEN 
CHAMPAIGN AND TOLONO. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Champaign, east tower "Industrial School," U.S. Lake Survey triang- 
ulation station 

Champaign, near southeast corner of Engineer Building, State Univer- 
sity, in ground at cross sidewalks near; said building bears N. 26 15' 
W., distant 52.5 feet, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta.No. 1, 1905" 

Champaign, road crossing, 1.25 miles south of (west track) 

Savoy, road crossing, 1 mile north of (west track) 

Savoy station, (west track) 

Savoy station, road crossing, 1 mile south of (west track) 

T. 18 N., R. 8 E., corner sections 11, 12, 13 and 14 

Tolono, in southeast corner of lot at Commercial hotel; southeast corner 
of C. H. Bell's store bears N. 28 30' E., distant 185 feet; southeast cor- 
ner of hotel bears N. 40 E., distant 108 feet; iron post stamped " Prim. 
Trav. Sta. No. 2, 1905" 



40 06 32.9 



39 59 06,4 



88 13 37.8 



40 


06 


38.1 


88 


13 


35 2 


40 


05 


40.2 


88 


14 


40 5 


40 


04 


08.6 


88 


14 


55,0 


40 


03 


14.8 


88 


15 


03,5 


40 


02 


22.0 


88 


15 


11,9 


40 


01 


29.3 


88 


15 


15.6 



88 15 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE WABASH RAILWAY NEAR TOLONO. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Tolono, road crossing north and south, 1.25 miles east of. 
Tolono, road crossing north and south on section line . . . 



39 59 21.5 
39 59 37,8 



14 15.4 
13 04.9 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE HIGHWAYS BETWEEN TOLONO AND SIDNEY. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 18 N., R. 9 E., corner sections 20, 21, 28, 29, at crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 9 E., corner sections 21, 22, 27 and 28, at crossroads 

T. 18N.,R.9E., corner sections 22, 23, 26 and 27, at crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 9 E., corner sections 23_, 24, 25 and 26, at crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 9 and 10 E., corner sections 19, 24, 25 and 30, at crossroads. . 

T. 18 N., R. 9 and 10 E., corner sections 25, 30, 31 and 36, at crossroads. 

T. 17 and 18 N., R.9 and 10 E., corner sections 1, 6, 31 and 36, at cross- 
roads 

Lynn Grove triangulation station: In SW. i of SE. J section 31, T. 18 
N., R. 10 E., 3 miles southeast of Philo railway station. Station 
mark: A stone post 3 feet below surface with another directly over 
it as a surface mark 

Black, east and west road crossing Frisco railway 

T. 18 N., R. 10 E., corner sections 28, 29, 32 and 33, at crossroads 

T. 18 N., R. 10 E., in southeast corner section 20, 4 feet from corner of 
hedge fence, iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 3, 1905" 

T. 18 N., R. 10 E., quarter corner between sections 16 and 21 crossroads 
near 

Sidney, Lake survey triangulation station chimney 



45,9 
46.5 
47.1 
47.6 
48.3 
55.6 



39 58 03.3 



56.9 

48.7 
40.9 
32.4 
24.1 
23.7 



1 



07 23.3 



39 
39 
39 


58 
58 
58 


09.8 
02.4 
54.7 


88 
88 
88 


06 
05 
05 


35.9 
09.0 
07.6 


39 


59 


48.7 


88 


05 


08.1 


40 
40 


00 
01 


40.4 

25.4 


88 
88 


04 
04 


33.6 
10.0 



142 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE WABASH RAILWAY EAST OF SIDNEY. 



Station. 




Longitude. 



Sidney, crossing of Wabash and Frisco railways, 1 mile east of 

Road crossing north and south between sections 11 and 12 

Road crossing north and south between sections 7 and 12 

T. 18 N., R. 14 W., near quarter corner west side section 7, in southwest 

corner of field and just off right of way, iron post stamped "Prim. 

Trav. Sta. No . 4, 1905 " 



88 



25.7 
43.6 
35.0 



87 59 39.2 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


T. 18 and 19 N., R. 11 E., and 14 W., 0.5 mile north of corner to sections 
6 6, 31 and 31, T road west 


40 
40 
40 

40 
40 

40 

40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 

40 
40 
40 
40 

40 
40 
40 
40 


03 
04 
05 

06 
07 

07 

09 
10 
11 
11 
12 
13 

14 
14 
14 
14 

14 
14 
14 
14 


28.7 
34.7 
52.2 

45.0 
39.0 

31.8 

23.9 
15.2 
06.9 
59.1 
50.7 
29.8 

23,1 
22.6 
22.3 
22.2 

21.3 
21.1 
20.8 
19.6 


87 
87 
87 

87 
87 

87 

87 
87 
87 
87 
87 
87 

88 
88 
88 
88 

88 
88 
88 
88 


59 
59 
59 

59 
59 

59 

59 
59 
59 
59 
59 
59 

00 
01 
02 
03 

05 
06 
08 
11 


40 1 




40 


T. 19 N., R. 11 E., 14 W., corner sections 18, 18 and 19, 19, crossroads near 

T . 19 N . , R . 1 1 E . , in northeast corner section 18, in corner of field owned 

by Lou Richards, 2.5 feet southwest of corner fence post and 133 feet 

south of Big Four railway, in limestone 40x7x5 inches, aluminum 

tablet stamped "Prim Trav Sta. No. 5, 1905" 


39.8 
39 9 


T. 19 N., R. 11 E., 14 W., corner sections 6, 6 and 7 and 7, crossroads 

Ts. 19 and 20 N., R. 11 E., 14 W., corner sections 6 and 6 and 31 and 31, 
crossroads. . . 


39.7 

39 7 


T. 20 N., R. 14 W., west corner sections 30 and 31, at Union school house, 
T road east 


39 8 


T. 20 N., R. 11 E., 14 W., corner sections 19, 19 and 30, 30. 

T. 20 N., R. 14 W., west corner sections 18 and 19, T road east 

T. 20 N., R. 14 W., west corner sections 7 and 18, T road east 


39.6 
39.7 
39.8 


T. 20 N R 14 W., west corner sections 6 and 7, T road east. . . . 


39 9 


T. 20N., R. 11 E., 14 W., north cor. sections 6 and 6, T. road south 

T. 21 N., R. 11 E., southeast corner section 25, in southeast corner of 
Doctor McFarland's garden, corner sections 25, 30, 31 and 36, T. 21 N., 
R. 10 and 11 E., bears S. 43° E., distant 55 feet, iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 6, 1905" 


40.2 
06 ? 


T 21 N R 10 E. corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36; crossroads 


15 1 


T. 21 N., R. 10 E., corner sections 27, 28, 33 and 34, at Flatville 

T. 21 N., R. 10 E., corner sections 28, 29, 32 and 33; crossroads 


23.8 
32 7 


T. 21 N., R. 10 E., in northeast corner section 31 at crossroads, 1.5 feet 
from corner fence post, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 7, 
1905" 


51.7 


T. 21 N , R. 9 and 10 E., corner sections 30, 31, 36 and 25; crossroads. . . . 
T 21 N., R 9 E corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36; crossroads .... 


59.9 

08 7 




02 







GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD BETWEEN 
THOMASBORO AND CHAMPAIGN. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Milepost 792, east and west road crossing 470 feet south of, east track 

Leverett, east and west road crossing 1 mile north of, east track 

Leverett, east and west road crossing, east track 

T. 20 N., R. 9 E., sections 19 and 20, south corner of, T. road north 

Milepost 787, east and west road crossing, east track 

Milepost 786, east and west road crossing^ 230 feet south of, east track. . 

Illinois Central railway and Big Four railway, crossing of, north track 

Big Four, east track Illinois Central railway 



40 13 27.0 

40 12 00,8 

40 11 

40 10 

40 09 22.9 

40 08 30.1 



21.2 
15.6 



40 07 17,9 



88 11 44.2 

88 12 20.3 

88 12 36.8 

88 13 12.8 

88 13 26.3 

88 13 48.3 

88 14 17.7 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 



143 



Franklin, Hamilton, Saline and WiUiamson Counties — Galatia Quad- 
rangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS. ALONG HIGHWAYS, AKIN TO DALE. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Three corners, road north to Akin 

Akin, northwest corner of Chas. Crisps' Furniture store is southeast, 
northeast corner of main store is 85 feet west, southeast corner of Mc- 
Guyers' store is 68.5 feet northwest, 1.5 feet west of sidewalk, in sand- 
stone post, aluminum tablet stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 5 

T. 6 S., R. 4 and 5 E., corner sections 24, 25, 29 and 30 

Three corners, road north south and east 

House of Granville Hungate, 3 corners, road north 

Little Spring church, road opposite 

T. 6 S., R. 5 E., center W. J sections 25, Flanagan Township, Hamilton 
county, bears 5.2 feet N. 83° 13' W. southeast corner post of Perry S. 
Lee's orchard is 6.4 feet southwest, oak tree bears S. 66° 30' W., 141.5 
feet on north side of highway, in store post 3 feet by 8 by 6 inches, 
aluminum tablet stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 6 

T . 6 S ., R . 5 and 6 E ., on north and south township line, middle of east 
one-half section 25 

T. 6 S., R. 6 E., at corner sections 19 and 30, on township line, 30 feet 
northwest— black oak tree 8 inches in diameter; 30 feet southwest- 
telephone pole 

T. 6 S., R.6 E., corner sections 19, 20, 30 and 31 

T. 6 S., R. 6 E., corner sections 18, 19, 20 and 17 

T. 6 S., R. 5 E., 4 corners sections 16, 17, 20 and 21 

T. 6 S., R. 6 E., corner sections 15, 16, 21 and 22 

T. 6 S., R. 6 E., corner sections 14, 15, 22 and 23 

Dale, -southeast of; at middle of, center W. rail L. &N.R. R 



37 58 13. 



37 59 20.6 

37 58 53.5 

37 58 27.5 

37 58 41.6 

37 58 27.0 



37 58 27.2 
37 58 27.2 



59 



54.6 
54.4 

47.4 
47.3 

47.8 
48.8 
06.7 



88 



44 48.3 



47.3 
18.7 
12.8 
23.4 
34.8 



88 36 28.7 
88 35 39.6 



39.3 
33.2 
32.7 
27.1 
21.1 
13.8 
10.5 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD, ELDORADO 

TO HARRISBURG. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Eldorado, center of track at intersection of Louisville and Nashville and 

Big Four railways 

Road crossing 

Road crossing, east and west 

Big Muddy creek, east end of trestle 427 over.. 



37 


48 


53.8 


88 


26 


04.1 


37 


48 


16.2 


88 


27 


17.7 


37 


47 


29.5 


88 


28 


48.2 


37 


45 


52.2 


88 


31 


12.5 



144 



YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Lon 


gitude. 


Harrisburg, in southwest corner of court house yard, iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 1, 1906." 


37 
37 
37 
37 

37 
37 

37 

37 

37 
37 

37 


44 
44 
44 
44 

44 
44 

44 

44 

44 
44 

44 


24.1 
25.0 
24.4 
35.6 

24.9 
24.4 

24.4 
24.7 

24.0 

23.8 

17.8 


88 
88 
88 
88 

88 
88 

88 

88 

88 
88 

88 


32 
34 
34 
35 

37 
37 

38 

40 

42 
44 

45 


19 8 


T. 9 S., R. 6 E., center section 17, crossroads 


00 2 


T. 9 S., R. 6 E., quarter corner between sections 17 and 18, T road south 

T. 9 S., R. 5 and 6 E., quarter corner between sections 13 and 18 

T.9S.,R.5E., one-sixteenth corner between northeast quarter and 


33.5 
44.2 

07 3 


T. 9 S., R. 5 E., quarter corner between sections 14 and 15 


58 9 


T. 9 S., R. 5 E-, one-sixteenth corner between northwest and southwest 
corners section 12, north side of road 1 .5 foot south of fence line, 14 feet 
east of fence corner post, 3 feet southeast of telephone post, 33.5 feet 
northeast of center of corners, signboard "16 mi. to Marion; 5 mi. to 
Harrisburg; 8 to Galatia;" old barn in southeast of 4 corners, iron 
post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 2, 1906" . 


47 S 


Dallasania, 4 corners, one-sixteenth corner between northeast and 
southeast quarters of section 17, T. 9 S., R. 5 E 


27 2 


T. 9 S., R. 4 and 5 E., quarter corner between sections 18 and 13, T 
road east on Saline- Williamson county line . . 


21 7 


T. 6 S., R. 5 E., quarter corner between sections 14 and 15 


33 4 


T. 9 S., R. 4 E., at middle south side of northwest quarter section 15, 
south side three corners, 2 feet north of wire fence; 82 feet west— fence 
corner, 530 feet north— southeast corner wagon shed west side of road, 
361 feet east — line between a large oak and maple tree on opposite sides 
of road; road north to Atilla, east to Harrisburg, west to Marion; iron 
post stamped ""Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 3, 1906" 


24.7 



Franklin and Williamson Co'unties—West Frankfort Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR EAST BORDER OF QUADRANGLE 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Road crossing , south end of plank bridge 

Four corners 

Station 101 

T.8S., R.4E., corner sees. 27, 28, 33 and 34, 190 feet southeast of this 

district No. 8, Grant schoolhouse 

T. 8 S., R. 4 E., sec, 28, 10 feet northeast of large oak tree east of Shiloh 

church 

Corinth, center of 3 corners south of, 30 feet northeast of Dogwood tree. 

Three corners ,25 feet northwest— large fencepost corner 

Small plank bridge, middle of, east and west, Williamson-Franklin 

county line 

T. 7 S., R. 4 E., south corner road east, corner sees. 27, 28, 33 and 34 

T. 7 S., R. 4 E., corner sees. 21, 22, 27 and 28 

T. 7 S., R. 4 E., corner sees. 21, 22, 15 and 16 

Thompsonville, in schoolyard, 52.4 feet to southeast corner schoolhouse, 

79.6 feet north to large elm tree in corner of yard, 82.9 feet northeast to 

elm tree in corner of yard across street, iron post stamped "Prim. 

Trav. Sta. No. 4, 1906" 

Three corners, road east 

T. 6 S., R.4 E.,3cornersincenter of south half sec. 27, Franklin county 

35 feet southeast — oak tree; 30 feet northeast— oak 



37 45 17.8 

37 45 56.6 

37 46 37.8 

37 47 31.4 

37 47 57.7 

37 48 49.1 

37 50 34.4 

37 51 51.9 

37 52 44.5 

37 53 37.4 

37 54 29.8 



37 54 57.2 
37 56 45.4 



88 45 23.3 

88 45 22.6 

88 45 43.0 

88 45 40.3 

88 46 13.2 

88 46 37.5- 

88 46 09.2- 

88 45 40.2 

88 45 39.1 

88 45 39.4 

88 45 59.6. 



45 40.2 
45 07.0 



43.8 



45 05.1 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 



145 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR NORTH AND WEST BORDERS OF 

QUADRANGLE. 



Stations. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Akin, at southeast corner, northwest corner Chas. Crisp's furniture 
store, is southeast, northeast corner of main store is 85 feet west, south- 
east corner of McGuyer's store is 68.5 feet northwest, 1.5 feet west 
of sidewalk, in sandstone post aluminum tablet stamped "Prim. 
Trav Sta No 5 1906" 


37 

37 
37 

37 
37 

37 

37 
37 

37 

37 
37 
37 
37 
37 
37 

37 
37 

37 
37 


59 
59 
59 

59 
59 

59 
59 
59 

59 

59 
58 
57 
57 
57 
55 

54 
53 

52 
51 


20.2 
20.0 
20.0 

20.6 

17.8 

06.0 
36.2 
52.6 

43.4 

41.5 
49.3 
56.6 
56.1 
03.5 
52.0 

26.7 
47.7 

39.4 
59.5 


88 
88 
88 

88 
88 

88 
88 
88 

88 

88 
88 
88 
88 
88 
88 

88 
88 

88 

88 


44 
46 

47 

49 
50 

51 

52 
54 

55 

56 
56 
56 
57 

57 
57 

57 
57 

57 
59 


46 3 


T. 6 S., R. 4 E., center sec. 21, road crossing 


10.6 


T 6 S R 4 E center sec. 20, 4 corners 


17 5 


T. 6 S., R. 4 E., and 3 E., on township line between Benton and Easton 


13 1 


T 6 S R 3 E corners between sees 23 and 24 


02 9 


T. 6 S., R. 3 E., south half sec. 22, corner of Benton-Thompsonville and 
Aiken roads, west side of road, southwest corner of plank bridge on 

Benton-Thompsonville road— 63 feet northwest; southwest corner of 
plank bridge on Akin road— 34 feet northeast; sweet gum tree blazed 
on north side on east side of road, 77 feet southeast, elm tree 20 inches 
in diameter — 6 feet northwest sweet gum tree— 6 feet southwest 

Three corners road west . . 


38.7 
33 7 


Benton center of C & E I R R crossing 


49 


T. 6 S., R. 3 E., corner sees. 18 and 19, on township and range line be- 


41 7 


T. 6 S., R. 2 E., at quarter corner between sees. 13 and 24, iron post 
stamped "Prim Trav Sta No. 8 1906" 


14 7 


Four corners 


29 9 


T. 6 S., R. 2 E., bears N. 49° 30' E., corner stone sees. 25, 26, 35 and 36. . 
T. 6 S., R. 2 E., quarter corner sees. 26 and 35 


46.5 
19 9 


T 6 and 7 S R 2 E quarter corner between sees. 32 and 2 . . . . 


20 4 




36 1 


T. 7 S., R. 2 E., corner sees. 14, 15, 22 and 23, a black locust post at 3 cor- 


52 8 


Public wells road corner at road east to west Frankfort 


52 4 


T. 7 S., R. 2 E., 3 corners road east, west and north, corner sees. 26, 27, 
34 and 35 


52.7 


T. 7 S., R. 2 E., about center of south half sec. 33, at intersection of C. B . 
& Q. R. R., and an east west wagon road, iron post stamped " Prim. 
Trav. Sta. No. 9, 1906". 


32 8 







GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 9 S., R. 2 E., approx. corner sees. 9, 10, 15 and 16, road north 

T. 9 S., R. 2 E., corner sees. 10, 11, 15 and 14 

Marion, corner of Marion ave., and North Court street, southwest cor- 
ner, 26 feet southeast of is a maple tree at southwest corner of ceme- 
tery 

Marion, center of north gate to Marion courthouse yard 

T.9 S., R.3 E., corner sees. 17, 18, 19 and 20 

Crab Orchard creek, center of iron bridge over 

T. 9 S., R. 3 E., southwest corner of roads at corner sees. 14, 15, 22 and 
23; stone to sec. corner is 47 feet northeast; a big dead oak on southeast 
corner is 58.5 feet east, southwest fence corner is 10 feet east, in post 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 11, 1906" 

Road north 

T. 9 S., R. 4 E., on J sec. line sec. 20 crossroads 1 

Crab Orchard, 3 corners on Marion-Harrisburg road about 2.5 miles 
east of; on northwest quarter sec. 21, T. 9 S., R. 4 E., 75 feet northwest 
is southeast corner of red voting house, 20 feet east on corner is cherry 
tree 



37 44 44.8 
37 44 44.3 



37 44 35.5 

37 43 55.1 

37 43 50.6 

37 43 51.3 



37 43 50.9 
37 43 55.5 
37 43 51.7 



37 43 44. 



00. 

52.7 



55.0 
35.3 
37.2 
20.7 



51 17.0 
49 34.9 

47 17.8 



45 31.6 



10 G 



146 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Frmiklin Williamson and Jackson Counties — Herrin Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR EAST BORDER OF QUADRANGLE 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Road crossing, east and west highway 37 49 12 . 6 

Herrin, 0.5 mile north of; center crossing north and east public road 

andtheC. B. & Q. R. R 37 48 50.7 

Herrin, southeast corner public road and east Maple st 37 48 06 . 6 

Stone at road corner road west to Mine No. 2 37 47 08.9 

T. 8 S., R. 2 E., sections 31 and 32, T. 9 S., R. 2 E., sections 5 and 6, 
corner of, dead shell-bark tree in door-yard of Mr. Anderson is 95 feet 
southwest; section corner is about 18 feet north; south rail of electric 
railroad crossing is 50 feet north; mailbox post of L. Stottar is 3 feet 
southwest; iron post is 1 , 5 feet north of fence line, iron post stamped 

"Prim. Tra. Sta. No. 10, 1906" 37 46 28.7 

T. 9 S., R. 2 E., corner sections 4, 5, 8 and 9, Baptist church is about 200 

feet northeast j 37 45 39.9 

T.9S., R.2E., approx.corner sections8, 9, 16and 17 ; 37 44 45.9 



Longitude. 



89 00 55.4 



89 01 
89 01 
89 01 



28.5 
28.5 
29.2 



01 12.3 



00 07.9 
00 07.0 



Madison and Clinton Counties — Breese Quadrangle. — The following 
geographic positions were determined by primary traverse in 1905 by 
Mr. J. R. Ellis. The line starts from an adjusted position on the Belle- 
ville quadrangle two miles west of Highland. The line follows Vandalia 
Railroad to Highland^ thence east and south along highways to near 
southeast corner of quadrangle; thence west along highways to point 
three miles of New Baden where line is run west over Southern Rail- 
road to Primary Traverse Station No. 17. The line was tied to Breese 
and Damainsville triangulation stations United States Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE VANDALIA RAILROAD NEAR HIGHLAND. 



Stations. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Highland, road crossing 2 miles west of 


38 44 02.9 
38 44 19.8 
38 44 .38.5 


89 42 48 2 


Highland, road crossing 1 mile west of 


89 41 52 9 




89 40 50 5 







GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Stations. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


• 


38 44 33.1 
38 44 35.8 
38 44 34.7 

38 44 35 1 


89 39 42 4 


T. 3 and 4 N., R. 5 W., near corner to sections 2, 3, 34 and 35, 30 feet 

northwest to sycamore tree, 36 feet northeast to dead black oak 

T. 3 and 4 N., R. 5 W., sections 1, 2, 35 and 36, center of road at hedge 


89 38 03.5 
89 36 56 8 


Fred Linenfilser, 400 feet west of his residence, in his pasture, 5 x 5 x 24 
inch stone walnut trees bears N. 35° 45' E., distance 40.4 feet, alum- 
inum tablet in top of stone, stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 22, 
1905" 


89 36 40.3 



JIERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS— Concluded. 



147 



station. 



Latitude . 



Longitude. 



T. 3 and 4 N., R. 4 and 5 W., corner sections 1, 6, 31 and 36, also junc- 
tion Madison, Clinton and Bond counties, 19 feet southwest to west 
end of small bridge, 29 feet southeast to U. S . mail box 

T. road north, 15 feet north to center of small bridge 

T. road south, 27 feet northeast to Wm. Frentiger's mail box 

Jamestown, T. road north, one mile west of, 27 feet southeast to dead 
locust tree 

Jamestown public school grounds, near south line of, 57 feet east of 
southwest corner of same, southwest corner of school building bears 
N. 5° E., distant 144 feet, in top of dressed limestone 5 x 5 x 24 inches, 
aluminum in tablet stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 23, 1905" 

T. 3 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 2, 3, 10 and 11, at crossroads, 37 feet 
northwest to corner yard fence, 36 feet southeast to cross on gate- 
post 

T. 3 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 14, 15, 22 and 23, at crossroads, 30 feet 
northeast to cross on corner fencepost, 54 feet southeast to milk plat- 
form 

T. 3 N., R. 4 W., west corner sections 23 and 26. center of road at fence 
east just north of schoolhouse 

T. 3 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35 

H. Hinkam's farm, T. road west, 42 feet east to wild cherry tree 

State road crossing with north and south road 24 feet north to cross 
on corner fence post, 63 feet southwest to cross on corner fence post. . . 

Breese, 1 mile north of; in northeast corner of Frank Budde's field, iron 
post stamped ''Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 24, 1905" 

Breese, Catholic church spire 

Crossroads, 27 feet northwest to west end of stone culvert, 30 feet south- 
east to Hem. Ahler's mail box 

Crossroads, 20 feet northwest to west end of culvert, 35 feet southwest 
to cross on telephone pole 

Germantown, crossroads 1 mile north of; 18 feet north to center of 
bridge 

Germantown, Catholic church spire 



38 
38 
38 


44 
44 
44 


35.6 
33.3 
31.3 


89 
89 
89 


35 
34 
33 


49.9 
32.2 
23.0 


38 


44 


03.2 


,89 


31 


41.8 


38 


43 


59.7 


89 


31 


06.9 


38 


43 


36.1 


89 


31 


07.2 


38 


41 


51.1 


89 


31 


03.6 


38 
38 

38 


40 
40 

38 


58.7 
06.5 
56.9 


89 
89 
89 


31 
31 
31 


02.3 
01.0 
00.1 


38 


38 


31.3 


89 


31 


33.0 


38 
38 


37 
36 


30.4 
32.0 


89 
89 


31 
31 


32.0 
44.3 


38 


35 


47.0 


89 


32 


06.4 


38 


34 


54.6 


89 


32 


06.1 


38 
38 


34 
33 


02.2 
13.2 


89 
89 


32 
32 


06.3 
15.9 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE SOUTHERN RAILROAD NEAR SHOAL CREEK. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude . 



Shoal Creek, center of bridge over 
Road crossing north and south . . . 




30 47.5 
29 52.8 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 



I I. 



atitude. 



Longitude. 



T . road south at large wooden cross 

Bartelso, 1.25 miles southwest of; at T road north, in southeast corner 
of field owned by Herman Soole, nail in blaze on tree bears N. 76° 
45' E., distant 39.8 feet, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 
25, 1905 " 

Murch's school house, T. road east, just south of, 25 feet northeast to 
cross on wild cherry tree, 31 feet southeast to corner wire fence 

Germantown, T . road south 1 . 5 miles south of; 33 feet southeast to cross 
on post 

Center of private road 

T. 1 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 8, 9, 16 and 17, T. road north 

T. 1 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 7, 8, 17 and 18, crossroads, 36 feet north- 
east to large apple tree, 37 feet southeast to locust tree 

T. 1 N., R. 4 W., east corner sections 18 and 19 



38 32 11.6 



38 31 44.8 

38 31 41.8 

38 31 47.1 

38 31 44.2 

38 32 16.1 

38 32 17.5 

38 31 24.9 



89 29 02.9 



89 29 02.8 

89 30 24.9 

89 31 31.8 

89 33 00.9 

89 33 12.3 

89 34 18.2 

89 34 17.0 



148 



YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG JllGILW AYS— Concluded. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


T. 1 N., R. 4 W., corner sections 18 and 19 (west corner), 24 feet west to 


38 31 27.1 

38 30 35.2 

38 30 36.3 
38 30 35.8 

38 30 48.6 


89 35 34 9- 


T. 1 N., R. 5 W., east corner sections 24 and 25, T. road west, 50 feet 
northwest to cross on fence, 39 feet west to south end of tile culvert. . 

T. 1 N., R. 5 W., southwest corner section 24, 0.5 mile east of Damians- 
ville, iron post stamped "Prim Trav. Sta. No. 26, 1905" 


89 35 34.9 
89 36 42 2 




89 37 24 4 


Damiansville school house, 1.25 miles west of; T. road east, 42 feet 
southeast to northwest corner of school house, 25 feet southwest to 
northeast end of small bridge . . . 


89 38 56 4 







GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG SOUTHERN RAILROAD NEAR NEW BADEN. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



New Baden, north and south road crossing about 3 miles east of; South 

ern Railroad crossing 

Mile post 34, private road crossing 

New Baden station , 

Milepost 31, road crossing north and south 170 feet west of I 

North and south road crossing of Southern Railway, near southwest 
corner of field of J. B. Freese, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. 
Nj. 17, 1905" 




57.0 
37.4 
03.1 

58.5 



45 38.9 



Menard and Sangamon Counties — Tallvia Quadrangle. — The posi- 
tions in the following list were determined by primary traverse in June, 
1905, by Mr. E. L. McNair, topographer. The line begins at Brown^s 
Crossing, on the Wabash Eailway, at the western boundary of Sangamon 
county, and runs north on or near the county line to about the center 
of township 18 N., R. 8 W., Menard county, thence east to Petersburg. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Brown's Corners flag station; center of track at railroad crossing 

T. 15 N., R. 8 W., sections 15 and 22, near quarter corner between T 

road west 

T. 15N., R.8W., section 10, near center of; in triangle of roads, at T 

road east, iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 7, 1905" 

T. 16 N., R. 8 W., near center section 34, 3 corners, T road south 

T. 16 N., R. 8 W., sections 27 and 34, quarter corner between, T road 

east -' - - - . 

T.16N.,R.8W., sections 21 and 22, quarter corner between, 3 corners, 

county line road to north 

T. 16 N., R. 8 W., sections 9, 10, 15 and 16, corner of, T road east 

T. 16 N., R. 8 W., sections 3, 4, 9 and 10, corner; T road east 

T. 16 N., R. 8 W., sections 3 and 4, quarter corner between, 3 corners, 

T road to west 

Ashland, 0.75 mile east of; T. 17 N., R. 8 W., sections 27, 28, 33 and 

34, corner of; at intersection of roads, at northwest corner, iron post 

stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 8, 1905" 

T. 17 N., R. 8 W., northwest corner of Sangamon county, T road to 

east 

T. 17 N., R. 8 W., sections 15, 16, 21 and 22, corner of 

T. 17 N., R. 8 W., sections 9, 10, 15 and 16, corner of, T road west 

T. 17 N., R. 8 W., sections 3 and 4, quarter corner between, 4 corners. . 

T. 17 and 18 N., R.8 W., sections 4 and 33 , quarter corner between 

T . road south in western part section 28 

T. 18 N., R. 8 W., sections 27 and 28, quarter corner between, T road 

south, county line between Menard and Cass counties 



39 43 27.0 

39 44 23.7 

39 45 51.5 

39 47 34.4 

39 48 00.5 

39 49 19.1 

39 50 37.4 

39 51 29.7 

39 51 55.8 



39 53 14.4 

39 53 55.5 

39 54 59.6 

39 55 51.9 

39 57 10.3 

39 57 36.0 

39 58 53.8 

39 58 54.2 



59 04.4 

59 04.9 

59 05.6 

59 07.0 

59 02.6 

59 37.2 

59 37.8 

59 38.2 

59 38.1 



89 59 39.1 

89 59 39.0 

89 59 39.8 

89 59 40.5 

89 59 41.6 

90 00 15.4 
90 00 43.6 

89 59 42.3 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 



149 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG B.IGB.W AYS— Concluded. 



Station. 



Latitude. Longitude. 



T. 18 N., R. 8 W., sections 21, 22, 27 and 28, corner of 

T. 18 N., R. 8 W., sections 15 and 16, quarter corner between, in grass 

triangle in center of road south and 25 feet south of center of east and 

west roads, 450 feet west of farm house of Amos Shone weise, iron post 

stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 9, 1905 " 

T. 18 N., R. 8 W., sections 14 and 15, quarter corner between, T road to 

south 

T road to north, in creek bottom 

T. 18 N., R. 7 and 8 W., sections 13 and 18, quarter corner between, 4 

corners 

T road south in western part of section 17 

T. 18 N., R. 7 W., sections 15 and 16, quarter corner between, T road 

south 

Overhead crossing of Chicago and Alton R. R 

Petersburg station, Chicago, Peoria & St. I>ouis Railway, center of 

track 



39 


59 


20.2 


89 


59 


42.4 


40 


00 


38.2 


89 


59 


42.6 


40 
40 


00 
00 


38.5 
51.1 


89 
89 


58 
57 


34.9 
26.9 


40 
40 


00 
00 


38.6 
39.2 


89 
89 


56 
55 


17.9 
02.8 


40 
40 


00 
00 


39.2 
39.5 


89 
89 


53 
51 


03.3 
36.8 


40 


00 


41.2 


89 


50 


46.4 



Laii'e County — Waukegan Quadrangle. — In June, 1906, Mr. L. E. 
Tucker, topographic aid, ran a line of primary traverse around the 
borders of this quadrangle. Starting at Benton triangulation station. 
United States Lake Survey, and tieing to primary traverse post No. 1, 
of 1904. . 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Stations. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Benton triangulation station, U. S. Lake Survey, in N. W. quarter of 
N. W. quarter of section 7, Benton township. Station mark. A 
stone post 2^ feet below surface, with another directly over it as a 
surface mark. Height of station used was 65 feet. Reference marks: 
Two stone posts, one S. 13" 04' W., dist. 565.9 meters, one N. 68° 59' 
E., 19.65 meters distant. Height of ground at station above mean 
sea level of Lake Michigan is 212 6 feet 


42 
42 
42 


29 02.8 
28 44.2 
28 43.9 


87 52 43 3 


T. 45 N., R. 12 E., quarter corner sections 7 and 8, four corners. North 
Prairie church on N. E. corner; schoolhouse on northwest corner 

Chicago & Milwaukee and Electric railroad and Winthrop Harbor road, 
crossing of 


87 51 46.8 
87 50 41 9 







GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG CHICAGO AND NORTHWETERN RAILROAD, ZIONS 
CITY TO LAKE FOREST. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude 



Zion City, corner of Shiloh Boulevard and Elijah avenue, northeast 
corner of American Express office 90 feet southwest 

Zion City, Shiloh Boulevard and Chicago & Northwestern railroad 
crossing, west rail 

East and West road crossing 

Waukegan Courthouse 

Chicago & Northwestern railroad and Elgin, Joliet & Eastern railroad, 
crossing of 

Road crossing, east and west 

Chicago & Northwestern and Chicago & Milwaukee Electric railroads, 
overhead crossing of 

Chicago & Northwestern railroad, overhead crossing. 

Lake Forest, in southeast corner of city hall yard, at corner of Forest 
and Deerpatt sts., southeast corner of city hall bears N. 63° 30' W., 
distance 34.5 feet; northwest corner of Chicago Tel. Co. building 
bears S. 41° 30' E., distant 78.3 feet, iron post stamped ''Prim. Trav. 
Sta . No . 12, 1906 " 

Chicago & Northwestern railroad and highway crossing 



15 03.9 
14 49.4 



42 


26 


59.2 


87 


49 


31.0 


42 
42 
42 


26 
23 
21 


59.0 
04.8 
36.8 


87 
87 
87 


49 
49 
49 


04.4 
26.3 
58.4 


42 
42 


19 
18 


29.9 
32.2 


87 
87 


50 
50 


20.6 
46.8 


42 
42 


16 
15 


45.3 

27.7 


87 
87 


50 
50 


47.9 
28.2 



87 50 28.7 
87 51 42.1 



150 



YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 43 and 44 N., R. Hand 12 E 

T. 42 and 44 N., R. 11 E., sections 36 and 35 and 1 and 2 

T. 43 and 44 N.. R. 11 E. ,approximate corner sections 35, 34, 3 and 2. . . 

DesPlaines River, on south side of town line road, 9.8 feet south- 
west of corner of iron bridge across river; an 8 inch oak on opposite 
side of road is 22 feet north, iron post stamped "Prim. iTrav. Sta. 
No. 13, 1906" 

Milwaukee road and town line, corner of 

Four corners east of railroad crossing 

Wisconsin Central railroad, azimuth of, at station 69 

Diamond Lake, in southwest corner of schoolhouse No. 76, Union; 5 
feet north of schoolyard corner, southwest corner of schoolhouse is 
83.6 feet northeast; southeast corner of house of Wm. Einzewam's 
is 20.5 feet northwest by west, iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. 
No . 14, 1906 " 

Elgin, Joliet & Eastern railroad, azimuth from station 77 

Three corners, road east 

Rockefeller, Hotel Cameron, center of street crossing 

Wisconsin Central railroad and highway crossing 

Four corners 

T. 44 and 45 N., R. 10 E., and R. 11 E 

Gages corners 

Three corners, road west 

Druses Lake, at 3 corners 600 feet north of north shore of, opposite to 
Brown's cottage, fence corner on west of road is 29 . 5 feet south, blazed 
oak 26 . 7 feet north; W . C. Brewer's mailbox post No. 4, at corner is 22 
feet southeast; iron post stamped ' ' Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 15, 1906". . . 

Road crossing 

T. 45 N., R. 10 E., sections 1 and 12 

T. 45 N., R. 11 E., corner sections 6 and 7 

T. corner 

Four corners, road east and west northwest and southeast 

Hickory Corners, an oak tree is 35 feet northeast, Methodist church is 
on southwest corner, mailbox No. 69 is 35 feet northwest 

Three corners, road west, schoolhouse on northwest corner 

Pikeville, Wis., 4 corner, south side state line road, west side N. & S. 
road, fence corner on southwest corner is 30 feet southwest 

T. 1 N., R. 21 E., 50 feet northeast of south corner of sections 34 and 35, 
N. side state line road, 800 feet northwest Chas. Crawford's house, iron 
post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 1, 1906" 



42 
42 
42 
152 



42 
282 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 



14 23.8 
14 24.2 
14 24.7 



14 25.6 

14 25.3 

14 25.3 
01 



29.1 

18.5 
25.2 
51.7 
21.5 
39.9 
19.2 
37.8 



17.8 
09.6 
02.1 
02.1 
54.5 
39.4 

58.1 
24.1 



42 29 44.5 



42 29 42.5 



87 53 09.4 
87 54 19.6 
87 55 30.0 



87 56 21.5 
87 56 39.7 
87 56 36.2 



88 



88 



00 13.4 



00 05.0 
00 14.1 
00 17.4 
00 15.2 
00 16.3 
00 16.1 
00 06.5 



01 12.8 
00 14.5 
00 14.1 
00 14.1 
00 13.6 

00 37.4 

01 01.4 
01 04.5 



88 01 30.3 



87 59 24.6 



Declination, N. border 3°05'; S. border 2°34' W. border 3°48'. 



Apple River, Galena, Lena, Mineral Point and Savanna Quads — Jo 
Daviess Comity. — The following geographic positions were determined 
by primary traverse by L. E. Tucker, in 1906. For the control of the 
Apple Eiver quadrangle the line begins with Coast and Geodetic Survey 
position of White Church Steeple at Warren and follows the Illinois 
Central Eailroad west to Scales Mound, thence along highways south 
to a point three miles west of Derinder, thence east along highways to 
three miles south of Mores ville, thence north to Warren. 

For control of the G-alena quadrangle the line begins with adjusted 
position of Scales Mound, follows highways to a point about six miles 
northwest of G-alena, thence south to Galena where it is tied to a posi- 
tion of Galena Spire and Horse Shoe Mound triangulation stations, 
thence south along the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Eailroad to 
Blanding station where it turns east along highways to adjusted posi- 
tion three miles west of Derinder. 



HERROV] 



TOPO&KAPHIC SURVEYS. 



151 



Apple Rivee Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD NEAR NORTH 
BORDER OF QUADRANGLE. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Warren, white steeple at, Coast and Geodetic Survey triangulation 
station 

Law station, center of track opposite operator's window 

Law station, 0.6 mile west of; public north and south road crossing 

Scales Mound, 1 . 5 miles northeast of; center of track over public road 
crossing 



42 


29 35.95 


89 


59 20.2 


42 


29 35.6 


90 


10 54.2 


42 


29 21.4 


90 


11 33.9 



42 28 



90 13 22. 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR WEST BORDER OF QUADRANGLE 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



School house No. 4 (Mt. Morley), T. 28 N., R. 2 E., in southeast part of 
section 26, in angle of junction of ridge road and Elizabeth-Scales 
Mound road, school house bears N. 41° E., dist. 119 feet; a blazed oak 
is 12.4 feet west; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 18, 1906, 
ILLINOIS" 

Hickory Grove school house, 1.8 miles north of, T road east, 35 feet east 
to Will Brockner's mail box 

Hickory Grove school house, Elizabeth township, center of road op- 
posite 

Hickory Grove school house, 0.4 mile south of; 4 corners, mail box of 
H. Rees is on southeast corner 

Apple River, 1 . 25 miles northwest of; junction of Elizabeth-Galena and 
Scales Mound Ridge road 

Apple River, north end of iron bridge over 

Elizabeth, corner of Main and Myrtle sta., corner Black Hawk build- 
ing bears S. 89° 30' W., 35 feet; corner of Illinois building bears N. 12° 
E., 45 feet 

Elizabeth, at southwest edge of; public road crossing Chicago Great 
Western R . R 

T. 27 N., R. 2 E., sections 25 and 36, approximate quarter corner 
between 

T. 27 N., R. 2 E., section 36, T. 26 N., R. 2 E., section 1, quarter corner 
between 

Pleasant Hill School, Hanover T., 43 feet south of northeast corner 
of fence, 126 . 6 feet north of white oak tree at southeast comer of yard 
and 11 feet northwest of large white oak; iron post stamped "Prim. 
Trav . Sta . No . 19, 1906 " 

T.26N., R.3 E., approx. corner sections 7, 8, 17, 18, road south 

Derinda Center, T. 26 N., R. 3 E., approx. corner sections 8, 9, 16 and 
17, 4 corners 

Big Rush Creek, west end of iron bridge over, T. 26 N., R. 3. E., approx. 
corner sections 9, 10, 15 and 16 



42 23 29,0 

42 22 51,2 

42 21 17.7 

42 20 58.0 

42 20 -07.5 

42 19 20.4 

42 19 04.5 

42 18 42.0 

42 17 54.0 

42 17 02.0 



42 15 54.3 
42 15 15.0 



42 15 16.9 
42 15 17.4 



Longitude. 



90 14 48.2 

90 13 40.6 

90 13 53.8 

90 13 58.0 

90 14 53.3 

90 14 04.6 

90 13 17.0 

90 13 41.1 

90 13 38,8 

90 13 35.4 



90 14 07.9 
90 11 43.7 



90 10 31.8 
90 09 20.5 



Magnetic Declination of west border of quadrangle is 6° 07' east. 
Magnetic Declination of east border of quadrangle is 4° 57' east. 
Magnetic Declination of south border of quadrangle is 5° 15' east. 



Galena Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Scales Mound, set in the southwest corner of school house yard at two 
churches; corner of Presbyterian chureh porch is southeast 93.2 feet; 
southeast corner of Catholic church is west 51 feet; southeast corner 

of school house porch is northeast 70 feet; iron post stamped "Prim. 
Trav. Sta. No. 17, 1906" 

Hesselbacher cheese factory, at T road east, northwest corner of fac- 
tory 



42 28 31. ( 
42 27 08.: 



90 15 07.9 
90 15 07.1 



152 YEAK-BOOK FOR 1908, [bull. no. It 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG ILIQ^^ KY^- Concluded. 



Stations, 



Latitude. Longitude. 



Flint rock hill, T road west at top of , 

Lutheran church, gate in front of 

Lutheran church, 0.7 mile southeast of; junction ridge road and Shapp 
ville road, 50 feet east to Robert Gill's mailbox 

Lutheran church, 1.25 miles southeast of; junction of Scales Mound- 
EUzabeth ridge road and Thompsonville-Galena road 

School house. No. 4, 0.7 mile northwest of; T road to east, mail box of 
H. J. Ehredt is by gate on west side of road 

Scales Mound, 0.7 mile west of, wagon bridge over Illinois Central R 
R., center of bridge 

T. 29 N., R. 2 E., approx. corner sections 22, 23, 26 and 27 

School house No. 92, Council Hill township, center of road opposite 

T. 29 N., R. 2 E., west quarter corner section 19 

T. 29N., R. 1 E., east quarter corner section 26 

Stone blacksmith shop, 3 corners 

T. 29 N., R. 1 E., section 27, in east half of; 0.5 mile east of Millbrick 
just east of ruins of old stone church, in northeast corner of T road^ 
corner of fence bears S. 50° W., 8 feet; mail box of Travarthen bears 
S. 45° W., 75 feet; iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 23, 1906 

Public road crossing railroad 

Intersection of 4th principal meridian and Illinois-Wisconsin State line, 
1 mile southwest of 4 corners, center of turnpike 

T. 29 N., R. 1 W., approx. center section 23 

T. 29, R. 1 W., section 28, in east part of southeast quarter of; 0.25 mile 
south of school house No. 3, on south side of Bodell's 4 corners (Men- 
ominee township); southeast corner of Bodell's front yard fence bears 
N. 1° W., 104 feet; mail box of Gehard Bussen bears N. 30° 30' E., 87 

feet; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 25, 1906" 

T. 28 N., R. 1 W., near center of northeast quarter of section 2; 3 corners 
Galena-Hazel Green road and road to Excelsior, 18 feet east to east 
fence of turnpike 

T. 28 N., R. 1 W., line between sections 2 and 11, intersection with 
Galena turnpike 

T.28N., R. 1 W., corner sections 11, 12, 13 and 14 

Galena, in most easterly corner of court house yard; east corner of court 
house bears S. 89° W., 24.5 feet; square stone on northwest corner of 
bench and Meeker streets bears S. 80° E., 14.7 feet; iron post stamped 
" Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 26, 1906" 

Galena, German Lutheran church spire 

Horse Shoe Mound triangulation station; about 1.25 miles southeast 
of Galena, on northwest end of Horseshoe Mound, on top of rock 
ledge, station mark: A Mississippi River Commission bench mark 
post had been broken off and thrown on ground, so exact location of 
station could not be identified — 



42 26 34.3 

42 25 53.6 

42 25 20.4 

42 24 34.8 

42 24 02.3 

42 28 58.6 

42 29 20.8 

42 29 58.3 

42 29 49.8 

42 29 49.5 

42 29 26.2 



42 28 55.0 
42 29 39.0 



42 29 48.6 
42 29 49.1 



42 



50.2 



42 27 29.9 



42 26 47.6 
42 25 54.2 



42 25 06.3 
42 25 02.6 



42 24 29.1 



90 15 26.3 

90 15 37.5 

90 15 17.8 

90 15 22.0 

90 15 02.9 

90 15 44.7 

90 15 44.6 

90 18 59.4 

90 20 34.1 

90 20 34.1 

90 20 59.5 



90 23 27.2 
90 23 42.1 



90 26 33.6 
90 27 24.8 



90 29 16.3 



90 27 23.6 



90 27 17.0 
90 26 48.6 



90 25 31.0 
90 25 53.0 



90 24 03. 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE CHICAGO, BURLINGTON AND QUINCY RAIL- 
ROAD, GALENA TO BLANDING. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Illinois Central R. R. and Chicago, Burlington and Quincy R. R. 

crossing at southwest edge of Galena 

Galena Junction station, center of south end of 

Galena Junction station, about 3 miles southeast of, east and west road 

crossing near culvert No. 168112 

Blanding station, 1 mile northwest of; public road crossing 

^landing station, on west side of C, B. & Q. R. R. at corner in front 

of postoffice; 74 feet southwest to northeast corner of postoffice, 44 

feet west to east corner Mrs. Botin's house; 44 feet east to northwest 

corner of Blanding station; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 

27, 1906" 

T.26N., R.l E., cor. sees. 2, 3, 10 and 11 

T. 26 N., R. 1 E., line between sees. 11 and 12, north and south road 

crossing 

T. 26 N., R. 1 E., quarter corner sees. 11 and 12 

T. 26 N.,R. 1 E., in southwest part of sec. 2, east and west road crossing 



42 
42 


24 
22 


33.1 
29.4 


90 
90 


25 
26 


46.6 
38.0 


42 
42 


20 
17 


05.8 
10.3 


90 
90 


23 

24 


59.0 

07.8 


42 

42 


16 
16 


27.6 
09.2 


90 
90 


.23 

22 


11.0 
27.1 


42 
42 

42 


15 
15 
15 


38.3 
42.2 
29.3 


90 
90 
90 


21 
21 

20 


16.1 
16.1 
57.3 



HERRON.J 



lOPOGEAPHIC SUiiVEYS. 
GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



153 



stations. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


T 26 N R 1 E southeast part sec 12; 3 corners 




42 
42 
42 

42 
42 
42 


15 
15 
14 

15 
15 
15 


29.7 
04.8 
58.0 

24.7 
21.3 
29.2 


90 
90 
90 

90 
90 
90 


20 

18 
18 

17 
16 
16 


25 4 




52 2 


Hanover, 2.5 miles west of; oak tree on north side of road at 3 corners. . 
Hanover, at southwest corner of Hanover hotel piazza wall, northeast 

corner of Hanover Manufacturing Company's brick block bears SW. 

87.4 feet; northwest corner of Miller and White's brick store bears S. 

61.6 feet; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 28, 1906" 

Holy Face Catholic church, cor. Jefferson st., and Savanna road and 

Pleasant Hill road 


14.0 

06.8 
33 4 


Holy Face Catholic church, 0.5 mile east of; 3 corner road west to Han- 
over, east to Pleasant Hill. . . 


08 1 







Magnetic declination of east border of quadrangle is 6° 07' east. 
Magnetic declination of west border of quadrangle is 6° 52' east. 
Magnetic declination of north border of quadrangle is 6° 25' east. 
Magnetic declination of south border of quadrangle is 5° 26' east. 



MiNEKAL Point Quadeakgle. 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD NEAR SOUTH 
BORDER OF QUADRANGLE. 



Stations. 



Warren white steeple, Coast and Geodetic Survey triangulation 

Warren, 1.5 miles northwest of; public road crossing 

Apple River, in yard of W. H. Smith, in southwest corner of lot No. 
10, block No. 16; southwest corner of Henry Smith's store is E. 64.5 
feet; southwest corner of Henry Smith's house is N. 42.2 feet; iron 
post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 16, 1906" 

T. 29 and 30 N., R. 3 and 4 E., corner of 

Law station, 2.0 miles east of; public road crossing 



Latitude. Longitude. 






, 


II 


Q 


, 


II 


42 
42 


29 
30 


35.9 
24.6 


89 
90 


59 
00 


20.2 
54.0 


42 
42 
42 


30 
30 
30 


12.4 
10.6 

08.8 


90 
90 
90 


05 
06 

08 


53.2 
14.2 
34.2 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Veda Grand, Illinois-Wisconsin State line, at elbow in road, 30 feet 
northwest to Wm. Haskin's mailbox; 20 feet east to corner of State 
line fence 

T. 29 N., R. 2 E., approx. cor. sees. 15 and 16, corner of State line 

T.29N., R. 1 E., sec. 15 on west half north line of , north and south road 
on the Illinois-Wisconsin State line 

Intersection of fourth principal meridian and Illinois-Wisconsin State 
line 

Intersection of fourth principal m.eridian and Illinois-Wisconsin State 
line, 0.5 mile west of; on south side of State line road, at corner of Ga- 
lena-Hazel Green turnpike, 1 foot north of fence and 10 feet east of 
fence corner; a soft blazed maple tree on west side of turnpike and on 
State line bears NW. 77.7 feet; a cottonwood tree on northeast corner 
bears N. 53 ; iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 24, 1906" 



42 30 27.4 
42 30 27.0 



42 30 25.8 
42 30 23.1 



42 30 26.2 



90 16 20.5 
90 16 56.0 



90 23 44.1 
90 25 36.2 



90 26 12. 



Magnetic declination of southwest border of quadrangle is 6° 25' east. 



154 



YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. 
Savanna Quadrangle. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR NORTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 26 N., R. 3 E., sec. 14, 3 corners on south line of; 0.5 mile south of 
Massbock postoffice , 

Camp Creek schoolhouse No. 14, Derinda township, in southeast cor- 
ner of schoolhouse yard; southeast corner of schoolhouse bears N. 33° 
W., 81 feet; an oak tree 16 inches in diameter bears N. 42° E. 52 feet; 
iron post stamped '^Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 20, 1906" 

T. 26 N. R. 3 E., sees. 13 and 24, and T. 26 N., R. 4 E., sees. 18 and 19, 
approx. cor. of 

T. 26 N., R. 4 E., cor sees. 17, 18, 19, and 20 

T. 26 N., R. 4 E., northeast part of sec. 20; 4 corners of Galena-Dixon 
road 

Carrott schoolhouse 21, Pleasant Valley township; T road 

Pleasant Valley township hall, center of road in front of 



42 14 25.9 



42 14 27.2 

42 14 26.9 

42 14 23.9 

42 14 11.2 

42 14 37.7 

42 14 24.1 



07 25.3 



90 05 48.0 

90 04 54.7 

90 03 37.3 

90 02 13.5 

90 02 02.4 



Magnet declination of north border of quadrangle is 5° 15' east. 



Lena Quadrangle. 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR WEST BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE. 



Latitude. Longitude. 



White schoolhouse, just west of; T road south 

T. 26 N., R. 5 E., sec. 7, in northwest quarter of; on south side of the 
Savanna-Freeport road, about 150 feet northeast of corner with Union 
church road; a wild cherry tree 22 inches in diameter bears S. 16° W., 
9.6 feet; northeast corner of iron bridge over Muddy Plumb river 
bears S. 38° 30' E., 366 feet; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 
21, 1906" 

T. 26 and 27 N., R. 4 and 5 E., (townships Pleasant Valley, Stockton 
Ward Grove and Berriman, corner of), T road east 

T. 27 N., R. 4 E., sees. 25 and 36, T. 27 N., R. 5 E., sees. 30 and 31; corner 
of road east 

T. 27 N., R. 4 E., cor. sees. 24 and 25, cor. of T road west at approx. cor. 
sec. 19 and 30, R. 5 E 

T. 27 N., R. 5 E., sees. 18 and 19, corner road east 

T. 27 N., R. 4E.,cor. sees. 13 and 24; road west. 

T. 27 N., R. 5 E., cos. sees. 7 and 18 

T. 27 N., R. 4 E., sees. 12 and 13, corner of 

T. 27 N., R. 4 E.,cor. of road at sees. 1 and 12 

T. 27 N., R. 5 E., cor. sees. 6 and 7, road east 

School No. 82, Rush township, in school yard Just south of plank walk 
leading from gate to schoolhouse; 1 foot west of fence, 4 feet south of 
center of gate; southeast corner of schoolhouse bears S. 73° W., 25.3 feet 
iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 22, 1906" 

Chelsea church, T. 28 N., R. 4 E., sees. 13 and 24, corner of public cross- 
roads 

T. 28 N., R. 5 E., sees. 18 and 19 (Town of Nora) road east 

T. 28 N., R. 4 E., sees. 12 and 13 (Town of Rush) road west 

Pueketts' schoolhouse, T. 28 N., (Nora), R. 5 E., sees. 6 and 7; corner of; 
crossroads. . - - ........-.,.--- .-.-- 

T. 28 N., (Rush) R. 4 E., sees. 1 and 2, corner 

T. 28 and 29 N., R. 4 and 5 E., cor. of crossroads 

Warren, 0.5 mile south of; T road west 

Warren, White steeple. Coast and Geodetic Survey triangulation sta- 
tion 



42 15 07.6 



42 


15 


42.0 


89 


58 


29.7 


42 


17 


01.4 


89 


58 


43.4 


42 


17 


54.0 


89 


58 


45.0 


42 


18 


46.9 


89 


58 


47 


42 


19 


38.8 


89 


58 


48.5 


42 


19 


39.3 


89 


58 


48.5 


42 


20 


31.5 


89 


58 


50.2 


42 


20 


32.3 


89 


58 


50.2 


42 


21 


24.9 


89 


58 


52.4 


42 


21 


23.9 


89 


58 


52.4 


42 


22 


43.3 


89 


58 


56.0 


42 


24 


55.6 


89 


59 


00.7 


42 


25 


47.7 


89 


59 


02.9 


42 


25 


48.4 


89 


59 


02.9 


42 


26 


39.8 


89 


59 


05.9 


42 


26 


40.5 


89 


59 


05.9 


42 


27 


33.2 


89 


59 


07.2 


42 


28 


22.0 


89 


59 


08.6 


42 


29 


35.9 


89 


59 


20.2 



Magnetic declination of west border of quadrangle is 4° 57' east. 



HERRON] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 



155 



■Alto' Pass, Carbondale, Duquoin, Herrin, Murphyshoro and Pinchney- 
ville Quadrangles — Franklin, Jackson, Perry and Williamson Coun- 
ties. — The following geographic positions were determined by primary 
traverse by Mr. L. E. Tucker in 1906. A line was first run from Foun- 
tain Bluff triangulation station of the Mississippi Eiver Commission^ 
following the Illinois Central Railroad east via Murphysboro and Car- 
bondale to the southeast corner of the Herrin quadrangle; then begin- 
ning with adjusted position at Carbondale the line follows the Illinois 
Central E. E. to Duquoin^ thence east along public road to adjusted 
position at northwest corner of Thompsonville quadrangle. 

For the control of the Murphysboro quadrangle, the line begins with 
adjusted position at Duquoin and follows public highways west to Den- 
mark where it turns south and is tied to Fountain Bluff triangulation 
station. 

Hebkix Quadeangle. 
geographic positions along the illinois central railroad. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 9 S., R. 1 E., sees. 5 and 8, quarter corner between 

Four corners 

Cartervilie city school yard, southwest part of, 1 foot north of east and 
west sidewalk, 1.3 feet west of line of north and south cross walk across 
alley, west side of cinder walk south from school house is 30 feet east; 
southwest corner of brick schoolhouse bears N. 57° 00' E., 104 feet, 
iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 31, 1906" 

T. Sand 9 S., R. 1 E., corner sees. 34 and 35 and 2 and 3, stone post in 
center of 4 corners 

Road north, quarter corner between sections 

T. 8 and 9 S., R. 1 and 2 E., lane north, stone post at corner 

B. M. No. 10, 1906, T. 8 S., R. 2 E., sees. 31 and 32; T. 9 S., R. 2 E., sees. 5 
and 6, near corner 

East and west road crossing about 2 miles north of Carbondale 

Big Muddy river bridge about 2,000 feet south of; east and west road 
crossing 

Crossing of Illinois Central and St. L. and I. M. R. R 

Ward station, road crossing 

Ward, 1 mile north of station; east and west road crossing 

Hallidaysboro coal mine, just south of; east and west road crossing 

East and west road crossing 

Elkville station, 1 foot north of station platform, 10 feet west of north- 
east corner, 12 feet east of northwest corner, 16 feet east of east rail of 
Illinois Central railroad, and about 170 feet north of semaphore post, 
iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 34, 1906" 

Elkville, 0.8 mile north of; east and west road crossing 

East and west road crossing 

T. 6 S., R. 1 W., sec. 29, on half section line; 3 corners 

Duquoin station, 1.2 miles south of; east and west road crossing 



45 40,4 
45 39.4 



37 45 52.7 

37 46 29.0 

37 46 28.7 

37 46 28.6 

37 46 28.7 

37 45 39.4 

37 46 54.8 



89 07 23.7 
89 05 42.3 



89 04 46.1 

89 04 36.1 

89 02 55.7 

89 02 22.3 

89 01 12.2 

89 13 11 . 7 



13 21.1 



37 


49 


16.4 


89 


13 


38.6 


37 


51 


01.9 


89 


13 


51 5 


37 


51 


52.0 


89 


13 


57.6 


37 


53 


05.0 


89 


14 


05 2 


37 


53 


55.5 


89 


14 


07.0 


37 


54 


41.5 


89 


14 


08.4 


37 


55 


18.6 


89 


14 


10.0 


37 


58 


23.3 


89 


14 


16 9 


37 


58 


23.3 


89 


14 


15 8 


37 


59 


43.5 


89 


14 


19.8 



156 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



Stations. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Blue Grass schoolhouse, just east of; in northeast corner at crossroads, 
at T. 6 S., R. 1 E., corner sees. 16, 17, 20 and 21, iron post stamped 
"Prim Trav Sta. No. 33, 1906". ... 


37 

37 
37 
37 

37 

37 

37 
37 

37 

37 

37 
37 


59 

59 
59 
59 
59 

59 

59 
59 

59 

59 

59 
59 


41.7 

41.5 
42.6 
42.2 
42.3 

42.1 

28.6 

28.5 

28.6 
17.2 

25.7 
41.5 


89 

89 
89 
89 
89 

89 

89 
89 

89 

89 

88 
88 


06 

06 
05 
04 
04 

03 

02 
02 

01 

00 

57 
56 


47 8 


T. 6 S., R. 1 E., approx. corner sees. 16, 17, 20 and 21, nail in a blazed oak 
at southeast corner of crossroads bears S. 83 feet; nail in blazed oak at 
southwest corner of crossroads bears S 36° AV 83 feet 


48 


T. 6 S., R. 1 E., approx. corner sees. 15, 16, 21 and 22, T road north 

T.6S., R. 1 E., corner sees. 14, 15, 22 and 23, corner of , road north 

T. 6 S., R. 1 E., quarter corner between sees. 14 and 23, road south 

Three corners, roads south to Christopher, west to Duquoin, and north 
to Sisser station 


41.5 
34.2 
00.7 

10 4 


T. 6 S., R. 1 and 2 E., point on township line in middle of north half 

section line between sec. 24, T. 6 S., R. 1 E., and sec. 19, T. 6 S., R. 2 E. 

T. road south, 30 feet southeast to black locust tree 


20.4 
03 5 


T.6S.,R.2E., sees. 19 and 20, 3 corners on sec. line between, at point 
midway between the north full corner and the quarter corner. 

T.6S.,R.1E., sees. 20 and 21, north and south road crossing Illinois 
Central railroad on section line between 


13.1 
06.0 


Residence of W. N. Wolf, set on north side of, 150 feet south of Illinois 
Central railroad, on east of wagon road, iron post stamped "Illinois 
1906 Elev. 438" 


00 6 


Bench mark No 8 


14 6 







GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE CHICAGO, BURLINGTON AND QUINCY RAIL- 
ROAD. 



Stations. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Herrin about 1 mile north of; east and west road crossing rail 


37 49 12.7 
37 48 50.7 
37 48 06 6 


89 00 55 4 


Herrin, 0.5 mile north of; public road crossing northeast, north rail 

Herrin corner of Maple street and public road southeast . . 


89 01 28.5 
89 01 28 5 









GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Stations. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Herrin, about 1.1 miles south of; T road west to mine No. 2, stone 

T. 8 S., R. 2 E., sees. 31 and 32, T. 9 S., R. 2 E., sees. 5 and 6, on south 

side of road at corner of, a dead sheel bark hickory in dooryard of Mr. 

Anderson is 95 feet southwest; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. 

No. 10 1906" 


37 47 09.0 

37 46 28.7 
37 45 39.7 


89 01 29.2 
89 01 12 3 


T. 9 S., R. 2 E., corner sees. 4, 5, 8, 9, 200 feet southwest of Baptist 
church . . 


89 00 07 6 







Declination S. border, E. 4° 41'; N. side E. 4 48'; W. side, 5° 21'. 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 
DuQuoiN Quadrangle. 



157 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Duquoin, west rail main east track Illinois Central railroad, 37 feet 
northwest of northwest post of Duquoin station 

Duquoin, east brick wall of Exchange bank of G. S. Smith & Co. about 
4 feet above level of sidewalk and 3 feet south of east door of bank 
opening into Division St., aluminum tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. 
Sta. No. 32, 1906" Elev. 468 

Duquoin, 0.6 mile southeast of; 5 corners 

Ebenezer schoolhouse, T road south opposite, approx. center of sec. 12, 
T.6S., R.l W 

Ebenezer, 0.8 mile northeast of public road crossing I. C. R. R. north 
rail 



T. 6 S., R. 1 W., center sec. 11, T road north 

T. 6 S., R. 1 W., quarter corner between sees. 11 and 12, (approx.) 4 

corners 

Three corners, road east to Benton, south to Mulkeytown and west to 

Duq uoin 

Little Muddy river, center of iron bridge over 

Little Muddy river 1.2 miles east of; just south of Mr. Lindsay's house, 

3 corners on sec. line, between sees. 4 and 5, T. 6 S., R. 1 E 

Kone creek, schoolhouse, elbow corner 

T. 6 S., R. 1 E., corner sees. 4, 5, 8 and 9 

T.6S., R. 1 E.jCorner secs.8, 9, 16 and 17, 0.25 mile north of; crossroads. 



38 00 43.0 



38 00 43.0 

38 00 10.0 

38 00 09.5 

38 00 20.4 

38 01 01.9 

38 01 01.6 

38 01 01.0 

38 01 24.2 

38 01 39.7 

38 01 28.2 

38 01 28.3 

38 01 48.3 



14 22.0 



89 14 
89 13 



89 10 
89 10 



89 09 

89 08 

89 06 

89 06 

89 06 

89 06 



17.2 
59.7 



89 11 46.5 



56.8 
39.6 



89 10 07.5 



34.4 
16.4 

50.3 
48.2 
48.4 
48.6 



PlNCKNEYVILIiE QUADRANGLE. 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Egyptian coal mine, just northeast of; L corner about the center of 
southeast quarter of northwest quarter of section 18, T. 6 S., R. 1 W., 
20 feet northwest to honey locust tree 

T. 6 S., R. 1 W., sec. 18, T. 6 S., R. 2 W., sec. 13, quarter corner between 

T. road south, opposite, stone in road 

T. 6 S., R. 2 W., approx. quarter corner between sees. 14 and 15 

T.6S.,R.2W., road south, private road north, center sec. 16 

T. 6 S., R. 2 W., quarter corner between sees. 17 and 18, T road south. . 

T.6S.,R.2W., center sec. 18, southwest corner of 4 corners, northeast 
fence corner bears N. 45° 00' W., 6 feet; iron post stamped "Prim. 
Trav. Sta. No. 35, 1906" 

T. 6 S., R. 2 and 3 W., quarter corner on township line between sec. 13 
and 18 

T. 6 S., R. 3 W., quarter corner between sees. 13 and 14, T road south. . 

Sees. 17 and 18, quarter corner between 

T. 6 S., R. 3 W., sec. 17, center of; T road north 

T. 6 S., R. 3 W., stone quarter corner between sees. 17 and 18, 18 feet to 
closing corner 



38 00 23.4 

38 00 09.4 

38 00 08.6 

38 00 09.1 

38 00 10.6 

38 00 12.1 



38 00 12.2 

38 00 12.7 

38 00 15.2 

38 00 16.8 

38 00 17.0 

38 00 17.5 



15 


23.0 


15 


55.9 


16 


29.5 


17 


52.7 


19 


32.5 


21 


12.3 


21 


47.1 


22 


20.3 


23 


26.1 


25 


39.3 


27 


18.5 


27 


51.4 



Declination, south border of quadrangle, E. 5° 20'. 



158 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Cakbondale Quadeangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T.9 S., R. 1 W., sees. 17, 18, 19 and 20, T road north 

Carbondale, at northwest corner of I. C. R. R. park, 12 feet -east of iron 
water stand, 2 feet east of iron fence, 6 feet south of iron fence, iron 
post stamped ''Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 30, 1906" 

Carbondale, corner Spring and Oak Sts., 30 feet north to north cross 
walk, 25 feet west to west sidewalk 

Elbow corner, road south and west 

Three corners, road south 

T. 9 S., R. 1 W., approx. center of S. W. quarter sec. 13; 3 corners, road 
south 

T. 9 S., R, 1 E. and 1 W., sees. 18 and 13, respectively, at middle south 
half of see. line between, Jackson-Williamson county line 

T. 9 S., R. 1 E., corner sees. 7 and 18, stone post, corner Jackson-Wil- 
liamson county line; road east to Carterville 



37 43 51.3 

37 43 43.6 

37 43 45.3 

37 43 45.5 

37 43 39.1 

37 44 05.0 

37 44 05.1 

37 44 47.5 



14 45.9 

12 59.4 

13 28.0 
11 58.8 
11 04.5 

09 56.0 

09 05.5 

09 05.0 



Garlyle Quadraiigle — Bond and Clinton Counties. — The following 
geographic positions on U. S. Standard datum were determined by 
primary traverse run in July, 1907, by Mr. J. E. Ellis, assistant topo- 
grapher. The line starts from, an adjusted position on the Breese quad- 
rangle 1.25 miles southwest of Bartelso, and follows highways near south 
edge of Carlyle quadrangle to Boulder thence northwest along highways 
to Keyesport thence westerly along highways near north edge of quad- 
rangle to primary traverse station No. 23, 1905, at Jamestown. A tie 
was also obtained at Geoffrey triangulation station, U. S. Coast and 
Greodetic Survey. 

Caelyle Quadeangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Bartelso, 1.25 miles southwest of; at T road north, in southeast corner 
of field owned by Herman Soole; nail in blaze on tree bears north 76° 
45' E., distant 39.8 feet; iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 25, 
1905" 

Bartelso, 0.5 mile southeast of; crossroads, 33 feet southwest to corner 
fence post, 15 feet east to northwest corner small bridge 

Stone quarter corner at crossroads 

T. 1 N., R. 3 W., corner sees. 8, 9, 16 and 17, T road south, 35 feet west to 
corner feneepost 

Geofirey triangulation station; a Coast survey station in Santa Fe town- 
ship, near center of N . E . quarter of N . E . quarter sec . 8 . R . 3 W . , T . 1 
N. Station mark: Earthenware pyramid 6 by 6," marked U. S. C. 
S., placed 33 inches below surface, above which is a marble post 30 
inches long, 6 inches square, marked 



u. 


s. 


C. & G. 


s. 



its upper surface even with the ground. Reference marks: Marble 



posts 32 inches long, 4 inches square, marked 







placed 



east and north of line offence bordering the road,their upper surfaces 
2 inches above level of ground. To N. reference mark from station, 
474.0 feet; to east reference mark from station, 714.7 feet. "Parkin- 
son," north reference mark, 50° 24' Parkinson east reference mark, 
138"^ 52". In 1882 the north reference mark was moved 9.4 feet west. . 



38 31 44.8 



38 31 45.1 
38 31 44.4 



32 10.9 



38 32 58.2 



29 02.8 



28 00.1 
26 45.0 



26 45.1 



26 55.0 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 



159 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE— C<?«/m«^a^. 



Stations . 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Stone quarter corner, crossroads 

T. 1 N., R. 3 W., quarter corner between sees. 15 and 16, ditch north... 

T. 1 N., R. 3 W., stone quarter corner between sees. 14 and 15 

Stable of Henry Waelz, southwest of; at point where roads from ferry 

across Kaskaskia river make a turn at top of hill, iron post at corner, 

. stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 1, 1907 Illinois" 

Waelz, 1 mile east of; T road llrest 

T road south at old frame house 

Posey, . 5 mile south of; crossroads, 40 feet northwest to Osage orange 

tree, 30 feet southeast to telephone pole 

Posey, . 5 mile south and | mile east of intersection of crossroads 

T. 1 N., R. 2 W., corner sections 15, 16, 21 and 22, at turn of road 

Crossroads at schoolhouse 

Hoffman, 0.75 mile south of; on east side of T road west, 15 feet west 

and 6 feet south to stone at T road west, iron post stamped "Prim. 

Trav. Sta. No. 2, 1907, ILLINOIS " 

Hoffman, at southwest corner of L. Hussman's store, iron post stamped 

" Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 3, 1907 ILLINOIS " 

T. 1 N., 2 W., quarter corner between sections 1 and 12, center of inter- 
section of crossroads 

T. 1 and 2 N., R. 2 W., quarter corner between sections 1 and 36, T 

road south, 24 feet north to corner of fence post 

Hoffman, 1.75 miles north of; T. 1 and 2 N., R. 2 W., quarter corner 

between sections 1 and 36, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 

4. 1907 " 

T. 1 and 2 N., R. 1 and 2 W., corner sections 1, 6, 31 and 36, crossroads, 

20 feet south to center of small bridge 

T. 2 N., R. 1 W., corner sections 31 and 32, T road north, 40 feet north 

to center of small bridge 

T. 2 N., R. 1 W., corner sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, T road west, 44 feet 

south to center of small bridge 

T. 2 N., R. 1 W., corner sections 19, 20, 29 and 30, crossroads 

Ferren, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad crossing 

T. 2 N., R. 1 W., corner sections 7, 8, 17 and 18, crossroads 

Ferren, 2 miles north of; at northwest corner of crossroads at corner 

sections 5, 6, 7 and 8, T. 2 N., R. 1 W., iron post stamped "Prim. 

Trav. Sta. No. 5, 1907, ILLINOIS " 

T. 3 N., R. 1 W., south corner sections 31 and 32, T road north 

T. 2 N., R. 1 W., north corner sections 5 and 6, T. road south 

T. 3 N., R. 1 W., corner sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, T road south, 10 feet 

east to center of bridge, 

T. 3 N., R. 1 W., quarter corner between sections 20 and 29 crossroads. 

Boulder, T road north in northeast part of 

T. 3 N., R. 1 W., quarter corner between sections 8 and 17, T road 

west 



T. 3 N., R. 1 W., corner sections 5, 6, 7 and 8, 15 feet northeast to corner 
fence post 

Keyesport, 0.5 mile south of; Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad 
crossing 

Railroad crossing Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad, on Clinton 
and Bond county line 

Keyesport, 1 . 5 miles north of; on north side of wagon road and 56 feet 
west of west rail of C, B. & Q. R. R. at road crossing, iron post 
stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 6, 1907, ILLINOIS " 

T.4N., R.2W., corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35, crossroads, 15 feet 
south to center of small bridge 

T. 4 N., R. 2 W., corner sections 27, 28, 33 and 34, T lane south 

Crossroads, about 0.25 mile east of; corner of sections 28, 29, 32 and 33, 
20 feet south to center of bridge 

T. 4 N., R. 2 W., large stone at south corner of sections 32 and 33, T road 
west 



T. 3 N., R. 2 W., north corner sections 4 and 5, T road south, county 
line 



Crossroads, 20 feet north to milk platform 

T.3 and 4 N., R. 2and 3 W., northwest corner sections 1, 6, 31 and 36, 
corner bears 30' E., and 25 feet south of post, iron post stamped 
" Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 7, 1907, ILLINOIS " 

T. 3 N., R. 3 W., north corner sections 1 and 2, T road south, 15 feet 
north to mulberry tree 

T.3N., R.3W., sections 3 and 4, 40 feet west to north corner of and 20 
feet north; at southeast corner of crossroads, 20 feet north and 10 feet 
west to south corner sections 33 and 34, T. 4 N., R. 3 W., T road 
north; T road south, 21 feet west to corner fence post, iron post 
stamped "Prim. Trav.jSta. No. 8, 1907, ILLINOIS" | 



38 31 44.2 
38 31 43.9 
38 31 45.2 



38 31 09.6 

38 30 53.2 

38 31 45.8 

38 31 46.1 

38 31 46.6 

38 31 21.4 

38 31 35.2 



38 31 49.0 

38 32 29.1 

38 33 07.8 

38 34 00.1 

38 34 00.3 

38 34 00.4 

38 33 56.9 

38 34 49.5 

38 35 41.8 

38 36 25.1 

38 37 26.7 

38 38 19.2 

38 39 11.3 

38 39 11.3 

38 40 04.0 

38 40 56.7 

38 41 49.6 

38 42 42.4 

38 43 36.3 

38 44 12.7 

38 44 31.6 

38 45 24.0 

38 45 23.5 

38 45 23.0 

38 45 22.6 

38 44 29.8 

38 44 29.8 

38 44 29.2 

38 44 28.6 

38 44 27.8 



38 44 26.9 



89 26 44.8 
89 25 38.1 
89 24 .30.0 



22 53.6 
21 43.8 
21 26.3 



89 21 



89 



5 

20 19.2 
18 37.5 
16 57.0 



15 49.1 

15 48.0 

15 47.9 

15 47.4 

15 47.2 

15 13.6 

14 03.9 



89 14 02.3 

89 14 01.2 

89 13 59.8 

89 13 58.2 



13 57.3 

13 55.6 

13 56.5 

13 54.8 

13 22.5 

13 21.8 

13 21.3 

13 54.2 

16 05.7 

16 28.4 



89 17 00.5 

89 17 30.5 

89 18 37.2 

89 19 28.4 

89 19 38.3 

89 19 45.5 

89 20 34.8 

89 22 18.8 

89 23 25.4 



89 25 40.2 



160 



YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL, NO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE— Co«^/?/'^^af. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 4 N., R. 3 W., south corner sections 33 and 34, T road north 

T. 3 N., R. 3 W., north corner sections 3 and 4, T road south 

T. 4 N., R. 3 W., south corner sections 32 and 33, 15 feet north to mail 
boxes 

T. 3 N., R. 3 W., north corner sections 4 and 5, T road south, 13 feet 
north to hedge tree 

T. 3 and 4 N., R. 3 W., south corner sections 5, 6, 31 and 32, on north 
side of county line road at T road south, corner of section is 20 feet 
south of post, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 9, 1907, 
ILLINOIS " 

T. 3 and 4 N., R. 3 W., corner sections 5, 6, 31 and 32 

T. 3 and 4 N., R. 3 and 4 W., corner sections 1, 6, 31 and 36, T. road 
E ., 20 feet west to stone at corner of fence 

Jamestown public school grounds, near south line of; 57 feet east of 
southwest corner, southwest corner of school building bears N. 5° E., 
144 feet; in top of dressed limestone 5" x 5" x 24", aluminum tablet 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 23, 1905" 



38 44 27.1 
38 44 27.1 



38 44 26. 
38 44 26. 



38 44 26.7 
38 44 26.5 



38 44 25.9 



38 43 59. 



25 40.3 
25 40.7 



89 26 47.4 
89 26 48.0 



27 54.9 
27 54.9 



28 54.9 



89 31 06.9 



Declination south edge, 4° 06' E. 
Declination east edge, 4° 54' E. 
Declination north edge, 4° 28' E. 



Hardinmlle Quadrangle — Crawford, Jasper, Lawrence and Richland 
Counties. — The following geographic positions were determined by 
primary traverse run in July 1907, by Mr. J. R. Ellis, assistant topo- 
grapher. The line starts from Claremont triangulation station and 
follows highways along south and east edges of quadrangle to Robinson, 
thence westerly along the Illinois Central Railroad to Oblong triangu- 
lation station, thence westerly along railroad to Willow Hill, thence 
southerly along railroad and highways on west edge of quadrangle to 
Claremont triangulation station: 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE. 



stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Claremont triangulation station of the U. S. Lake Survey and U. S 
C. & G. S.,in section 29, T. 4 N., R. 14 W., German township, 3 miles 
northwesterly from town of Claremont a station on Ohio and Mis 
sissippi Railroad, on land of Brinkley heirs. Station mark: Two 
stone posts, one above the other in the usual manner. Reference 
marks- One north 67° 33' west, distant 23.1 meters. One north 0° 
39' west, distant 7.8 meters. One north 71° 45' east, distant 24.6 
meters from station mark. Northwest corner of section 29 bears 
north 60° 03' west, distant 847 meters from station mark 

T. 4 N., R. 14 W., corner sections 28, 29, 32 and 33, 20 feet south to corner 
fence post 

T. 4 N., R. 14 W., corner sections 27, 28, 33 and 34, T road west at school 
house, 10 feet east to rail fence 

T.4N.,R.14W., quarter corner between sections 26 and 27, crossroads, 
15 feet north to center of bridge 

T. 4 N., R. 14 E., quarter corner between sections 25 and 26, center of 
crossroads 

T. 4 N., R. 13 and 14 W., quarter corner between sections 25 and 30, 
center of crossroads, Richland and Lawrence county line 

Sumner, 2.25 miles north by 0.25 mile west of; on west side of road at 
T road east, 2 feet west to fence, 25 feet east to center of T road east, 
in top of concrete block 8 x 8 x 20" in ground, aluminum tablet stamped 
" Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 10, 1907, ILLINOIS " 

T. 4 N., R. 13 W., corner sections 27, 28, 33 and 34, 25 feet south to corner 
fence post 



38 


45 


28.5 


87 


59 


40.8 


38 


44 


49.1 


87 


59 


03.2 


38 


44 


48.8 


87 


57 


55.4 


38 


45 


15.1 


87 


56 


47.2 


38 


45 


14.9 


87 


55 


39.3 


38 


45 


14.7 


87 


54 


31.4 


38 


44 


47.8 


87 


51 


58.4 


38 


44 


47.7 


S7 


51 


06.9 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 



161 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE .—Ctf«,;/z<a?,?rf. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 4 N., R. 13 W., east corner sections 27 and 34, stone, T road west at 
cliurcli 

T. 4 N., R. 13 W., corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36, center of T road 
south 

T. 4 N., R . 12 and 13 W., corner sections 25, 30, 31 and 36, crossroads, 
10 feet west to center of small bridge 

T. 4 N., R. 12 W., stone corner sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, T road south. . 

Westport, 5.75 miles due south of; on east side of T road west at Fair- 
view church, in top of concrete block 8 x 8 x 20" inches, aluminum 
tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 11, 1907, ILLINOIS " 

T. 4 N., R. 12 W., corner sections 28, 29, 32 and 33, center of T road 
west 



38 44 47, 
38 44 44. 



38 44 43. 
38 44 44. 



38 44 46. 
38 44 45. 



49 58.9 
48 55.7 



47 48.1 

46 42.8 



45 35.3 
45 35 . 5 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR EAST BORDER OF QUADRANGLE 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 4 N., R. 12 W., corner sections 20, 21, 28 and 29. T road west. . 

T. 4 N., R. 12 W., stone corner sections 16, 17, 20 and 21, fence east and 
west 

Center of T road east 

T.4N., R. 12 W., corner sections 7, 8, 17, and 18, center of crossroads. 

Westport, . 75 mile east of; intersection at T road west 

T. 5 N., R. 12 W., corner sections 21, 22, 27 and 28, center of county line 
road at north and south fence 

Crawford, 1 mile north of; Lawrence county line 

T road east, southeast corner, 7 feet north and 4 feet west to maple tree, 
35 feet north and 20 feet west to center of T road east, in concrete 
block, aluminum tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 12, 1907 
ILLINOIS " 

Quarter corner between sections , center of crossroads 

T. 5 and 6 N., R. 12 W., corner sections 3, 4, 33 and 34, stone, 1,340 feet 
east of; T road east on T . S . line 

T. 6 N., R.12 W., corner sections 27, 28, 33 and 34, T road west, 25 feet 
due east to corner fence post 

Road west at Indian boundary 

New Hebron, T road just northeast of; 10 feet northeast to large black 
oak tree 

Lane east at turn of road 

T.6N., R.12W., corner sections 3, 4, 9 and 10, T road west at school 
house, 12 feet east to corner yard fence 

T. 6 N., R. 12 W., north corner sections 3 and 4, center of T road south, 
just east of entrance to Robinson Fair Grounds 

Robinson court house, in stone post at south entrance to grounds, 
aluminum tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 13, 1907, ILLI- 
NOIS " 



38 45 39.2 

38 46 32.2 

38 46 44.2 

38 47 23.4 

38 49 40.2 

38 51 00.0 

38 51 54.8 



38 52 .57.9 

38 53 40.5 

38 54 41.6 

38 55 34.0 

38 56 19.8 

38 57 13.1 

38 58 19.1 

38 58 59.3 

38 59 54.5 

39 .00 18.2 



87 45 35.4 

87 45 35.4 

87 46 38.5 

87 46 41.8 

87 44 42.8 

87 44 26.0 

87 43 52.1 



87 43 52.7 

87 43 53.1 

87 44 10.4 

87 44 27.5 

87 44 51.8 

87 44 35.8 

87 44 30.2 

87 44 19.2 

87 44 19.8 

87 44 21.6 



11 G 



162 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD, ROBINSON 

TO STE. MARIE. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Robinson, 2 miles west of; north and south road crossing on section 
line 

Range line road crossing 

T. 5 and 6 N.^ R. 12 and 13 W., corner sections 1, 6, 31 and 36, center 
of road at picket fence east at corner of orchard 

North and south road crossing at mile post No. 43 

Stoy railroad station, road crossing 

Oblong triangulation station, in southeast quarter of southeast quarter 
of section 32, T. 7 N., R. 13 W., height of station 100 feet. Station 
mark: A stone post below surface with another over it as a surface 
mark. Reference mark: Three stone posts, one S. 44° 15' W., distant 
125.7 meters; one S. 78° 32' W., distant 90 meters, and one N., 65° 13' 
W., distant 97.7 meters. Southeast corner section 32 is S. 73° 42' 
E., distant 325.6 meters. Ground at station is 500 feet above mean 
sea level, (approx.) 

Oblong, range line road crossing, 550 feet south of crossing is corner 
sections 1,6, 31 and 36, T.5and6N., R. 13 and 14 W 

Oblong, 1 mile west of; north and south road crossing 

Oblong, 1 . 70 miles west of; Oblong and WiUow Hill road crossing 

Willow Hill, 3 miles east of; north and south road crossing 

Willow Hill, 2 miles east of, road crossing 

Willow Hill, 1 mile east of; north and south road crossing 

Willow Hill, northwest corner of brick foundation of J. E. Jones grain 
elevator, aluminum tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 14, 1907, 
ILLINOIS" 

East and west street crossing 

T. 6 and 7 N., R. 14 W., and franctional range HE., corner section^ 

6, 6, 31 and 31, cross streets just west of township house 

East and west road crossing, 770 feet south of milepost 17 

Road crossing 500 feet north of mile post 16 

Ste. Marie Station, road crossing 490 feet south of 



39 
39 


00 
00 


05.5 
08.7 


87 
87 


46 

47 


37.2 
47.0 


38 
39 

38 


59 
00 
59 


51.3 
04.5 
45.9 


87 
87 
87 


47 
48 
49 


46.7 
37.5 
59.7 



38 


59 


54.4 


87 


52 


29.8 


38 


59 


56.7 


87 


54 


31,5 


39 


00 


01.6 


87 


55 


38.7 


39 


00 


04.2 


87 


56 


20.3 


38 


59 


56.8 


87 


57 


,52.7 


38 


59 


57.1 


87 


58 


59 9 


38 


59 


57.5 


88 


00 


06.9 


38 


59 


57.4 


88 


01 


15,2 


38 


59 


44.8 


88 


01 


15.4 


38 


59 


44.8 


88 


01 


19,4 


38 


58 


00.2 


88 


01 


13.0 


38 


57 


20.6 


88 


01 


13.2 


38 


55 


57.7 


88 


01 


32.4 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR WEST BORDER OF QUADRANGLE 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 5 and 6 N., fractional range 11 E., corner sections 6 and 31, at corner 

of house 

T. 5 N., fractional R. 10 and 11 E., center of crossroads 

T, 5 N., fractional R. 11 E., west corner sections 7 and 18, T road east. 
T. 5 N., fractional R. 11 E., east corner sections 12 and 13, T road west. . 
T. 5 N., fractional R. HE., west corner sections 18 and 19, T road 

east 

Olney East Base, T. 5 N., fractional R. 11 E., 3. 5 miles east and 0.5 mile 

north of West Liberty railroad station 

T.5N.,R. 14W., west corner sections 19 and 30, Richland and Jasper 

county line 

T. 5 N., fractional R. 11 E., east corner sections 19 and 30, county line. . 

T. 5 N., R. 14 W., west corner sections 30 and 31, center T road east 

T road south at Jos. Holmes mail box 

T.4N.,R.14W., corner sections 5, 6, 7 and 8, stone, crossroads at school 

house 

T.4N., R. 14 W., south corner sections 7 and 8, T road north 

T.4N., R.14W., north corner sections 17 and 18, T road south 

Stone at T road north at school house 

Claremont triangulation station 



38 


54 


31.4 


87 


02 


16 6 


38 


53 


38.5 


87 


02 


17 1 


38 


52 


46.2 


88 


02 


17.3 


38 


52 


45.6 


88 


02 


17.3 


38 


51 


51.8 


88 


02 


17.6 


38 


51 


44.1 


88 


01 


35.1 


38 


50 


59.5 


88 


01 


23.8 


38 


50 


59.0 


88 


01 


23,8 


38 


50 


06.6 


88 


01 


24.2 


38 


49 


26.3 


88 


00 


52.9 


38 


48 


21.1 


88 


00 


10.7 


38 


47 


28.3 


88 


00 


10.9 


38 


47 


28.3 


88 


00 


09.8 


38 


46 


35.4 


88 


00 


11.1 


38 


45 


28.5 


87 


59 


40.8 



Magnetic declination, south border, 3° 42' E. 
Magnetic declination, east border, 3° 36' E. 
Magnetic declination, west border, 3° 36' E. 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 



163 



OJcawviUe Quadrangle — St. Clair and Washington Comities. — The 
following geographic positions on U. S. Standard datum were determined 
by Mr. J. E. Ellis, assistant topographer, by primary traverse run in 
1907. The line starts at a point located near S. W. corner of Carlyle 
quadrangle and follows highways near east, south and west borders of 
quadrangle and is tied to a point located near southeast corner of Belle- 
ville quadrangle : 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR EAST BORDER OF QUADRANGLE 



stations. 



Latitude. Longitude. 



Center of T road east 

T road west, corner sections, 20 feet west to center of small bridge 

Kaskaskia River, center of bridge over 

stone, quarter corner between sections, crossroads 

Covington, T. 1 S., R. 3 W., southeast corner of northeast quarter of 
southwest quarter section 9, T road west, 30 feet west to center of 
triangular grass plot 

T.1S.,R.3W., southeast corner northeast quarter of northwest quarter 
section 11, 1 .75 miles west of Covington; stone at T road east 

Pecan Grove Creamery, T. 1 S., R. 3 W., center section 18, T road 
north, 35 feet northwest to corner fence post, 35 feet northeast to hitch 
rack 

T. 2 S., R. 4 W., northeast corner section 24; 10 feet south to northwest 
corner of ridge 

Troad west,corner section 25,(N.E. corner), T. 2S., R.4 W 

T. 1 S, R. 4 W., northeast corner of southeast quarter of northwest 
quarter of section 36; .75 mile north of Addieville; at southwest cor- 
ner of T road west,iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 15, 1907, 
ILLINOIS" 

T. 2 S., R.3 W., and 4 W., center of T road south, corner sections 7 12, 
13 and 18 

T. 2 S., R. 3 and 4 W., corner sections 19, 24, 25 and 30, center of cross- 

T. 2 S.," R. 3 and 4 W., south corner sections 31 and 36 

T. 3 S., R. 3 and 4 W., corner sectionsl, 6 7 and 8, T road north, 27 
feet east to center of small bridge 

T. 3 S., R. 4 W., northwest corner of northeast quarter section 13, 500 

feet south of; road crossing north and south on Illinois Southern R. 

R., 0.75 mile south of water tank 

Oakdale station, on north side of road and 21 feet west of road crossing 

Illinois Southern R. R., iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 

16, 1907, ILLINOIS ", 10 feet northeast to warning post 



38 
38 
38 

38 


31 
30 
29 

28 


18.2 
25.5 
22.7 
41.0 


89 
89 
89 
89 


26 
26 
26 
26 


44.7 
44.0 

26.3 
10.2 


38 


27 


08.0 


89 


26 


10.2 


38 


27 


09.2 


89 


28 


06.2 


38 


26 


29.8 


89 


28 


06.5 


38 
38 


26 
25 


04.2 
11.7 


89 
89 


28 
28 


39.6 
39.0 


38 


24 


06.6 


89 


29 


11.1 


38 


21 


42.2 


89 


28 


36.1 


38 
38 


19 

18 


57.7 
12.9 


89 
89 


28 
28 


36.9 

38.7 


38 


17 


20.7 


89 


28 


39.6 


38 


16 


24.2 


89 


29 


13.5 


38 


15 


45.6 


89 


29 


47.3 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Oakdale station, 1.7 miles southwest of road crossing north and south. 
(LEAVE RAILROAD AND FOLLOW HIGHWAYS.) 

T . road west,15 feet east to corner fence post 

T. 3 S., R. 4 W., northwest corner southwest quarter of southwest 

quarter section 21, 2.75 miles w?st of Oakdale, 0.75 mile south of T 

road east 

T. 3 S., R. 4 W., northwest corner of southeast quarter of northwest 

quarter section 20; turn of road, gas pipe 

T. 3 S., R. 4 and 5 W., corner sections 19, 24, 25 and 30, center of T road 

west 

T. 3 S., R. 5 W., in northeast corner section 26, at crossroads, iron post 

stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 17, 1907, ILLINOIS"- 

T. 3 S., R. 5 W., corner sections 23, 24, 25 and 26, stone 

T. 3 S., R. 5 W., corner sections 22, 23, 26 and 27, center of T road 

north : 



38 14 51.8 

38 15 02.7 

38 15 04.6 

38 15 32.4 

38 14 54.0 

38* 14 53.0 

38 14 53,1 

38 14 54.0 



89 31 12.0 

89 31 45.4 

89 33 09.0 

89 33 59.0 

89 35 33.3 

89 36 38.4 

89 36 38.8 

89 37 44.1 



164 



YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE— Co«^/z<:rf^fl?. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 3 S., R. 5 W., corner sections 21, 22, 27 and 28, center of T road at 
fence north and south 

T. 3 S., R. 5 W., corner sections 20, 21, 28 and 29, crossroads, 15 feet 
south to center of bridge 

T. 3 S., R. 5 W., corner sections 19, 20, 29 and 30, center of crossroads. . . 

T. 3 S., R. 5 W., west corner sections 19 and 30, Washington and St. 
Clair county line 

T.3S.,R.6W., east corner sections 24 and 25, center of T road west. . . 

T.3S.,R.6W., southeast corner section 24; 35 feet southwest to corner 

sections 23, 24, 25 and 26, T. 3 S., R. 6 W., 7 feet northeast to corner of 
fence post, iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 18, 1907, ILLI- 
NOIS" 



38 14 54.4 



38 14 54.9 
38 14 54.6 



38 14 54.2 
38 14 55.9 



38 14 57.1 



38 50.6 



39 56.4 
41 03.3 



89 42 11.3 
89 42 11.3 



43 16.6 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR WEST BORDER OF QUADRANGLE 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 3 S., R. 6 W., northwest corner of southwest quarter of nortliwest 
quarter section 13; Oak Grove saloon, T road east, 13 feet east to 
center of bridge 

T.3S.,R.6W., northwest quarter of section 12, roads northwest and 
southeast, at road south 

T. 3 S., R. 6 W., corner sections 1, 2, 11 and 12 

T. 3 S., R. 6 W., quarter corner at north side of section 2 

T. 2 S., R. 6 W., quarter corner at south side of section 35 

T. 2 S., R. 6 W., quarter corner between sections 26 and 35, Dormo 
strandt, center of crossroads 

T.2S., R.6 W., corner sections 22, 23, 26 and 27, at turn of road 

T. 2 S., R. 6 W., northeast corner of northwest quarter of northeast 
quarter section 22; Little Muddy Creek, center of bridge over 

T.2S.,R.6W., southeast corner northwest quarter of northeast quarter 
section 10; 2.5 miles east of Fayetteville; in southeast corner of brick 
foundation of school house, aluminum tablet stamped "Prim. Trav. 
Sta. No. 19, 1907, ILLINOIS " 

T.2S., R.6W., near southwest corner of southwest quarter of north- 
west quarter of section 12; 1 mile northwest of St. Libory, T road north 

T. 2 S., R. 6 W., northwest corner section 1 

T. 1 and 2 S., R. 5 and 6 W., corner sections 1, 6, 31 and 36, T road 
west to corner of bridge ,St. Clair and Washington County line 

T. 2 S., R. 5 W., south corner sections 5 and 6, center of T road north at 
school 



T. 2 S., R. 5 W., corner sections 4, 5, 32 an^ 33, T road north, 15 feet 

west to center of bridge 

T. 2'S., R. 5 W., corner sections 3, 4, 34 and 35, crossroads 

T.2S., R.5W., stone corner sections 22, 23, 26 and 27, at turn of road 

just south of crossroads 

T.2S., R.5W., southwest corner of northwest quarter section 22; New 

Memphis and Nashville road at road east to Walnut 

Wittenburg, center of bridge over Kaskaskia river 

New Memphis station, Louisville and Nashville railroad crossing, 640 

feet west of 

North and south road crossing 

Corner sections 

Road crossing north and south, line between Clinton and St. Clair 

counties 

T. 1 N., R. 6 W., quarter corner south side of section 35, stone at T road 

north 



T. 1 N., R. 6 W., southwest corner of northwest quarter of northwest 
quarter section 35; quarter corner between sections, center of cross- 
roads 



North and south road crossing of Southern Railroad near southwest 
corner of field of J. B. Fre^e, iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. 
No. 17, 1905" 



38 16 30.4 

38 17 34.4 

38 17 43.2 

38 18 20.6 

38 18 20.6 

38 19 14.4 

38 20 08.8 

38 21 02.6 



38 22 38.8 



38 22 
38 23 



38 23 
38 23 



38 23 
38 23 



38 25 

38 26 

38 27 

38 27 

38 27 

38 27 

38 28 



26.7 
34.6 



34.0 
33.8 



34.2 
34.6 



38 25 20.4 



59.5 
42.9 

29.0 
36.0 
30.3 

50.0 

50.1 



38 29 42.6 
38 31 55.6 



89 43 18.1 

39 43 18.2 

89 43 18.2 

89 43 52.2 

89 43 52.9 

89 43 53.3 

89 44 26.7 

89 44 43.2- 



89 44 52.4 

89 43 20.6 

89 43 20.1 

89 42 14.2 

89 41 07.1 

89 40 00.7 

89 38 54.2 

89 37 48.4 

89 38 34.4 

89 39 49.4 

89 40 36.6 

89 41 09.3 

89 41 09.3 

89 42 15.8 

89 43 56.4 

89 43 56.8 

89 45 38.9' 



Magnetic declination, east border of quadrangle 4° 31' E. 
Magnetic declination, south border of quadrangle, 5° 13' E. 
Magnetic declination, west border of quadrangle, 5° 22' E. 



HERRON.l 



TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS. 



165 



Baldwin and New Athens' Quadrangles — St. Ciair County. — The fol- 
lowing geographic positions were obtained in 1907 by primary traverse 
run by Mr. J. E. EUis^ topographic aid. The line starts from adjusted 
230sition of bench mark 18, 1907, near Marissa and follows county roads 
west and north borders of quadrangle to bench mark 15, 1905 at Belle- 
yille : 

Baldwin Quadeangle. 

St. Clair County. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR NORTH BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. road north, stone 

North Marissa, T road east 

T. 3 S., R. 7 W., sections 20, 21, 28 and 29, corner of, center of east and 

west road at hedge fence north 

Marissa station, 0.33 mile northwest of; east and west road crossing 

Illinois Central railroad 

T. 3 S., R. 7 W., corner sections 19, 20, 29 and 30, crossroads, 15 feet west 

to center of bridge 

T. 3 S., R. 7 W., west corner sections 19 and 30, 5 feet south to hedge 

^ tree 

Doza Creek, center of iron bridge over 

T. 3 S., R. 8 W., quarter corner between sections 27 and 28, T road 

north 

'T. 3 S., R. 8 W., near quarter corner sections 26 and 27, in the northwest 

corner of crossroads, about 2 miles north of Redbud, iron post stamped 
"'Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 21, 1907, ILLINOIS" 20 feet east and 27 feet 

south to quarter corner stone 



38 14 44.0 

38 15 20.4 

38 14 57.8 

38 14 57.5 

38 14 58.1 

38 14 57.4 

38 14 56.9 

38 14 37.6 



38 14 39.0 



89 44 07.0 

89 45 13.9 

89 46 37.3 

89 45 35.0 

89 47 43.6 

89 48 56.0 

89 50 36.5 

89 58 48.1 



Declination north border of quadrangle 4° 56' East. 

New Athens Quadeangle. 
St. Clair County. 

'GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF QUAD- 

RANGLE. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 3 S., R. 7 W., section 22, at center of; set in southeast corner of inter- 
section of crossroads, 25 feet west and 6 feet north to center of cross- 
roads, 6 feet southwest to nail in blaze on white oak tree, iron post 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 20, 1907" 

T. 3 S., R. 7 W., quarter corner between sections 15 and 22 

Dutch Hill, 0.75 mile west and 0.5 mile south of; T road east, 22 feet 

due west to center of gate 

T. 3 S., R. 7 W., quarter corner between sections 3 and 10, center of 
crossroads 

New Athens,0.5 mile southeast of; forks of road, cross on telephone pole 

New Athens, Kaskaskia river, center of wagon bridge over 

New Athens, 1 .3 miles west of; stone at turn of road to south 

St. Clair-Monroe county line, 0.75 mile north of, T road west at Chas. 
Lindaur's mailbox 

St. Clair-Monroe county line, center of north and south road, 25 feet 
north to south side of straw stack 

Hecker, about 3 miles east of; T road south at George Vogler's mailbox. 

T.3 S., R.8W., stone corner of sections 11, 12, 13 and 14 

T.3S.,R.8W., corner sees. 13, 14, 23 and 24; 20 feet due east of dead tree 

T. 3 S., R. 8 W., center sec. 23, 0.25 mile south of; crossroads, south end 
of small bridge 



38 

38 


15 
15 


24.3 
50.6 


89 
89 


51 
51 


42.2 
42.7 


38 


16 


29.6 


89 


51 


42.8 


38 
38 
38 
38 


17 
19 
19 
19 


35.5 
02.4 
45.0 
42.0 


89 
89 
89 
89 


51 

52 
52 
54 


43.2 
16.8 
45.0 
13.1 


38 


19 


06.0 


89 


55 


35.6 


38 
38 
38 
38 


18 
18 
16 
15 


28,6 
10.2 
45.2 
53.5 


89 
89 
89 
89 


55 
56 
56 
56 


27.8 
16.5 
37.8 
37.4 


38 


15 


12.2 


89 


57 


09.2 



166 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR WEST BORDER OF QUAD- 
RANGLE. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Hecker, 1.75 miles south of; T road west, 15 feet south to west end of 

bridge 

Hecker, crossroads 

T.3S., R.8W., stone at north corner sees. 4 and 5, St. Clair-Monroe 

county line 

Hecker, 1 mile north of; T road east, 25 feet due west to pole at fence 

corner 

Schoolhouse, just east of; T road west 

Schoolhouse, 0.8 mile north of; T road west 

West Fork, center of bridge over 

T . 2 S . , R . 8 W . , near stone quarter corner between sees . 4 and 9, 2 miles 

south of Smithton, northeast corner of T road east, 15 feet south and 

5 feet west to quarter corner stone, iron post stamjped "Prim. Trav. 

Sta. No. 22, 1907" 

T. 1 and 2 S ., line between center of road at fence east 

Smithton, in north part of; T street south; 30 feet west and 12 feet south 

to lamp post : 

Douglas, T road east; 33 feet due west to small gate 

T. 1 S., R. 8 W., sees. 15, 16, 21 and 22, corner of; center of road at fence 

east and west 

T.1S.,R.8W., sees. 3, 4, 9 and 10, corner of ; center of road at fence east 

and west 

T. 1 S., R. 8 W., stone at south corner sees. 33 and 34 

T. 1 N., R. 8 W., corner sees. 27, 28, 33 and 34 



38 16 49.1 

38 18 18.8 

38 18 30.8 

38 19 22,6 

38 20 41.3 

38 21 20.8 

38 22 11.6 



38 22 52.7 

38 23 45.4 

38 24 37.0 

38 25 29.0 

38 26 21.0 

38 28 05.0 

38 28 59.6 

38 29 51.9 



89 59 38.7 

89 59 39.1 

89 59 55.6 

89 59 41.5 

89 59 41.2 

89 59 40.9 

89 59 43.3 



89 59 23.9 

89 59 28.2 

89 59 31.0 

89 58 56.1 

89 58 58.4 

89 58 59.1 

89 59 00.5 

89 59 00.4 



Declination south border of quadrangle 4° 56' East. 
Declination west border of quadrangle 5° 18' East. 



Hennepin, Lacon, LaSalU, Wenona and Wyonet Quadrangles' — Bur- 
eau,, LaSalle and Putnam Counties. — The following geographic positions 
upon U. S. Standard datum were determined from primary traverse 
run by C. B. Kendall, assistant topographer in 1908. The line begins 
with adjusted position of the Illinois Eiver Survey triangulation station 
Utica and follows highways north to Triumph, thence west to northwest 
corner of LaSalle quadrangle, 1.25 miles north of Arlington, thence 
south via Arlington to Marquette where it is tied to Illinois Eiver Survey 
triangulation station All Forks, thence south along the Indiana, Illi- 
nois and Iowa Eailroad to a point about one mile north of Marks, and 
continues south along highways via Marks to Grranville, thence east via 
Ticona to Lowell where it turns north and is tied to Utica triangulation 
station, the beginning. 

For the control of the Hennepin quadrangle, the line begins 1.25 
miles north to Arlington and follows highways west via Grader and 
Limerick to the northwest corner of quadrangle, thence south via Tus- 
kilwa to the southwest corner of quadrangle, thence east to Hennepin 
"^here it is tied to the Illinois Eiver Survey triangulation station ravine, 
£nd continues east and is tied to adjusted position at Granville. 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS . 
LaSalle Quadrangle, 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



167 



stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Utica triangulation station, U. S. A. engineers; marked by stone and 
pipe, on top of sandstone bluff 0.5 mile east of Utica, 1,800 feet east of 
large dwelling house of Mrs. William Clark, 150 feet north and 2,000 
feet east of milepost 94 on C. R. I. and P. Ry.; in southwest quarter 

sec. 9, T. 33 N., R. 2 E., Utica township 

Utica, at north edge of, T road west, 35 ft. southeast to telegraph pole 

45 feet northwest to oak tree 

T. 33 N., R. 2 E., guar. cor. between sees. 4 and 5, crossroads, center of 

intersection 

T 33 N., R. 2 E., quar. cor. between sees . 4 and 5, 40 feet northwest of 
center of crossroads, at corner of fence, in southeast corner of north- 
east quarter sec. 5; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 8, 1908- 

Ulinois" 

T. 33 and 34 N., R. 2 E., corner sees. 4, 5, 32 and 33, T lane west; center 
of north and south road and east and west line between Utica and 

Waltham townships 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E ., cor . sees. 28, 29, 32 and 33, T road east, center of north 

and south road, 25 feet east to center of triangle 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E., cor. sees. 20, 21, 28, 29, fences east and west, center of 

north and south road 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E., cor. sees. 16, 17, 20 and 21, center of intersection of 

crossroads 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E., cor. sees. 8, 9, 16 and 17, fences east and west, center of 

north and south road 

T. 34 N., R. 2 E., cor. sees. 4, 5, 8, 9, second class T road east ,center of 

north and south road, 10 feet east to center of triangle 

T.34N., R.2E., north cor .sees. 4 and 5, T road South, center of north 
edge of triangle, east and west line between Ophir and Waltham 

townships 

T.35N., R.2 E., south cor. sees. 32 and 33, T road north, center of east 
and west road, east and west line between Ophir and Waltham town- 
ships 

T. 35 N., R. 2 E., cor. sees. 28, 29, 32 and 33, crossroads, stone in center 

of intersection 

T. 35 N., R. 2 E., cor. sees. 20, 21,28 and 29, crossroads; center of inter- 
section 

T. 35 N., R. 2 E., cor. sees. 16, 17, 20 and 21, crossroads 0.5 mile east of 
Triumph, center of intersection, 50 feet northeast to large boulder at 

farm gate, 45 feet northwest to willow tree at corner of fence 

Triumph, in concrete porch 1 foot from west wall at northwest corner 
of First National bank; aluminum tablet stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. 

No. 1, 1908, Illinois" 

Triumph, at west edge of, T road south, center of east and west road, 

20 feet south to center of triangle. 

T. 35 N., R. 2 E., cor. sees. 17, 18, 19 and 20 (?), at bend of road to north. 

Vermilion river, center of bridge over 

T. 35 N., R. 1 E., quar. cor. between sees. 23 and 24 (?), T road north 
270 feet west of bridge over stream, center of east and west road, 25 

feet northwest of center of triangle 

T. 35 N., R. 1 E., quar. cor. between sees. 22 and 23, 0.25 mile east of, 

4 corners at schoolhouse and church, center of crossroads 

T. 35 N., R. 1 E., cor. sees. 14, 15, 22 and 23, second class T road south, 

fence north, center of east and west road 

T. 35 N., R. 1 E., cor. sees. 15, 16, 21 and 22, center of crossroads 

T.35N., R.l E., cor. sees. 16, 17, 20 and 21; center of crossroads 

T. 35 N., R. 1 E., cor. sees. 16, 17, 20 and 21, 30 feet northwest of, at cor- 
ner of hedge fence in northwest corner of crossroads and southeast 
corner of sec. 17; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 2, 1908, 

Illinois " 

T.35N., R.l E., cor. sees. 17, 18, 19 and 20; center of crossroads 

T. 35 N., R. 1 E., west corner of sees. 18 and 19, T road east, center of 
north and south road, 10 feet east to center of triangle, north and south 

line between LaSalle and Bureau counties and 3rd P. M 

T. 17 and 18 N., R. 11 E., east corner of sees. 1 and 36, T road west, 

center of north and south road, 15 feet west to center of triangle, north 

and south line between LaSalle and Bureau counties and 3rd P.M.. 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., north cor. sees. 1 and 2, T road south, center of east 

and west road ,15 feet south to center of triangle 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., north quar. cor. sees. 3, T roads, center of east and 
west roads, 40 feet southeast to telephone pole, 35 feet north to yard 

fence 

T. 18 N., R. 11 E., south cor. sees. 32 and 33, T road north, center of east 

and west road, 15 feet north to center of triangle 

T. 17N.,R.11E., north cor. sees. 4 and 5, T road south, center of east 
and west road, 15 feet south to center of triangle 



41 20 35.6 

41 20 47.1 

41 21 39.5 

41 21 39.8 

41 22 05.6 

41 22 57.6 

41 23 49.8 

41 24 42.1 

41 25 34.5 

41 26 26.6 



89 00 06.7 

89 00 43.4 

89 00 36.2 

89 00 36.6 

89 00 35.9 

89 00 35.8 

89 00 36.1 

89 00 36.6 

89 00 37.3 

89 00 38.0 



41 


27 


18.7 


89 


00 


39.2 


41 


27 


18.7 


89 


00 


41.0 


41 


28 


10.8 


89 


00 


41.8 


41 


29 


03.0 


89 


00 


42.7 


41 


29 


54.8 


89 


00 


44.0 


41 


30 


00.4 


89 


01 


17.5 


41 
41 
41 


29 
29 
29 


55.6 
55.6 
28.6 


89 
89 
89 


01 
01 
02 


48.5 
52.7 
39.6 


41 


29 


30.7 


89 


03 


32.6 


41 


29 


30.1 


89 


04 


59.7 


41 
41 
41 


29 
29 
29 


56.2 
55.4 
54.1 


89 
89 
89 


05 
06 
07 


17.3 

27.8 
37.8 


41 
41 


29 
29 


54.3 
53.2 


89 
89 


07 
08 


38.0 
46.4 


41 


29 


52.3 


89 


09 


58.6 


41 


29 


45.1 


89 


09 


58.6 


41 


29 


44.5 


89 


11 


10.1 


41 


29 


43.7 


89 


12 


37.5 


41 


29 


43.2 


89 


14 


19.5 


41 


29 


43.2 


89 


14 


20.9 



168 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGUW AYS- Conc/uded. 



Stations. 



Latitude. Longitude. 



T. 17 N., R. 11 E., north cor. of sees. 4 and 5, 76 feet southeast of, in cen- 
ter of schoolhouse (yard) in northwest corner of sec. 4; iron post 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 3, 1908, Illinois" 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., cor. sees. 4, 5, 8 and 9, crossroads, center of intersec 



tion. 



Arlington, main street crossing of Chicago, Burlington and Quincy rail 

road, center between main tracks 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., quar. cor. between sees. 16 and 17, crossroads, center 

of intersection 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., quar. cor. between sees. 20 and 21, crossroads, center 

of intersection 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., cor. sees. 28, 29, 32 and 33 

Ottville, 0.8 mile southeast of, T road south, center of east and west 

road, 5 feet south to center of triangle 

T. 16N., R. 11 E.,quar.cor.betweensecs.29and32,T road west center 

of north and south road, 10 feet east to end of wire fence 

Granville, 0.5 mile southwest of, T road north, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., quar. 

cor. between sees. 28 and 29 (?), 10 feet north to center of east and west 



road. 



Granville, at southeast edge of, crossroads 250 feet north of elevator and 
500 feet south of T. M. & N. R. R. track, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., quar. cor 
between sees. 27 and 28 (?) 

T. 15 N., R. 11 E., quar. cor. between sees. 26 and 27 (?), 1.5 miles east 
of Granville, 500 feet east of T road north, T road south, center of east 
and west road, 15 feet south to center of triangle 

T. 15 N., R. 11 E., quar. cor. between sees. 25 and 26, crossroads at stan- 
dard corner, center of intersection, 35 feet southeast to corner of brick 
store, 50 feet north to railroad 

T.15N.,R.11E., east quar. cor. sec. 25 T road east on third principal 
meridian and line between LaSalle and Putnam counties, 15 feet west 
to center of triangle, 40 feet north to center of track 

T. 32 N., R. 11 E., west corner between sees. 7 and 18, T road east on 
third principal meridian and line between LaSalle and Putnam 
counties, center of north and south road, 15 feet east to center of tri- 
angle. 



T.32N., R.lE., sees. 7, 8, 17 and 18, crossroads, center of intersection. 
T. 32 N., R. 1 E., cor. sees. 8, 9, 16 and 17, crossroads, center of intersec- 



tion. 



T. 32 N., R.lE., cor. sees. 8, 9, 16, 17, crossroads, center of intersection, 
50 feet southeast of, set by telephone pole at fence in southeast corner 
of intersection of crossroads and northwest corner of sec. 16; iron post 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 6, 1908, Illinois" 

T. 32 N., R. 1 E., cor. sees. 9, 10, 15 and 16, T road south, center of east 
and west road, 15 feet south to center of triangle 

T.32 N., R. 1 E.,cor. sees. 10, 11, 14 and 15, center of crossroads 

T. 32 N.. R. 1 E., cor. sees. 11, 12, 13 and 14, 700 feet west of, center of 
Illinois Central R. R. at crossing 

T. 32 N., R. 1 E., cor. sees. 11, 12, 13 and 14, 2,200 feet east of, T road 
west, center of north and south road, 50 feet west to center of triangle 

Lowell, 0.8 mile north of, T road east, center of north and south road, 10 
feet east to center of triangle 

T.32N., R.2 E.. quar. cor. between sees. 4 and 5, T road east, bend of 
north and south road to north, hickory tree in triangle 

T. 32 N., R. 2 E ., north cor. sees. 4 and 5, stone at bend of road east, east 
and west line Deer Park and Vermilion townships 

T. 33 N., R. 2 E., south cor. sees. 32 and 33, stone at T road north, 25 feet 
north to center of triangle, east and west line between Deer Park and 
Vermilion townships 

T. 33 N., R. 2 E.. cor. sees. 28, 29, 32 and 33, T road east, center of north 
and south road, 25 feet southeast to center of triangle, 25 feet west to 



gate. 



T. 33 N., R. 2 E., cor. sees. 20, 21, 28 and 29, center of crossroads 

T.33 N., R.2 E., cor. sees. 16, 17,21 and 22, T road east at south end of 
approach to bridge over Illinois river at Utica, center of north and 
south road 

Utica, south of, center of draw span of highway bridge over Illinois river 

Utica, 30 feet east of station, center of track of Illinois Valley Electric 
railroad at street crossing 

Utica, 50 feet west of, main street crossing Chicago, Rock Island & Pa- 
cific R. R., north rail of main track 

Utica, Illinois River Survey station (Dupl.) 



° 


' 


" 


° 


' 


It 


41 


29 


42.8 


89 


14 


20.1 


41 


28 


51.9 


89 


14 


21.2 


41 


28 


24.2 


89 


14 


54.3 


41 


27 


33.0 


89 


14 


21.1 


41 
41 


26 
25 


40.3 
21.3 


89 
89 


14 
14 


20.5 
19.0 


41 


20 


39.1 


89 


14 


53.0 


41 


20 


06.5 


89 


14 


52.5 


41 


15 


27.0 


89 


14 


25.6 


41 


15 


27.3 


89 


13 


16.6 


41 


15 


28.0 


84 


12 


07.1 


41 


15 


28.3 


89 


10 


56.6 


41 


15 


31.6 


89 


,09 


46.4 


41 
41 


15 
15 


01.9 
01.9 


89 

89 


09 
08 


46.2 
42.6 


41 


15 


02.4 


89 


07 


32.6 


41 


15 


01.9 


89 


07 


32.2 


41 

41 


15 
15 


02.1 
01.8 


89 
89 


06 
05 


22.7 
12.4 


41 


15 


01.6 


89 


04 


13.4 


41 


15 


02.3 


89 


03 


35.2 


41 


15 


35.2 


89 


00 


44.8 


41 


16 


21.4 


89 


00 


37.5 


41 


16 


48.2 


89 


00 


37.4 


41 


16 


48.2 


89 


00 


36.1 


41 

41 


17 
18 


40.6 ' 
33.1 


89 
89 


00 
00 


36.0 
36.2 



41 19 34.7 
41 19 40.1 



41 20 20.8 



41 20 34.4 
41 20 35.6 



89 00 35.6 
89 00 36.5 



00 36.4 



89 00 32.7 
89 00 06.7 



Magnetic declination of north border of quadrangle is 4° 15' east. 
Magnetic declination of west border of quadrangle is 4° 17' east. 
Magnetic declination of south border of quadrangle is 4° 13' east. 
Magnetic declination of east border of quadrangle is 4° 38' east. 



HERRON.l 



TOPOGEAPHIC SURVEYS 



169 



Wenona Quadrangle. 

CxEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Tonica, 1 mile northwest of, T. 32 N., R. 1 E., quar. cor. between sees. 13 
and 24 (?), T road west, center of north and south road, 35 feet north- 
west to corner of fence, 25 feet east to gate 

Tonica, 300 feet southeast of station, T road northwest, 25 feet norths 
west to center of triangle, 25 feet east to te ephone pole, 140 feet north- 
east to C. B. & Q. R. R crossing 

Tonica, 1.25 miles northeast of station, T. 32 N., R. 2 E., near northeast 
corner of sec. 20, center of intersection, 25 feet west to telephone pole, 
60 feet east to oak 

Lowell, at south edge of, center of crossroads, T. 32 N., R. 2 E., one- 
sixteenth cor. sec. 17 (?) 

Lowell, at south edge of, .center of crossroads, T. 32 N., R. 2 E., in south- 
east corner of northeast quarter of sec. 17, in northwf st corner inter- 
section of crossroads, at corner of fence; iron post stamped "Prim. 
Trav. Sta. No. 7, 1908, Illinois" 



41 


14 


10.5 


89 


03 


20.5 


41 


13 


25.7 


89 


03 


07.8 


41 


14 


07.4 


89 


02 


10.8 


41 


14 


49.7 


89 


00 


37.7 


41 


14 


49.9 


89 


00 


38.0 



Magnetic declination of north border of quadrangle is 4° 13' east. 
Hennepin Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 17 N., R. 11 E , cor. sees. 29, 30, 31 and 32, about 300 feet east of, T 
road south, center of east and west road 

T. 17 N., R. 11 E., south cor. sees. 31, and 32, T road north, center of 
east and west road, east and west line between Westfield and Hall 
townships 

T. 16 N., R.ll E.,northcorner secs.5and 6, T road south, center of east 
and west road, east and west line between Westfield tnd Hall town- 



ships. 



T. 16 N., R. 11 E., cor. sees. 5, 6, 7 and 8, center of crossroads 

T. 16 N., R. 11 E.,cor. sees. 7, 8, 17, 18, center of crossroads 

T. 16 N., R. 11 E., (or. sees. 7, 8, 17 and 18, center of crossroads, 35 feet 
southwest of, in northeast corner of yard of Kline schoolhouse, north- 
east corner sec. 18; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 4, 1908, 
Illinois" 

T. 16N., R. 11 E., cor. sees. 17, 1^ 19 and 20, center o crossroads 

Ottville, forks of roads southwest and southeast, center of triangle 

T. 16 N., R. 11 E.,cor. sees. 29, 30, 31 and 32, stone in center of east and 
west road 

Marquette station, just west of, road crossing Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific railroa , center between main tracks 



41 25 20.9 
41 24 28.2 



41 24 28.2 
41 23 36.8 
41 22 44.1 



41 22 43.9 

41 21 51.5 

41 20 53.2 

41 20 06.3 

41 19 31.6 



89 15 24.3 
89 15 28.7 



89 15 29.0 
89 15 29.0 
89 15 28.6 



89 15 28.9 

89 15 28.4 

89 15 32.6 

89 15 27.9 

89 15 53.9 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG THE INDIANA, ILLINOIS & lOW RAILROAD. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Howe, just south of station, crossing of Illinois, Indiana & Iowa R. R. 
ov r the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railroad, center of girder 
bridge 

All Fork creek triangulation station, U. S. A., marked by stone and 
pipe, on south bluff of lUinois river 1 mile south of Marquette coal 
mine; located 300 feet east of dwelling house owned by Joseph Maheux 
125 feet north and 5 feet east of intersection of east and west highway 
with east fence line of N. W. J of N. E. I sec. 30, T.33 N., R. 1 W , 
Granville township; a tower 26 feet high was erected 

Indiana, Illinois & loAva railroad bridge over Illinois river, center of 
draw span 

Moronto, 1.5 miles northeast of station, road crossing, center of track. . 

Moronto, 1,000 feet north of station, 150 feet north of elevator No. 14, 
road crossing center of main track 

Mark, 0.8 mile north of, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., near center sec. 20, north 
rail at road crossing 



41 19 33.1 



89 16 59.4 



41 


18 


24.0 


89 


15 


52.4 


41 
41 


18 
18 


50.9 
03.4 


89 
89 


16 
16 


48.7 
53.3 


41 


17 


09.9 


89 


17 


39.8 


41 


16 


29,3 


89 


15 


09.3 



170 



YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. 
GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Mark, at east edge of, 30 feet northeast to large stump, 30 feet southwest 

to-corner of burnt store 

T. 18 N., R. 11 E., south corner sees. 31 and 32, T road north, center of 

ea t and west road, 25 feet north to center of triangle 

T. 17 N ., R. 11 E ., north cor . sees. 5 and 6, wire fence south, center of east 

and west road 

Arlington, 1.8 miles northwest of, crossroads, 35 feet southwest to John 

Manning's mailbox, 6 feet northeast to forked willow tree 

T. 17 and 18 N. R. 10 and 11 E., stone corner of sections 1, 6, 31 and 36 

at slight bend of road to northwest, 150 feet west of Bureau creek, cor- 
ner of Clarion and Westfield and LaMoille and Berlin townships 

T. 17 and 18 N., R. 10 E., quar. cor. between s. 1 and 36, T road west, 

center of north and south road, 30 feet west to mailbox in center of 

triangle 

T. 17 and 18 N., R. 10 E., south corner sees. 34 and 35, second class T 

road north, center of east and west road 

T. 18 N., R. 10 E., south quar. cor. sec. 34, T road north, 15 feet west to 

intersection of crossroads 

T. 17 N., R. 10 E., north quarter corner sees. 3, T road south, 15 feet 

east to intersection of crossroads 

T. 17 and 18 N., R. 10 E., quarter corner between sees. 4 and 33, stone 

in intersection of crossroads, 100 feet southwest to schoolhouse 

T. 17 and 18 N., R. 10 E., cor. sees. 5, 6,31 and 32, center of crossroads. 
T. 17 and 18, R. 10 E., cor. sees. 5, 6, 31 and 32, 50 feet southeast of cen 

ter of crossroads, in northwest corner sec. 5, in corner of wire fence; 

iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 9, 1908, Illinois 

T. 17 and 18 N., R. 9 and 10 E., cor. sees. 1, 6, 31 and 36, T road east, 

center of west edge of triangle, 10 feet east to center of triangle, corner 

LaMoille, Ohio, Dover and Berlin townships 

Grover, 0.5 mile northwest of station, road crossing the Illinois Valley 

& Northern railroad track, center of track 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., north cor. sees. 2 and 3, T roads, 30 feet north to 

forked maple 10 feet south to center of triangle 

T.18N., R.9E., south cor. sees. 34 and 35, T road north, center of east 

and west road, 12 feet north to center of triangle 

T. 18 N., R. 9 E., south corner sees. 33 and 34, T road north, center of 

east and west road, 30 feet north to center of triangle 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., north cor. sees. 3 and 4, T road south, center of east 

and west road, 20 feet southeast to two mailboxes 

T. 18N., R.9E., south cor. sees. 32 and 33, 0.25 mile east of, T road 

north, sixteenth corner at Limerick, 20 feet west to intersection of 

crossroads 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., north cor. sees. 4 and 5, 0.25 mile east of, T road south, 

sixteenth corner at Limerick, 20 feet east to intersection of crossroads 
T. 18 N., R. 9 E., south quarter cor. sec. 32, T road north, center of east 

and west road, 25 feet north to center of triangle 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., north quarter cor. sec. 5, T road south, center of east 

and west road, 20 feet south to center of triangle 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., quarter cor. between sees. 30 and 31, 1,180 feet north 

of, T road west, center of north and south road 

T.16N.,R.9E., near southeast corner section 18, T road south, about 

2 miles southwest of Princeton, bridge over Bureau Creek about 1,500 

feet east of, 25 feet southeast to bridge, 45 feet west to old log, 5 feet 

north to center of east and west road 

T.16N.,R.9E., near south edge of section 30, large oak tree in corner 

of fence at bend of main road to east and second class road to west 

T.16N.,R.9E., north and south line between sections 29 and 30, center 

of east and west road at fence north 

T.16N.,R.9E.,in southeast corner section 29, T road west at red brick 

school house, center of north and south road, 25 feet west to center 

of triangle, 35 feet east to corner of school house yard 

T. 16 N., R. 9 E., near east edge of section 32, T road north, center of 

east and west road, 20 feet north to center of triangle 

T.16N.,R.9E., nortji and south line between sections 31 and 32, center 

of road crossing 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., corner sections 19, 20, 29, 30, stone in center of road at 

fences east and west 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., in southeast quarter section 24, T road southwest, 60 

feet south to Walnut 15 feet southwest to center of triangle 

T. 15 N., R. 10 E., northwest quarter section 19, in northeast corner of 

Carl Hosier's front yard, 75 feet west of Chicago, Rock Island and 

Pacific R. R. crossing of the Hennepin Ferry road and 35 feet west 

of junction of Ferry road with roads northwest and southwest, 1.25 

miles southwest of Bureau Junction, Illinois River Survey bench 

mark post stamped elev. "469.75 feet Memphis Datum" 



41 15 52.8 

41 29 43.0 

41 29 43.0 

41 29 43.0 

41 29 43.2 

41 29 43.1 

41 29 43.6 

41 29 43.6 

41 29 43.6 

41 29 44.0 

41 29 43.4 

41 29 43.0 

41 29 42.0 

41 29 03.7 

41 29 41.8 

41 29 41.8 

41 29 41.7 

41 29 41.7 

41 29 41.8 

41 29 41.8 

41 29 41.8 

41 29 41.8 

41 25 31.9 

41 21 57.3 

41 20 11.7 

41 20 11.1 

41 20 21.2 

41 19 42.0 

41 19 37.9 

41 15 47.4 

41 16 01.5 



41 16 39.7 



89 15 00.6 

89 15 26.2 

89 15 27.9 

89 15 49.4 

89 16 33.8 

89 17 09.6 

89 18 54.1 

89 19 29.3 

89 19 29.7 

89 20 39.5 

89 22 23.7 

89 22 23.2 

89 23 36.5 

89 24 28.5 

89 25 56.1 

89 25 55.7 

89 27 06.0 

89 27 06.5 

89 27 57.8 

89 27 58.3 

89 28 50.1 

89 28 51.0 

89 29 59.5 

89 29 37.4 

89 29 53.7 

89 29 19.3 

89 28 17.7 

89 28 17.4 

89 29 19.2 

89 29 24.9 

89 23 52.3 



23 01.5 



HERRON.] TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 

GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONS ALONG ^IQ-BM AY ^—Concluded. 



171 



station. 


Latitude- 


Longitude. 


Hennepin, 1 . 5 miles northwest of, center of iron bridge 

Hennepin, Illinois River Survey triangulation station, U. S. A. engi- 
neers: Marked by stone and pipe; permanent tertiary station, on 
high left bank of Illinois river, 166 feet north and 20 feet west of north- 
east corner of intersection of First and Mulberry streets, in Hennepin. 
A 10 foot tower was built over point 

Hennepin, at southeast corner of Putnam county court house yard , 50 
feet northwest of intersection of High and Fifth streets, iron post 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 13, 1908, ILLINOIS" 

Hennepin, 2 miles east of, center of crossroads 


41 15 57.4 

41 15 24.5 

41 15 09.8 
41 15 24.9 

41 15 32.1 

41 15 26.0 

41 15 25.8 
41 15 27.0 


89 22 23.1 

89 20 44.0 

89 20 30.4 
89 18 14 6 


Hennepin, 3 miles east of, T road south, center of northeast and south- 
west road, 10 feet north to fence, 60 feet southeast to elm, 50 feet south 


89 17 06 8 


T 15 N., R. 11 E., quarter corner between sections 29 and 30 (?), 1,100 
feet west of, T road south, 1 . 8 miles west of Granville, center of east 
and west road, 25 feet south to center of triangle 

T. 15 N., R. 11 E., quarter corner between sections 29 and 30 (?), 1,100 
feet west of T road south, 40 feet southeast of 1 .8 miles west of Gran- 
ville, corner of fence; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 5, 
1908, ILLINOIS" 

Granville, . 5 mile southwest of T road north 


89 15 43.2 

89 15 42.9 
89 14 25.5 







Magnetic declination of east border of quadrangle is 4° 17' east. 
Magnetic declination of south border of quadrangle is 4° 37' east. 
Magnetic declination of north border of quadrangle is 4° 50' east. 
Magnetic declination of west border of quadrangle is 4° 30' east. 

Wyanet Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



T 17 N., R. 9 E., north quarter corner section 6, T road south, center 

east and west road 20 feet south to center of triangle 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., north quarter corner section 6, T road south, 40 feet 

southeast of, at corner of wire fence; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. 

Sta. No. 10, 1908, ILLINOIS " 

T. 17 N. R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 6 and 7 center of 

crossroads 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 7 and 18, T road 

north, center of east and west road, 25 feet north -to center of triangle 

180 feet west to T road south 

T. 17 N., R. 9 E., east and west line between sections 18 and 19, T road 

west on, center of triangle, 150 feet south to church 

T. 17 N , R 9 E., quarter corner between sections 19 and 30, center of 

crossroB-d-S -..- ..--.-.-._... 

T. 17 N. Rs. 8 and 9 E., corner sections 25, 30, 31 and '36, north and 

south line between Dover and Bureau townships 

T 17 N., R. 8 E., corner sections 25, 26, 35 and 36, T road south, center 

of east and west road . 20 feet south to center of triangle 

T. 16 and 17 N., R. 8 E., corner sections 1, 2, 35 and 36, T road north, 

stone in center of east and west road 

T. 16 N., R. 8 E., quarter corner between sections 1 and 12, T road west, 

center of north and south road, 20 feet west to center of triangle, 30 

feet east to line fence 

T. 16 N., R. 8 E , quarte corner between sections 1 nd 13, T road 

north,. center of east and west road, 15 feet north to center of triangle, 

40 feet south to center of maple 

T. 16N., R. 8 E., east corner sections 12 and 13, second class road north, 

bend in main road south 

T. 16 N., R. 9 E., corner sections 7 and 18. T oad east, center of north 

and south r ad, 20 feet east to center of triangle 



41 29 41.4 

41 29 41.3 

41 28 49.9- 

41 27 57.5 

41 27 05.1 

41 26 12.8 

41 25 19.9 

41 25 23.2 

41 24 31. 

41 23 38.3 

41 22 46.0 

41 22 44.7 

41 22 43.5 



Longitude. 



89 30 01.4 

8} 30 01.0 

89 30 01.7 

89 30 01.3 

89 30 09.8 

89 30 00.3 

89 30 38.2 

89 31 47.6 

89 31 47.3 

89 .:1 12.3 

89 a 11.8 

89 30 37.1 

;9 30 37.1 



172 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [BULL. NO. 14 

GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS— Concluded. 



Station . 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T 16 N., R. 9 E., west corner sections 7 and 18, T road eas . 35 feet 
southeast of, at corner of fence in northwest corner of section 18; iron 
post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 11, 1908, ILLINOIS" 

T. 15 and 16 N., R 9 E., east and west line between sections 6 and 31, 
also east and west line between Princeton and Arispie townships, 
center of road at crossing 

Illinois and Mississippi Canal, at west end of, center of triangle 

Tiskilwa, 1 mile north of center o bridge over Bureau creek 

Tiskilwa, 0.5 mile north of, road crossing Chicago, Rock Island and 
Pacific R. R., center between main track 

Tiskilwa, T. 15 N., R. 8 and 9 E., corner sections 7, 12, 13 and 18, stone 
in center of intersection of Main and Princeton streets 

Tiskilwa, 1.25 miles southeast of, second class fork to southwest, 150 
feet south of top of hill, center of main road, 15 feet west to telephone 
.pole, 35 feet southwest to center of triangle 



41 22 43.3 



19 16.3 

18 50.3 

18 24.1 

17 54.6 

17 32.7 



41 16 43.1 



89 30 36.7 

89 30 15.2 

89 30 39.8 

89 30 33.4 

89 30 35.2 

89 30 35.4 

89 30 01.1 



Magnetic declination of east border of quadrangle is 4° 30' east. 
Lacon Quadkangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Stations. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 15 N., R. 9 E., corner sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, center of crossroads. . 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., corner sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, center of crossroads, 
40 feet southeast of, at corner of hedge fence in northwest corner of 
section 32; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 12, 1908, ILLI- 
NOIS" 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., corner sections 28, 29, 32 and 33, T road south, center 
of east and west road, 5 feet south to center of triangle 

T. 15 N., R.. 9 E., corner sections 27, 28, 33 and 34, farm road north, 
center of east and west road 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., corner sections 26, 27, 34 and 35, T road north, center 
of east and west road, 20 feet north to center of triangle, 20 feet south 
to end o; north and south wire fence 

T. 15 N., R. 9 E., quarter corner between sections 26 and 35, T road 
west, center of north and south road, 25 feet west to center of triangle 
20 feet east to end of wire fence, 225 feet southeast to school house No. 
174 

Hennepin, 1 mile southeast of, center of crossroads 

Hennepin, 2 . 2 miles southeast of, center of stone arch bridge at T road 
north and south 



41 14 54.8 

41 14 54.5 

41 14 54.7 

41 14 54.5 

41 14 54.1 



41 14 54.0 
41 14 58.0 



41 14 31.1 



89 29 24.9 

89 29 24.5 

89 28 15.0 

89 27 05.1 

89 25 56.4 



89 25 21.6 
89 19 40.8 



18 11.2 



Magnetic declination of north border of quadrangle is 4° 37' east. 



Equality, Marion, Morganfield and Shawneetown Quadrangles — Gal- 
latin and Hardin Counties, Illinois — Crittenden and Union Counties, 
Kentucky. — The following geographic positions were determined by 
primary traverse in 1908 by Mr. J. E. Ellis, assistant topographer. The 
line starts from an adjusted position near C3'press Junction, Illinois, 
and follows public highways south near borders of quadrangles to Peters 
Creek, Illinois, thence east crossing the Ohio river at Weston, Ken- 
tucky, and connecting with an adjusted position at Sturgis, Kentucky. 



HERR0N.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 



173 



Equality Quadrangle, Illinois. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR EAST BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Steel bridge over Saline river just east of T road north 


37 41 55.4 
37 41 20.7 
37 41 20.7 
37 40 41.0 
37 39 34.8 
37 38 59.1 
37 38 16.3 

37 36 56.4 
37 36 15.9 
37 36 02.3 
37 35 37.3 

37 34 43.2 

37 34 29.7 
37 34 16.2 
37 33 07,3 


88 15 41 6 




88 16 11.1 


T 9 S R 8 E J cor soutli of section 36 . . 


88 16 16 4 




88 16 28.4 




88 16 11 6 




88 15 39 8 




88 15 07 3 


T. 10 S., R. 9 and 10 E., cor. sees. 25, 30, 31 and 36, in northeast corner 
of orchard .... 


88 15 37 6 




88 16 16.6 


T 10 and 11 S R 8E cor sees. 1, 2, 35 and 36. 


88 16 51 5 


T. 11 S., R. 8 E., icor. between sees. 1 and 2, stone 

Philadelphia church and school house, about .2 mile north of, center 

of T road west at house on hill 

Sparks Hill post office, T road south; 40 feet southeast to corner of store 

porch, 35 feet east to telephone pole 

T. 11 S., R.8 E.,cor. sees. 12 and 13 (east corner), stone 

Old log house, center of T road west at corner of fence 


88 16 52.0 

88 17 05.9 

88 15 55.1 
88 15 45.3 
88 15 02.4 







Magnetic Declination of east border 4° 12' east. 

Shawneetown Quadrangle, Illinois. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR WEST BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Cypress Junction station ti'ack opposite semaphore 


37 43 33.8 

37 42 40.0 
37 42 13.6 

37 37 44.8 
37 32 58.1 
37 32 36.8 

37 32 18.9 
37 31 37.0 

37 31 01.0 


or // 

88 14 10 7 


Center of T road south; 10 feet south to stone J corner between sees. 29 

and30, T.9S., R.9E 

T 9 S , R. 9 E , cor. sees 29, 30, 31 and 32 


88 14 48.4 
88 14 49 2 


C. B. Swogirt's residence, .3 mile northwest of, at cross roads; 40 feet 
north and 30 feet east to center of cross roads; iron post stamped 
"Prim.Trav. Sta. No. 33, 1908, Illinois" 

T. 11 S., R.9 E., corner at turn of road (no numbers) 

Rock Creek store and post office, .5 mile west of, center of T road east. . 

Rock Creek store and post office, about .5 mile south of, forks just east 


88 14 26.3 
88 14 40.2 
88 14 23.5 

88 13 50 


Baptist Church and school house, .8 mile south of, center of T lane east. 
Baptist Church and school house, 1.5 miles south of, forks of road at 
south end of lane* 20 feet north to corner of fence 


88 13 50.4 
88 13 51 6 







Magnetic Declination west border 4° 12' east. 



174 



YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



Marion Quadrangle, Illinois. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR NORTH BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Peters Creek store, 200 feet east of turn of road at, on north side of road; 

iron post stamped' Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 34, 1908, Illinois 

T. 12 S., R.9 E., cor. sees. 5, 6, 7, and 8 

Richard Frailey's mail box, center of road at 

T.12S., R.9 E.,corsecs.3, 4, 9and 10 

Love school house No. 1, just east of, T road west; 35 feet north and 10 

feet west to corner telephone post 

Cave in Rock, in north part of, center of T road east; 30 feet west to 

advertising board 

T.12, S., R.8and9E., cor sees. 7, 12, 13 and 18 

T. 12 S., R.8 E., cor. sees. 7, 8, 17 and 18 

Cave in Rock, 2 miles east of, south side of Cave in Rock and Fords 

Ferry, at T road northeast; 10 feet northeast to center of T road; iron 

post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 35, 1908, Illinois 

T road south to Fords Ferry, at barn; 20 feet southwest to corner fence 

post 

Three mail boxes, forks of road at 

Old Ferry Landing opposite Weston, Ky., cut on southwest face of 

honey locust tree with two nails driven in center; large cross 



37 29 37.8 

37 29 50.8 

37 29 43.7 

37 29 50.1 

37 29 50.0 

37 28 30.6 

37 28 56.2 

37 28 56.9 



37 28 50.3 



37 28 46.0 
37 29 02.0 



37 29 04.7 



14 05.6 

13 35.1 

12 44.9 

11 21.1 

10 08.1 

09 53.7 

09 07.8 

07 59.9 



07 47.9 



06 30.6 
05 56.6 



04 39.3 



Magnetic Declination north border 4° 27' east. 



Equality 



Shawneetown 



4° 27' East 
Marion 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SUEVEYS. 



175 



Albion, Garmi, Enfield, New Harmony and New Haven Quadrangles — 
Edwards, Wayne and White Counties. — The following geographic posi- 
tions were determined by primary traverse in 1908 by Mr. J. E. Ellis, 
assistant topographer. The line starts from an adjusted position at 
Grayville and follows west along public highways to Burnt Prairie, 
thence south near borders of quadrangles to southwest corner of Carmi 
quadrangle and east to adjusted position two miles south of Maunie. 
The second line starts from an adjusted position at Maunie and follows 
public highways north to the original position at Grayville: 

Cakmi Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Bridge 600 feet east of center of T road north 


38 00 01.4 
38 00 28.8 
38 00 26.0 
38 00 27.0 
38 00 11.2 
38 00 10.6 
38 00 02.6 


88 14 06 9 


Little Wabash river, west bank of, at old ferry landing 

Storms post office center of T road south at 


88 11 47.2 
88 10 46 




88 09 39 4 


T road north on line between sees 13 and 14T6S RUE 


88 03 36 4 


T. 6 S., R. 10'& 11 E., i cor. between sees. 13 and 18, center of bridge . . 
Maunie 2 miles south of center of T road north 


88 02 30.2 
88 02 30 3 







Magnetic Declination south border 3° 44' east. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR EAST BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Maunie, 1.5 miles north of, center of cross roads 

T. 5 S., R. 10 and (11 fraction) E., cor. sees. 19, 24, 25 and 30, cross 
roads 



T. 5 S., R. 10 and (11 fraction) E., cor. sees. 13, 18, 19 and 24, stone... 

Maunie, 3 miles north of, west side of T road east; iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 28, 1908, Illinois" 

Wooden bridge, T road northeast, just north of, 22 feet east to tree 

T road east to ford on Wabash river, 15 feet east to honey locust tree. . 

T. 5 S., R. 14. W., cor. sees. 5. 6, 7 and 8, stone 

Phillipstown, about 2 miles south of, in southwest part of Dicli Pond 
school house yard; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 29, 1908, 
Illinois, ' ' elevation 378 feet 

T. 4 and 5 S., R. 14 W., cor. sees. 5, 6, 31 and 32, T road south 

Phillipstown, center of T road east at store at 

Phillipstown, 1 mile north of, 35 feet west and 45 feet south to center 
of cross roads, at northeast corner of cross roads; iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 30, 1908, Illinois" 

T.4 S., R. 14 W., cor sees. 17, 18, 19 and 20, sandstone 

Calvin station, 1 mile south and .3 mile west of, 15 feet north and 15 
feet east to center of T road, at south side of T road north; iron post 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 31, 1908, Illinois" 

Calvin station, 140 feet northeast of, north and south road crossing Big 
Four railroad at 

Joseph Bumps farm, road crossing Big Four railroad at 



38 03 26.5 

38 04 05.5 

38 04 57.4 

38 04 58.6 

38 04 57.0 

38 05 40.3 

38 06 54.2 



38 07 07.7 
38 07 46.0 
38 08 35.6 



88 02 44.7 

88 02 27.8 

88 02 27.2 

88 02 27.5 

88 01 12.5 

88 01 00.2 

88 00 45.3 



88 00 44. 
88 00 44. 
88 01 15. 



38 
38 


09 
10 


30.4 
22.1 


88 
88 


01 
00 


21.8 
42.8 


38 


11 


40.2 


88 


01 


20.0 


38 

38 


12 
13 


36.5 
52.4 


88 
88 


01 
00 


02.6 
09.0 



Magnetic Declination east border 3° 41' east. 



176 



YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



Albion Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Grayville, in southeast corner of Williamson hotel grounds; iron post 
stamped "PrimTrav. Sta. No. 21, 1908, Illinois 

Grayville, across the street from Illinois station on east side of Illinois 
Central railroad; iron post stamped "Prim Trav. Sta. No. 32, 1908, 
Illinois " 

Grayville station. Big Four railroad 

T.3 S., R.14W., cor sees. 18 and 19 (westcorner),center of T road east. 

T.3S.,R.11E. (fraction, )cor. sees. 18 and 19 (east corner), center of T 
road west 

Grayville, 3 .5 miles west of, center of T road south 

T. 3 S., R. 10 E., cor. sees. 14, 15, 22 and 23, center of cross roads, White- 
Edwards county line ' 

T. 3 S ., R. 10 E ., cor sees. 15, 16, 21 and 22, center of T road north, White- 

. Edwards county line 

T. 3 S., R. 10 E., cor sees. 9, 10, 15 and 16, stone, center of crss roads.. , 

T.3 S., R. 10 E., cor sees. 8, 9, 16 and 17 

T.3 S., R. 10 E., cor sees. 7,8, 17 and 18, center of T road north 

Wayne-Edwards county line, 1 mile north of White county line, at 
northeast corner of T road east; 10 feet southwest and 20 feet south 
tocorner sees. 7, 12, 13 and 18, T.3 S., R.9and 10 E. to Wayne- 
Edwards county line; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 22, 
1908, Illinois" 

T.3 S., R. 9 E., cor sees. 11, 12, 13 and 14. 

T. 3 S., R. 9 E., cor sees. 10, 11, 14 and 15, center of cross roads 

T.3 S., R.9 E., cor sees. 9, 10, 15 and 16 

Gum store, center of cross roads at 

T. 3 S., R. 9 E., cor sees. 8, 9, 16 and 17, stone 

T. 3 S., R. 9 E., 1 cor. between sees. 17 and 18, 20 feet east to center of T 
road west ■ 

Burnt Prairie, .3 mile north of, on White-Wayne county line at turn 
of road; iron post stamped "Prim Trav. Sta. No. 23, 1908, Illinois". . 



38 15 35.1 



38 15 30,7 

38 15 36.9 

38 15 24.9 

38 15 23.5 

38 '15 23.9 

38 15 24.2 

38 15 24.3 

38 16 16.3 

38 16 16.5 

38 .16 16.8 



87 59 29.1 



87 59 26.5 

87 59 29.4 

88 01 36.6 

88 01 36.6 

88 03 26.8 

88 04 32.5 



38.9 
38.4 
44.5 
49.1 



38 


16 


17.7 


88 


08 


58.2 


38 


16 


15.9 


88 


10 


05.1 


38 


16 


19.3 


88 


11 


10.6 


38 


16 


19.1 


88 


12 


16.2 


38 


16 


19.7 


88 


12 


48,8 


38 


16 


20.2 


88 


13 


21.9 


38 


15 


54.9 


88 


14 


29. a 


38 


15 


28.8 


88 


15 


24.4 



Magnetic Declination south border 3° 35' east. 

Enfield Quadkangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR EAST BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 



Burnt Prairie, 1 mile south of, center of T road east 

Burnt Prairie, 2 miles south of, center of cross roads 

T. 3 S., R. E., cor sees. 31 and 36 (south corner), T road north 

T. 4 S., R. 9 E., cor sees. 1 and 6 (north corner) 

Frasher's store, .8 mile north of, center of T road east 

Frasher's store, center of T road east 

Cross roads school house, center of T road west 

Skillet Creek Bridge, U. S. Department of Agriculture Drainage, 360 feet 

southwest of, at turn of road; iron post stamped "384" (?) Elev. 383.6 

Balls store, .5 mile north of, T road west 

T.4 S., R.8 E., cor .sees. 25, 26, 35 and 36, stone at turn of road 

Balls store, 1 mile south of, at turn of road at township line; 6 feet north 

and 4 feet east to cor. sees. 35 and 36 (south corner, )T. 4 S., R. 8 E.; 

iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 24, 1908, Illinois" 

T. 5 S., R. 8 E., cor sees. 1 and 2 (north corner), T road south 

T.5S., R.8 E., cor sees. 1,2, 11 and 12, center of T road east 

T.5S., R. 8 E., cor sees. 11, 12, 13 and 14 

Mile post 198, north and south road crossing L. & N. R. R 

T. 5 S., R. 8 E., cor sees. 13, 14,23 and 24center of T road east at school 

house No. 6 

T. 5 S., R. 8 E., cor sees. 23, 24, 25, 26, center of cross roads 

T . 5 S ., R. 8 E ., cor sees. 25, 26, 35 and 36, center of cross roads 



Latitude. 


Longitude. 


o 


, 


„ 


o 


, 


II 


38 


14 


11.0 


f8 


15 


15.3 


38 


13 


31,7 


88 


15 


05,0 


38 


12 


51.7 


88 


15 


37,7 


38 


12 


51,7 


88 


15 


38,2 


38 


12 


37.6 


88 


17 


01.4 


38 


11 


45.3 


88 


17 


02,2 


38 


10 


40,6 ■ 


88 


17 


03,7 


38 


09 


50.6 


88 


17 


04,6 


38 


09 


02,0 


88 


16 


49,1 


38 


08 


30.4 


88 


16 


50,2 


38 


07 


37,8 


88 


16 


51,2 


38 


07 


37,8 


88 


16 


50,2 


38 


06 


45.0 


88 


16 


50,8 


38 


05 


53,1 


88 


16 


51.6 


38 


05 


23.2 


88 


16 


51.7 


38 


05 


01.6 


88 


16 


51,6 


38 


04 


09,5 


88 


16 


52,6 


38 


03 


17,7 


88 


16 


53,6 



HERRON.] TOPOGKAPHIC SURVEYS. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG -RIOWW AY ^—Concluded. 



177 



Station. 



Latitude. 




Longitude. 



T. 5 S., R. 8 E., cor sees. 35 and 36 (south corner), 10 feet east to cross 
roads 

T. 6 S., R. 8 E., cor sees. 1 and 2 (north corner) 

T. 6 S., R.8 E., cor. sees. 1,2, 11 and 12, stone 

T. 6 S., R. 8 E., cor sees. 23, 24, 25 and 26, stone, center of cross roads 
at Ditney school house 

Ditney church, southwest corner of yard; 30 feet west and 30 feet south 
to i corner between sees. 19 and 24, T. 6 S., R. 8 E., cross roads; iron 
post stamped ' 'Trim. Trav. Sta. No. 25, 1908, Ihinois 

Anna B. PoUe's mail box, T road east; 21 feet southwest to mail box.. 



88 16 54.8 

88 16 54.5 

88 16 54.6 

88 16 54.3 



16 53.9 
15 48.4 



Magnetic Declination of east border 3° 38' east. 

New Haven Quadkangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR NORTH BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 



Anna B. PoUe's mail box, 1.3 miles east of, center of T road west 

T. 6 S., R. 9 E., cor sees. 15, 16, 21 and 22 

Storms post office, 2 miles east and .8 mile south of, at southeast corner 

of T road north; 10 feet west and 15 feet north to center of T road; 

iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 26, 1908, Illinois" 

T. 6 S., R. 10 E., cor sees. 17, 18, 19 and 20, stone 

T . 6 S ., R. 10 E ., cor sees . 16, 17, 20 and 21 

T. 6 S. R. 10 E ., cor sees. 15, 16, 21 and 22; stone 

T.6 S., R.IO E., cor sees. 14, 15, 22 and 23, center of crossroads 

Rising Sun Village, .33 miles southeast of, under center of st el telephone 

tower on west side of Wabash river; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. 

Sta. No. 27, 1908, Illinois" 



37 59 



37 


59 


21.6 


88 


14 


23.8 


37 


59 


47.6 


88 


12 


26.9 


37 


59 


46.2 


88 


08 


33.8 


37 


59 


46.0 


88 


08 


01.0 


37 


59 


45.6 


88 


06 


54.8 


37 


59 


45.5 


88 


05 


49.0 


37 


59 


45.2 


88 


04 


42.9 



01 21.9 



Magnetic Declination of north border 3° 44' east. 



ENFIELD 



ALBION 



3° 35' 



CARMI 



3° 44' east 



NEW HAVEN 



NEW HARMONY 



—12 G 



178 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. U 



Bridgeport, Mt. Garmel, Olney and Vincennes Quadrangles — Edwards, 
Lawrence, Richland and Wa^bash Counties. — The following geograpliic 
positions on U. S. Standard datum were determined by primary traverse 
in 1908 by J. E. Ellis, assistant topographer. The line stkrts from 
Claremont triangulation station of the U. S. Lake Survey and Coast 
and Geodetic Survey and follows south along public highways to Parkers- 
burg triangulation station, thence to southwest corner of Bridgeport 
quadrangle, thence east to point near Patton and north along border 
of quadrangle to primary traverse station No. 11, 1907, Illinois: 

Bridgeport Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



St. James church, center of cross roads at 

T. 1 N., R. 14 W., I corner between sees. 20 and 21, center of cross roads 

Mills Prairie school house No. 13, at northeast corner of T road north, 
0.25 mile east of, 25 feet south and 25 feet west to J corner between 
sees. 21 and 22, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., elevation 435; iron post stamped 
" Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 13, 1908, Illinois" 

Edwards-Wabash county line, center of bridge over Bonpas creek 

T. 1 N., R. 14 W., J corner between sees. 23 and 24, center of T road 
south 

T. 1 N., R. 13 and 14 west, i corner between sees, 19 and 24, center of 
T road west 

Barney Prairie church, stone at T road west at 

Harmony school house, insouthwest corner of yard at; 35 feet south and 
30 feet west to i corner between sees. 20 and 21, T. 2 N., R. 12 W,, 
cross roads; elevation 445; iron post stamped ''Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 
17, 1908, Illinois " 

T. 2 N., R. 12 W., I corner between sees. 20 and 21, center of cross roads 

T. 2 N., R. 12 W., corner sees. 16, 17, 20 and 21 

T. 2 N., R. 12 W., corner sees. 8, 9, 16 and 17 

Grant school house, in southeast corner of yard at; elevation 446; iron 

post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 18, 1908, Illinois" 

T.2N., R. 12 W.. corner sees. 4, 5, 8 and 9, center of cross roads 

T.2 N., R. 12 W., corner sees. 4 and 5 (north corner), T road south.... 

T. 3 N., R. 12 W., corner sees. 32 and 33 (south corner), T road north . 

Bridgeport, at northeast corner of cross roads about 3 miles south of; 
iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 19, 1908, Illinois" 

T. 3 N., R. 12 W., corner sees. 28, 29, 32 and 33, cross roads .' 

Bridgeport, at northwest corner of cross roads 2 miles south of, eleva- 
tion 489; iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 20, 1908, Illinois" 

T. 3 N., R. 12 W., corner sees. 20, 21, 28 and 29, center of cross roads. . 

T. 3 N., R. 12 W., corner sees. 16, 17, 20 and 21, center of T road west. . 

T.3 N., R. 12 W., corner sees. 8, 9, 16 and 17 

Bridgeport, Main street crossing Baltimore & Ohio railroad 

T.3 N., R. 12 W., corner sees. 4, 5, 8 and 9, center of cross roads 

T. 3. N., R. 12 W., corner sees. 4 and 5S(north corner,) 20 feet north to T 
road south 

Westport, 5.75 miles due south of; on east side of T road west at Fair- 
view church, in! top 'of concrete block 8 by 8 by 20 inches; aluminum 
tablet stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 11, 1907, Illinois" 



38 


44 


49.2 


87 


59 


54 4 


38 


30 


15.3 


87 


59 


05.2 


M 












m 












38 


30 


15.2 


87 


57 


57.8 


38 


30 


18.4 


87 


56 


53.2 


38 


30 


14.6 


87 


55 


48.1 


38 


30 


14.5 


87 


54 


41.2 


38 


30 


10.0 


87 


47 


55.0 


38 


35 


26.0 


87 


45 


34.1 


38 


35 


25.7 


87 


45 


34.5 


38 


35 


52.0 


87 


45 


34.0 


38 


36 


44.6 


87 


45 


33.4 


38 


37 


38.2 


87 


45 


33.4 


38 


37 


37.5 


87 


45 


33,1 


38 


38 


34.6 


87 


45 


33.0 


38 


38 


34.6 


87 


45 


34.6 


38 


39 


28.0 


87 


45 


33.8 


38 


39 


27.7 


87 


45 


34.0 


38 


40 


20.7 


87 


45 


34.3 


38 


40 


20.4 


87 


45 


33.9 


38 


41 


13.2 


87 


45 


33.5 


38 


42 


06.2 


87 


45 


33.3 


38 


42 


19.2 


87 


45 


35.3 


38 


42 


59.3 


87 


45 


33.1 


38 


43 


52.6 


87 


45 


33.0 


38 


44 


46.0 


87 


45 


35.3 



Magnetic Declination of east border of quadrangle 3° 50' east. 
Magnetic Declination of south border of quadrangle 3° 47' east. 
Magnetic Declination of west border of quadrangle 3° 36. east. 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 
Olney Quadeangle. 



179 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR EAST BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


T. 3 N., R. 14 W., corner sees. 5 and 6 (north corner), center of T road 
south 


38 

38 
38 
38 
38 
38 
38 

38 
38 
38 

38 
38 

38 

38 

38 
38 

38 
38 

38 
38 

38 


43 

43 

42 
41 
40 
39 

38 

37 
37 
36 

35 
34 

34 

34 

34 
34 

33 
32 

31 
30 

30 


56.4 

04.8 
10.2 
16.5 
23.9 
30.9 
37.9 

45.6 
45.4 
52.5 

59.8 
39.9 

40.4 

51.5 

13.9 
13.6 

20.6 
41.2 

34.7 
41.6 

15.3 


88 

88 
88 
88 
88 
88 
88 

88 
87 
88 

88 
88 

88 

88 

88 
88 

88 
88 

88 
88 

88 


00 

00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

00 
00 
00 

00 
00 

01 

01 

01 
01 

01 
01 

01 
01 

00 


10 4 


T. 3 N., R. 14 W., corner sees. 5, 6, 7 and 8, center of cross roads at school 
house 


10 7 


T. 3 N., R. 14 W., corner sees 7, 8, 17 and 18, center of cross roads 

T. 3 N., R. 14 W., corner sees. 17, 18, 19 and 20, center of cross roads.. 
T. 3 N., R. 14 W., corner sees. 19, 20, 29 and 30, center of cross roads. . 
T 3 N., R. 14 W., stonecorner secs.29, 30, 31 and 32 


11.0 
11.3 
11.6 
12 


T. 2 and 3 N., R. 14 W., corner sees. 5, 6, 31 and 32, center of cross roads 

Whittaker school house and Methodist church, at northeast corner of 

cross roads; 20 feet south and 20 feet west to center of cross roads; iron 

post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 11, 1908, Illinois" 


12.2 
12 6 


T. 2 N., R. 14 W., stone corner sees. 5, 6, 7 and 8, center of cross roads. 
T 2 N., R. 14 W., corner sees. 7, 8, 17 and 18, cross roads 


12.8 
13 1 


T. 2 N., R. 14 W., corner sees. 17, 18, 19 and 20, cross roads at Oak Grove 


13 3 


T. 2 N., R. 14 W., J corner between sees. 29 and 30, center of cross roads 
T.2N.,R.14W., stone i corner west side of sec. 30, at T road east at 

Harrison school house 

Parkersburg triangulation station, in fractional section 30, T. 2 N., 

fractional range 11 E .; stone post ... 


13.6 
26.0 
49 


T. 2 N., R. 14 W., corner sees. 30 and 31 (west corner), T road east, 
Richland-Ed wards county line 


26 1 


Fractional R. 11 E ., corner sees. 30 and 31 (east corner) 


26.1 


T. 1 and 2, N., R. 14 W., stone corner sees. 6 and 31 (west corner), cross 


26.2 


Range Line road crossing Illinois Central railraod . 


26 1 


T. 1 N., R. 14 W., and fractional R. 11 E., cor. sees. 7, 7, 18 and 18, cross 
roads ' . . 


26 4 


T. 1 N., R. 14 W., and fractional R. 11 E., cor. sees. 18, 18, 19 and 19.:. 

"West Salem, at west side of T road east, at Schwartzlow's school house, 
1 mile south of; 20 feet east and 10 feet south to center of T road; iron 
post stamped ' 'Prim, Trav. Sta. No. 12, 1908, Illinois" 


26.4 







Magnetic declination of east border of quadrangle 3° 36' east. 

Mt. Carmel Quadrangle. 

geographic positions along highways near north border of 
quadrangle. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



T. 1 N., R. 13 W., cor sees. 19, 20, 29 and 30, center of cross roads. . . 

Friendsville, at southeast corner of cross roads 3 miles west and 5 miles 
south of; iron post stamped " Prim Trav. Sta. No. 14, 1908, Illinois". 

T. 1 N., R. 13 W., cor sees. 20, 21, 28 and 29, cross roads 

T. 1 N., R.13 W.,corsecs.21,22, 27, and 28, center of cross roads 

T. 1 N., 13 W., stone cor. sees. 22, 23, 26 and 27 

T. 1 N., R. 13 W., cor sees. 23, 24, 25 and 26, T road west 

T. 1 N., R. 12 W., cor sees. 19, 20, 29 and 30, center of T road east 

Patton, on east side of T road west, 1 mile north and .5 mile west of: 
elevation 416; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 15, 1908 
Illinois " '. 

T. 1 N., R. 12 W., cor sees. 20, 21, 28 and 29, center of T road west. . . . 



29 48.1 

29 47.3 

29 47.4 

29 46.9 

29 46.0 

29 45.2 

29 43.2 



29 42.8 
29 42.8 



87 53 31.1 

87 52 24.1 

87 52 24.4 

87 51 16.8 

87 50 09.9 

87 49 01.2 

87 46 45.3 



87 45 36.5 
87 45 36.8 



Magnetic declination of north border of quadrangle 3° 47' east. 



180 



YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. 

ViNCENNES QUADEANGLE. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR WEST BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Patton, at southeast corner of T road west, 1.25 miles north and .5 
miles east of; 15 feet north and 20 feet west to center of T road; iron 
post stamped ''Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 16, 1908, Illinois" 


o / // 

38 29 54.5 
38 30 34.3 
38 31 27.3 

38 32 20.0 
38 33 14.9 
38 33 14.9 

38 34 06.8 
38 35 25.4 


87 44 29 8 


TIN R 12 W cor sees 15 16, 21 and 22 


87 44 30 7 


T. 1 N., R. 12 W., cor sees. 9, 10, 15 and 16, center of cross roads 

T. 1 N., R. 12 W., cor sees. 3, 4, 9 and 10, center of T road west at school 
house 


87 44 31.8 
87 44 32 6 


TIN R 12 W stone corner sees 3 and 4 (north corner) 


87 44 33 4 


T 2N R 12 W., stone cor sees. 33 and 34 (south corner) 


87 44 29 3 


T. 2 N., R. 12 W., cor sees. 27, 28, 33 and 34, Lawrence-Wabash county 
line 


87 44 28 5 




87 44 27 0' 







Magnetic declination west border of quadrangle 3° 50' east. 



OLNEY 



BRIDGEPORT 



3° 47' 



MT. CARMEL 



VINCENNES 



Baldwin, Chester, Renault and Sparta Quadrangles — St. Clair, Ban- 
dolpJi and Monroe Counties.— The following geograpliic positions were 
determined by primary traverse in 1908 by J. R. Ellis, assistant topo- 
grapher. The line starts from primary traverse station mark No. 18, 
1907, and follows public highways near the east border of quadrangles 
to point twO' miles south of Blair, thence west to point near Missouri 
Junction and north via Marigold, Ruma and Red Bud to primary tra- 
verse station mark No. 31, 1907 : 



HERRON.] 



TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS. 



181 



Baldwin Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR SOUTH BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Louis Krang's mail box, center of T road east at 


38 00 43.1 

38 00 30.5 
38 00 30.9 
38 00 03.1 

38 00 19.2 

38 01 11.6 
38 01 41.3 


89 45 52.3 
89 46 5Q R 


Methodist church, T road north, 0.2 miles west of, 20 feet north to center 
of bridge 


T. 6 S., R. 6 W., J corner between sees. 17 and 18, T road south 

T. 6 S., R. 7 W., cor sees. 13 and 24 (east corner) 


89 47 33.2 
89 48 57.8 

89 52 50 


Ellis Grove, near center of triangle formed by three large trees and 
forks of road at Joseph Labririe's farm, about 2 miles east of; iron 
post stamped ''Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 3, 1908, Illinois" 


Old Blufl Ferry, at corner of Jeff Derouse's garden at forks of road, 
about f mile west of; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 4, 
1908, Illinois" 


89 58 32 'i 


St. Louis road at fork of road up bluff 


89 59 19 6 







Magnetic declination south border of quadrangle 4° 51' east. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR WEST BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Ruma. at southwest corner of T road east IJ miles south of, 20 feet east 
and 20 feet north to center of T road east, elevation 522; iron post 
stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 6, 1908, Illinois 


O t II 

38 07 00.6 
38 08 06.4 

38 08 06.2 

38 11 36.3 
38 11 36.7 

38 12 57.8 

38 12 58 8 
38 13 20.6 
38 14 12.8 
38 14 39.0 


89 59 55 4 


T. 5 S., R. 8 W. cor sees. 4 and 5 (north corner), center of T street south 

Ruma, at soutneast corner of cross station, 25 feet north and 30 feet 

west to cor. sees. 32 and 33 (south corner) T. 4 S., R. 8 W., elevation 

442; iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 7, 1908, Illinois". 

Red Bud, at southeast corner of cross roads, 1.5 miles south of, 30 feet 
north and 30 feet west to center of cross roads, elevation 460; iron 
post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 9 1908, Illinois" 


89 59 54.4 
89 59 51.9 
89 59 37 5 


T. 4 S., R. 8 W., cor sees. 8, 9, 16 and 17 


89 59 54 4 


Red Bud, main street crossing Mobile and Ohio R. R. just east of 
station 


89 59 38 i 


Red Bud, at west side of main street and just north of M. & 0. R. R., 
elevation 444; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 10, 1907, Illi- 


89 59 38 8 


Randolph, St. Clair county line, gate post supporting iron gate 

T. 3 S., R. 8 W., stone cor sees. 28, 29, 32 and 33 


89 59 33.3 
89 59 54 6 


Primary Traverse Station No. 21, 1907, Illinois . 


89 59 54 8 







Magnetic declination east border of quadrangle 4° 57' east. 
Magnetic declination west border of quadrangle 5° 02' east. 



Chester Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSTITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR NORTH BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


New Palestine, center of T road west, 0.5 mile southwest of 


O 1 II 

37 59 37.0 

37 59 38.2 

37 59 32.0 
37 59 13.4 
37 58 43.6 

37 59 09.2 

37 58 59.4 
37 59 07.4 
37 59 51.1 


89 49 14 2 


New Palestine, center of T road east, 0.3 mile south and 0.8 mile west 
of 7 feet northwest to stone corner 


89 50 19 9 


Guide board "ElUs Grove li miles— Preston 8", T road west, 20 feet 
east to Whiteoak. . . 


89 53 23 6 


T. 6 S., R. 7 W., icor. between sees. 20 and 29 


89 53 57 4 


Reilly Lake school house, road opposite 


89 54 53 4 


Reilly Lake station, road crossing Illinois Southern R. R., 0.5 mile 


89 55 39 


Reilly Lake station, 21 feet northwest of blazed tree, about 200 feet 

south of Iron Mt. R. R., 0.35 mile west of; spike in top of elm post. . 

St. Louis road at T road east (center of) Reilly Lake Ferry, Okaw river 


89 55 35.8 
89 57 19.8 
89 57 36 8 







Magnetic declination of north border of quadrangle 4° 51' east. 



182 



YEAK-BOOK FOR 1908. 
Renault Quadeangle. 



[BULL. KO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR EAST BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 



Latitude. 


Longitude. 


/ // 


o 


/ // 


38 02 31.4 
38 02 59.0 
38 04 34.3 


90 
90 
90 


00 57.4 
00 17.2 
00 29.6 


38 04 47.9 
38 05 41.7 
38 06 21.8 


90 
90 
90 


00 23.3 
00 28.5 
00 11.8 


38 09 25.8 


90 


00 07.3 



Glascow Farm, T road northeast, 23 feet due south to well 

John A. Mudd's residence, center of T road southwest 

T.5 S., R.8 W., 4 cor between sees. 20 and 29 

Marigold, in southeast part of school house yard at, elevation 565; iron 
post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 5, 1908, Illinois" 

Marigold, center of T road west, 1 mile north of 

Camp creek, center of bridge over 

Buma, at T road west, 1.75 miles north of, 20 feet south,and 20 feet 
east to center of T road west, elevation 419; iron post stamped 
" Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 8, 1908, Illinois" 



Magnetic declination of east border of quadrangle 5° 02' east. 
Sparta Quadrangle. 

GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS ALONG HIGHWAYS NEAR WEST BORDER OF 
QUADRANGLE. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude, 



Center of crossing of north and south and northwest and southeast roads 

White Oak station, road crossing Illinois Central railroad 

T. 3 and 4 S ., R. 6 W., cor sees. 1 ,2, 35 and 36, St. Clair-Randolph county 

line 

Sc otland school house, center of cross roads, 0.25 mile north of 

T. 4 02., R.6 W,,cor.secs.ll, 12, 13 and 14 

T.4 S., R. 6 W., icor. between sees. 11 and 14, T road south 

T. 4 S., R. 6 W., i cor. between sees. 14 and 23 (stone corner), cross roads 
T.4S., R. 6 W., 4 cor. between sees. 23 and 26, T. road east, 15 feet south 

to bridge 

Sparta, at east side of T road west, 1 mile north of, 20 feet west to center 

of sec. 36, T.4 S., R. 6 W., iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 

1, 1908, Illinois" 

T. 4 and 5 S., R. 6 W., I cor between sees. 1 and 36, T road east 

Sparta station, north and south road-crossing Mobile & Ohio R. R. 

about 400 feet west of 

T.5S., R.6 W., cor sees. 11, 12, 13 and 14 

Cor. sees. 13, 14, 23 and 24, center of cross roads, about 0.3 mile west of. 

Blair, center of cross roads, 2 miles north of 

T.6 S., R.6 W., cor sees. 26, 27, 34 and 35 

T. 5 and 6 S., R. 6 W., cor sees. 2, 3, 34 and 35, center of cross roads at 

Blair 

Blair, at northeast corner of cross roads, 2 miles south of, 25 feet west 

and 15 feet south to center of cross roads; iron post stamped "Prim. 

Trav. Sta. No. 2, 1907, Illinois" 



38 
38 


14 
13 


12.1 
41.1 


89 
89 


43 
43 


16.9 
33.3 


38 

38 
38 
38 
38 


13 
12 
11 
11 
10 


10.1 
17.1 

24.8 
25.0 
32.9 


89 
89 
89 
89 
89 


43 
43 
43 
43 
43 


18.7 
01.4 
18.6 
52.4 
52.1 


38 


08 


40.8 


89 


43 


52.6 


38 
38 


08 
07 


20.6 
56.0 


89 
89 


42 
42 


44.7 
44.9 


38 
38 
38 
38 
38 


07 
06 
05 
04 
03 


14.2 
12.5 
20.2 
27.3 
34.1 


89 
89 
89 
89 
89 


42 
43 
43 
44 
44 


45.0 
18.9 
45.7 
17.6 

28.5 


38 


02 


41.4 


89 


44 


29.3 


38 


00 


59.1 


89 


44 


28.1 



Magnetic declination of west border of quadrangle 4° 57' east. 



BAINETAL.] STUDIES OF ILLINOIS COAL. 183 



STUDIES OF ILLINOIS COAL. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Introduction; by H. Foster Bain 185 

Illinois coal as a type 186 

Statement of the problem 187 

The Coal Resources of Illinois; by Frank W. DeWolf — 189 

Geographic relations 189 

Production and reserves 189 

Geologic relations 190 

Structure 190 

Stratigraphy 191 

General 191 

The coals 192 

Mining centers and districts 192 

Williamson. Franklin and Perry counties 192 

Sangamon, Macoupin, Christian, Logan and Macon counties 193 

St. Clair, Madison, Clinton and Randolph counties 193 

Vermilion county 194 

Saline county 194 

Fulton and Peoria counties 195 

LaSalle, Bureau and Grundy counties , : . . 195 

Western field 195 

The Sampling and Analysis of Illinois Coals; by J. M. Lindgren 196 

Introduction 196 

Methods of sampling 196 

Sampling stock-piles 196 

Face-sampling 197 

Quartering 199 

Methods of keeping samples 199 

Methods of analysis 200 

Air-drying loss 200 

Oven-drying loss 200 

Ash 200 

Volatile matter; fixed carbon; calorific value 201 

Analysis of Illinois coals 202 

The Occluded Gases in Illinois Coals; by Perry Barker 204 

Introduction 204 

Description of investigation 204 

Conclusions 210 



184 " YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. NO. 14 

Contents — Concluded. 

Page 

Mining-Wastes and Mining-Costs in Illinois; by George S. Rice , 211 

Introduction 211 

Causes of mining waste 211 

General 211 

Cheapness of coal in place 212 

Low market prices 212 

Character of seam, roof, floor as determining the method of mining '. 215 

The surface subsidence due to mining 218 

Interlaced boundary ownership 218 

Carelessness in mining operations 219 

Remedies for waste in mining 219 

Possible saving 219 

Filling system 220 

Retreating long- wall 220 

Estimate of costs 220 

Effect of introducing new system 221 

Legislation needed •. 222 

Education needed : 222 

The Use of Illinois Coals for Domestic Purposes; by J. M. Snodgrass 223 

The Smokeless Combustion of Bituminous Coal; by A. Bement 229 

The Weathering of Coal; by W. F. Wheeler 233 

Experimental data 233 

Summary 236 

The Modification of Coal by Low-Temperature Distillation; by C. K. Francis 237 

Introduction 237 

Nitrogen , . : 237 

Steam 238 

Oxygen 239 

Generation of Power from Illinois Coal and its Electrical Transmission and Use by The Illinois 

Traction System; by H. C. Hoagland 242 

Introduction 242 

Principal power houses 242 

The Peoria power house 242 

The Riverton power house 243 

Minor power houses and utilities 245 

Summary and Conclusions; by H. Foster Bain 247 

Coal reserves 247 

Mining costs and conditions '. 247 

Present methods of utilization 247 

Possible future improvements 249 

Markets for Illinois coals 249 



BAiN.l INTEODUGTION TO STUDIES OF COAL. 185 



INTRODUCTION.! 



(By H. Foster Bain.) 

The recently aroused public interest in the conservation of our natural 
resources has peculiar importance to mining men, since they deal with 
resources which are stored products. Within certain limits, the fertility 
of a worn-out soil may be restored, deforested areas can be replanted, 
one year's wasted water supply is followed by another; but coal and ores, 
once taken out, cannot be mined again, and should, therefore be con- 
served with especial care. This means, however, not that mining should 
be restricted, but that it should be done most economically and with the 
minimum of waste. 

As a first step, we should take stock of our reserves and study our 
methods of production. This is peculiarly true of coal, because of the 
intimate relations of fuel supply and industrial supremacy, the speed 
with which our coal-fields are being exploited, and the large waste at- 
tending the mining and ultilization of coal. In 1906, according to the 
U. S. Greological Survey, the value of the total mineral production of 
the United States was $1,902,517,565, of which $513,079,809 was de- 
rived from the coal mines. In 1907, notwithstanding the unfavorable 
industrial conditions of the second half of that year, the coal output 
of the country was 480,450,042 tons, valued at $614,831,549. It is im- 
possible to determine exactly the waste of coal attending this production ; 
but it is perhaps approximately accurate to say that, for each ton mined 
and marketed, another ton was lost in the processes of handling and 
preparation, or abandoned underground. Engineers know that the 
waste in burning the coal was even greater. In short, only a very small 
proportion of the energy residing in our coal-beds is utilized under pres- 
ent conditions. 

Any effort to remedy these conditions must be based upon careful 
studies and much experimental work. The TJ. S. Geological Survey has 
taken. the lead, so far as relates to the national coal-researves ; but no 
single organization can hope to do all the work, and the individual 
states must be prepared to take part in it. In Illinois a beginning has 
already been made. Through the State Engineering Experiment Station 
and the State Geological Survey, various problems relating to the occur- 
rence, production, and utilization of Illinois coals are being studied. In 
the papers which follow^ some of the results of these investigations are 



^ Most of the following papers were read at the Chattanooga meeting of the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers, October, 1908. 



186 



YEAE-BOOK FOE 1909. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



given^ supplemented by discussions of certain phases of the subject by 
Messrs. Eice and Bement, engineers especially familiar, through private 
practice, with the particular questions involved. 

Illinois has a large interest in everything relating to' coal. Though 
far behind Pennsylvania in present production, it ranks second among 
the states, with an output in 1907 of 51,317,146 tons, valued at $54,- 
687,382. In the amount of its coal-reserves it undoubtedly outranks any 
eastern or central state, and its geographic position adds importance to 
the fact. 

Illinois Coal as a Type. 

The character and composition of Illinois coals has been discussed in 
some detail by Prof. S. W. Parr,^ who has especially pointed out the 
inert character of a large amount of the volatile matter present. Table 
I is an average analysis based on 24 analyses, or averages of analyses, 
of face-samples, made by the State Geological Survey. The individual 
analyses have been weighted in proportion to the production of the 
various counties, and the figures are all based on the coal as received, 
including mine-moisture and occluded gas. Detailed analyses are given 
on later pages. 

Table I. — Average Analyses of Illinois Coal. 



Moisture. 
Per Cent. 


Volatile. 
Per Cent. 


Fixed 
Carbon. 
Per Cent. 


Ash. 
Per Cent. 


Sulphur. 
Per Cent. 


Calorific 

Capacity. 

B.t.u. 


12.60 


35.99 


41. 2 


10.51 


3.22 


11,046 



Table II gives the composition of commercial deliveries in Chicago 
from a number of representative Illinois mines compared with face- 
samples. The figures of lump, mine-run and screenings represent in each 
case the average of a large tonnage, as actually delivered and sampled 
by the Fuel Engineering Co. For comparison, analyses of face-samples 
from the same mines are included in the table. 



Table II. — Average Composition of Illinois Coals. 

liveries.) 



{Commercial Be- 



Samples. 


Sulphur. 
Percent. 


Moisture. 
Per cent. 


Dry ash. 
Per cent. 


Cal.cap. (dry) 
B.t.u. 


Number 
of mines. 


Face . . 


3.35 
3.08 
3.10 
3.90 


12.27 
10.40 
11.60 
13.80 


10.88 
10.7 
15.50 
19.10 


12,779 
12,827 
11,990 
11,319 


22 


Lump . . . 


14 


Mine run 

Screenings 


14 
19 



i Bulletin No. 3, Illinois State Geological Survey, pp. 27 to 79 (1906). 



BAIN.] INTEODUCTION TO STUDIES OF COAL. 187 

In making comparisons it should be noted that both the ash and the 
B.t.Ti. values are calculated on a "dry-coar^ basis. In later pages face- 
samples from various parts of the State are considered. 

Briefly^ all Illinois coals are bituminous^ and, as contrasted with 
their principal market-competitors, are relatively high in sulphur, ash, 
moisture, and volatile matter. Moreover, as Professor Parr has pointed 
out, 40 per cent, of the volatile matter, or 14 per cent, of the whole 
coal, is non-combustible, as contrasted with 22 and 4.2 per cent, respec- 
tively, in the case of Pocahontas, Va., coal, and 47 and 21.63 per cent, 
in North Dakota lignite. Illinois coals are essentially free-burning and 
non-coking. They are mainly used for heating and power-generation, 
and have no large or direct use in metallurgy. The amount of suphur 
present precludes their use for furnace-coke and complicates the problem 
of storage. The large proportion of volatile introduces a smoke-problem 
when the coals are burned in cities, and the high content in ash also de- 
tracts from their value. Despite all these facts, they have a high average 
value for miscellaneous heating and for steam-generation, and many 
of them are excellently adapted for use in gas-producers. In a general 
way, it may be said that the Illinois-Indiana coals are not inherently as 
valuable as the coals of the Appalachian basin, but more valuable than 
those of the Michigan and Western Interior fields, excepting limited 
areas in western Arkansas and eastern WKiahoma. 

Statement of the Probleim. 

To estimate the position of Illinois coals in the markets of the future, 
the following topics must be considered: (1) the distribution and 
amount of coal available in the field: (2) the quality of the coal; (3) 
mining conditions and costs; (4) present methods of utilization; (5) 
possible future methods of utilization; and (6) the relations of the 
deposits to markets. 

A complete discussion of all these factors is at present impracticable. 
In the present series of papers the first has been briefly considered by 
P. W. DeWolf, Assistant State Grcologist. Certain phases of the second 
are discussed by Messrs. Lindgren and Barker on the basis of work 
done under direction of Professor Parr for the State Survey and the 
Experiment Station. The third is discussed by G. S. Rice, Consulting 
Engineer. The fourth is discussed in two papers, the first of which, 
treating of the domestic consumption of coal, has been prepared by J. 
M. Sno'dgrass as a result of work being done under the direction of L. 
P. Breckenridge of the Engineering Experiment Station. The problem 
of burning Illinois coals without smoke, a most important one in such 
a consideration as the present, is taken up by A. Bement, Consulting 
Engineer. The possible future methods of utilization of our coals have 
some light shed on them through the discussion of the weathering of coal 
by W. P. Wheeler and the artificial modification of coal at low tempera- 
tures by C. K. Francis. Both papers are based upon work done under 



138 YEAB-BOOK FOE 1908. [B^^-I- "»• " 

Professor Parr in the laboratories of tlie University of Illinois. Pmally, 
rSve pointed out in a general way the relations of the coal-field to 

*^ WhiStre are many obvious gaps in this symposium, it is hoped that 
the nape^ forrSng it will give information, important no only to 
produ ers and user? of Illinois coals, but to many others as well. 



STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



BULL. NO. 14, PL. 2. 




JERSE: 







Q//////,GiM&\ lie Y/y/y//X6'/A/L'Jv//K'^^^-(4o^/ 




RICHL-ANP'Jtawrenc 



-mw^ 



r^ 






mmm0m^-^--^ 






Upper Coal :jleasures 
Lower Coal Measures l^ 



^ILLlAMSONj 

UNION i^i,-ri,l ^^/^ 

ALEX- 
^ANDERr""-"*S^WAS8ACV 



Lonsitiide West 90' from Gr 



PULASKI, 

Virolj^- E 



i^^ N 



Oa, 



80- 




Map Showing Upper and Lower Coal Measures. 



DE WOLF,] 



COAL RESOUKOES OF ILLINOIS. 



189 



THE COAL RESOURCES OF ILLINOIS. 

(By Frank W. DeWolf.^) 



Geographic Eelations. 

Coal-bearing rocks underlie three-fourths of Illinois^ including 85 
of its 102 counties. The coal area may be estimated at from 36,000 to 
42,000 square miles — the largest area of bituminous coal within any 
single state. The unproductive part, as shown in PL 2, includes the 
northern one-fifth, a narrow belt bordering the Mississippi river, and 
a half-dozen small counties at the southern extremity. 

Production and Keseryes. 

The production in 1907, according to the U. S. Greological Survey, 
was 51,317,146 tons, with a spot value of $54,687,382— the largest pro- 
duction so far reached, representing a gain of 23.7 per cent over that of 
1906. Illinois thus ranks second among producing states, a position 
which it has held for twenty-three years, except in 1906, when West 
Virginia; on account of labor conditions., ranked second. There are 
more than 400 shipping mines scattered through fifty-two counties, and 
thirty-three other counties are probably underlain by coal, but as yet not 
commercially developed. 

Considering the production of the State for the past thirty years, in 
five-year totals, shown in Table I, minor fluctuations are lessened and 
the rapid strides of increase are made prominent. 

Table I. — Production from 1878 to 1907 in 5-year Totals. 
(Eound Numbers.) 



Years. 


Tons. 
Production. 


Increase. 


Tons. 


Percent. 


1878-1882 


32,651,000 
59,764,000 
75,247,000 
78,377,000 
131,077,000 
204,646,000 






1883-1887 


27,113,000 
15,483,000 
3,130,000 
52,700,000 
73.569,000 


83.0 


1888-1892 


25.9 


1893-1897 


4 1 


1898-1902 


67.3 


1903-1907 


56 i 







Assistant State Geologist. 



190 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. Fbull. no. 14 

While the total production has steadily increased, the percentage rate 
of increase has, on the whole, diminished, and this has been interpreted 
by Parker, Fleming, and others to mean that, under present commercial 
tendencies, there will come, many years hence, for every producing state, 
a time when the rate of increase will be zero, and after which the total 
production will slowly diminish. Doubtless many factors will arise to 
modify the operation of this tendency, and in the case of Illinois the 
exhaustion of the coal-resources lies far in the future. 

Estimates have recently been made of the total amount of coal orig- 
inally under the State, and the amount still remaining. Such calcula- 
tions are extremely uncertain; but, assuming the exploitation of all 
coal-beds twenty-four inches or more in thickness, and estimating ac- 
cording to present knowledge the thickness of each seam, the conclu- 
sions given in Table II may be regarded as reasonable and prudent, 
though subject to revision. 

Table II. — Estimate of Illinois Goal-Resources. 
(Round Numbers.) 





Tons. 


Original coal . . . 




136,966,000,000 


Mined to close of 1907 .... . .... 


645,868,309 
245,429,957 


Wasted to close of 1907 (at 62 per cent recovery) 








Mined and wasted to close of 1907 . . 




891,000,000 






Total reserves . .... 


136,075,000,000 







The largest area within which the amount of coal present is uncertain 
occupies the east central counties, where drill-records are scattered. 
A recent estimate by M. R. Campbell of the IT. S. G-eological Survey 
includes beds twenty inches and more in thickness, and places the orig- 
inal supply at 240,000,000,000 tons. 

Geologic Relations. 

The Illinois coal-region comprises about three-fourths of the Eastern 
Interior field, the remainder lying in neighboring parts of Indiana and 
Kentucky. It may once have been continuous with the Appalachian, 
Northern Interior, and Western Interior fields. There is great resem- 
uiance to the stratigraphy of the Indiana-Kentucky areas; and struc- 
turally the Eastern Interior basin is a unit. The geology of the coal- 
fields is now being studied in detail by the State and U. S. Geological 
Surveys in cooperation. The data here given were obtained in the 
course of this study. 

STRUCTURE. 

Generalized cross-sections of the Illinois field, compiled by several 
geologists, show it to be spoon-shaped, the beds dipping gently towards 



DEWOLF.] COAL RESOUEOES OF ILLINOIS. 191 

a long axis which lies a short distance west of LaSalle and continues a 
little east of south to the southwest county of Indiana. The deepest 
part of the basin is in the vicinity of White county, and from here the 
strata rise more rapidly to the south than to the north, averaging over 
a considerable distance forty feet, and locally 100 feet per mile. The 
sides of the ^^spoon" show some minor longitudinal folds, notably the 
anticline which runs from LaSalle through the Illinois oil-field towards 
Princeton, Ind., a steep monocline at Duquoin, and a gentle anticline 
at Belleville. The southern margin of the basin shows numerous minor 
faults and at least one of consequence, which runs west and a little 
south from Shawneetown, and has a down-throw to the north of over 
1,000 feet. This separates the greater part of the basin from a narrow 
southern belt of rugged country, characterized by massive sandstones, 
but containing local areas of thick coal. Igneous dikes and other features 
along the southern margin of the basin indicate that the structure of the 
coal-field is in part related to the erogenic movements of southern Illi- 
nois and western Kentucky. 

This structure has localized active mining around the edges of the 
basin, where the coal is most easily reached. Since, in the lowest area, 
the thick coal-beds lie 1,200 feet or more below the surface^ they will 
probably not be utilized there for some time. 

STRATIGRAPHY. 

General Btraiigra'phy . — ^The rocks of the Coal ivieasures or Pennsyl- 
vanian series consist of alternating beds or lenses of shale and sandstone, 
with which are mingled thinner strata, of limestone, coal, and fire-clay 
There appear to be three general divisions of the rocks : 

(1) A basal portion, composed chiefly of massive sandstones, and^ 
aecording to David White, corresponding in age to the Pottsville form- 
ation of the Appalachian trough. This has a thickness of 650 feet 
or more in Johnson and Hardin counties, but diminishes rapidly to 
the west and north, being nearly or quite absent over much of the State. 
Coal No'. 1 of the western counties lies near the top of this formation. 
Lower coals occur in southeastern Illinois and western Kentucky, and 
some of these were formerly mined. 

(2) The second division extends from Coal No. 2 of the western 
and northern counties to Coal No. 7, and thus includes all the seams 
mined for shipment in the State. It is dominated by shale and contains 
a subordinate amount of sandstone. In age, it corresponds closely to the 
Allegheny formation or Lower Productive Measures of Pennsylvania, 
since, on the basis of plant-fossils, Coal No. 7 lies at or near the Upper 
Freeport, and No. 2 near the Kittanning horizon. This formation ex- 
tends over nearly the whole coal-area, but its lower beds are not well 
known in the central part of the basin. At Peoria the total thickness is 
about 200 feet, and at Mattoon it appears to be 300' feet. 

(3) The third and topmost division is dominated by shales, and con- 
tains no coals of present importance, though some are locally mixed on a 
small scale. It occupies much of the coal-area, and reaches its greatest 



192 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

thickness (1,200 feet or more) in the vicinity of Hamilton and White 
coiinties. From 275 to 350 feet above its base occurs the Carlinville 
limestone, which, in the earlier State geological work, was accepted as 
a dividing line between the Upper and Lower Coal Measures. 

The total thickness of the Pennsylvania rocks probably exceeds 2,000 
feet,, but around the edges of the basin much has been removed by 
erosion, and in a large part of the State the basal division is thin or 
absent. David White, who has contributed largely to recent studies of 
it, has shown that the earliest beds were deposited in a restricted area in 
the southeastern counties, and that the favorable conditions for deposi- 
tion of the Coal Measures gradually spread over the State, overlapping 
the eroded surface of the rocks, which are progressively older to the 
north. 

The Goals. — In the work of early State surveys the Illinois coals were 
numbered from 1, at the bottom, to 16, at the top, and the same method 
was used in Kentucky, where, however, additional beds of the lower coals 
were found. The numbers, therefore, are confusing; Illinois ISTos. 5 and 
7 being identical respectively with Kentucky Nos. 9 and 11. Even in 
Illinois the numbers have been incorrectly assigned, and the same bed 
is now known under several numbers. Thus, Coal No. 7 of Saline and 
Williamson counties is undoubtedly the seam known as No. 6 and 7 
at Duquoin, and as No. 6 in the Belleville region, and is probably the 
same as No. 6 at Peoria and No. 5 south of Chatham. The tracing of 
the Illinois coals is one of the interesting studies now in progress. Satis- 
factory work seems possible on the horizon of Coal No. 2, which White 
has found present from the northern long-wall district through the 
western belt of counties to Murph3^sboro ; and also on the so-called ^^Blue 
Band^^ seam, called in different localities, as already remarked, Nos. 
5, 6, and 7. Other beds of reasonable persistence will probably be found ; 
but most of the Pennsylvania rocks seem to constitute "interfingering'' 
lenses of comparatively local extent. There are at least four coal-seams 
of wide distribution, and from 3 to 9 feet thick, besides others of local 
importance. 

MINING GENTEES AND DISTEICTS. 

The state may perhaps be divided into natural districts on the basis 
of the varying fuel-value of the coals ; and this study is now under way. 
The following notes, however, relate to important geographical districts 
or mining centers recognized by the trade. The use of numbers does 
not imply correct correlation of the beds. 

Williamson, FramMin and Ferry Counties. — Williamson county led 
the production of the State in 1907 with more than 5,500,000 tons, and 
its coal has a rapidly growing market. No. 7, the Blue Band seam, 
which is from 5 to 10 feet thick, averaging nine feet over a large 
area, is the greatest producer. The top-coal, about twenty inches thick, 
is frequently left to support the shale roof, and locally is withdrawn after 
the rooms have been mined out. The "blue band" is a clay or shale 
parting from one to two inches thick, and about twenty inches above the 



DEWOLF.J COAL RESOURCES OF ILLINOIS. 193 

floor. There is a general northeast dip^ amounting to sixty feet per mile 
in the central part of the county. Local faults occur, sometimes with 
from twenty to thirty feet displacement. The seam outcrops near 
Marion, but elsewhere is reached by shafts, usually from 100 to 200 feet 
deep. There is no sharp line between this field and its neighbors. The 
same seam is known in Perry and Franklin counties and in counties to 
the east. It maintains an approximate uniformity in physical character 
and thickness, but varies from place to place in fuel-value. At Duquoin 
on the west it is nearly horizontal, but on the east it dips rapidly and 
becomes thicker and somewhat better in quality. At Spillertown, an- 
other seam, four feet thick, is mined sixty feet below No. 7. This seam 
is probably equivalent to No. 5 of Saline county, and if we may judge 
from borings, may have a wide distribution in the Williamson county 
district. 

Sangamon, Macoupin, ClirisUan^, Logan and Macon Counties. — The 
Springfield district, extending into several adjoining counties, has long 
been one of the most important. Sangamon county produced more 
than 5,000,000 tons in 1907. The coal of the district is commonly 
Known as No. 5, though recent work by Mr. Savasje and the writer tends to 
confirm the suggestion made by Messrs. Bement,^ Ilice,^ et-al., that there 
are probably two distinct beds mined in the district. No. 5 in the area 
north of Chatham and No. 6 south of that town. No. 5 is cut by num- 
erous vertical clay veins from a few inches to four feet in thickness, and 
lacks the "blue band^^ which characteristically occurs near the floor of 
No. 6. Both beds may have a limestone cap-rock within a few feet of the 
coal. These coals are thought to be of the same age as Nos. 5 and 6 
of the Peoria region, and the upper bed. No. 6, is probably the same as 
No. 6 of Belleville and No. 7 of Williamson county. No. 5 lies about 
250 feet below the surface in the vicinity of Springfield, at 425 feet at 
Mount Olive on the south, and at 600 feet at Decatur on the east. The 
average thickness is a little less than six feet at Springfield, about 4.5 
feet at Decatur, and from six to eight feet in Macoupin county. There 
are three higher coals, all too thin to' be mined at present, and lying 
respectively, 50, 100 and 175 feet above No. 5. There are likewise sev- 
eral coals below No. 5, but drilling has not been, adequate to determine 
meir commercial values. At Eiverton to the east a diamond-drill record 
reports two seams, each measuring about thirty-two inches, lying 125 and 
250 feet, respectively, below No. 5.' There are also several other coals, 
which locally may develop into thick seams. A 4-foot bed is reported to 
occur in this vicinity at a depth of 320 feet below No. 5, but is known 
only from a churn-drill record. 

St. Clair, ^,j.aSson, Clinton and Randolph Counties. — St. Clair county 
produced more than 4,500,000 tons in 1907. This district, known as- 
the Belleville district, is not sharply set off from its neighbors, since the 
same coal-bed is mined under similar conditions in adjoining counties. 



i state Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 3, p. 19. 
2 This Bulletin, p. 1127. 



—13 G 



194 YEAK-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

It is again the "Blue Band" seam, with its parting near the base, and 
its limestone caprock, nsually above the slate, bnt in some places directly 
overlying the coal itself. The thickness is from five to seven feet over 
much of this area, and the seam is reached by shafts from 100 to 300 
feet deep. It outcrops west of Belleville, and is eroded from the western 
part of the county. The general dip of the beds in St. Clair county, as 
demonstrated by the recent work of Dr. J. A. Udden, is eastward, from 
ten to twenty feet per mile. Local variations are frequent, and faults 
of six feet displacement have been observed; but the general conditions 
are uniform. As to quality, analyses of face-samples indicate considerable 
irregular variation, so that no average can be given for the entire dis- 
trict. Borings indicate the presence of two deeper seams, one about 
fifty and the second from 100 to 150 feet below No. 6 ; but their gen- 
eral workability has not been demonstrated. 

Vermilion County. — During 1907 Vermilion county produced nearly 
3,000,000 tons. It has long been an important area, shipping princi- 
pally to the Chicago market. As described by M. E. Campbell,^ there 
are three persistent coal-seams, two of which are worked. The top or 
Danville bed (No. 7) appears west of Vermilion river, and is mined 
along the outcrop and by shafts from 75 to 200 feet deep. It is about 
six feet thick around Danville, but more nearly three feet ten miles 
further south. A band of bone or clay, lying from 6 to 20 inches above 
the floor, occurs in some of the reported sections. The G-rape Creek 
coal (No. 6) lies from 20 to 80 feet below the Danville, and is more 
important. It becomes thicker southward from Danville, and covers 
many square miles with a thickness of from 6 to 9 feet. A band of 
shale or sulphur frequently occurs about two feet above the floor. Sev- 
eral borings have shown a seam from 185 to 220 feet below the Grape 
Creek, and from 4 to 8 feet thick, but badly broken by bands of shale 
and limestone. 

Saline County. — Saline county is one of the newest and most rapidly 
growing producers. In 1907 its output was about 2,125,000 tons, a gain 
of 125 per cent upon 1906. There are two seams, Nos. 7 and 5, underly- 
ing the northern two-thirds of this county and much of Grallatin on the 
east, each approximately five feet thick, and lying from 90 to 150 
feet apart vertically. The upper is the Blue Band coal, which runs west 
into Williamson county and north into White and Hamilton. The lower 
seam' is free from regular bands and has considerably higher heating- 
value, though in this respect the upper seam also is excellent. The seams 
outcrop to the south, and have a general northward dip' of from 25 to 
75 feet per mile. Thus, the coal which outcrops at Equality, in Grallatin 
county, is from 900 to 1,000 feet deep in Hamilton county, twenty-five 
miles north. Farther northeast, diamond-drill records in the oil-fields 
indicate the presence of the same coals. An E.-W. fault, with a down- 
throw to the north of more than 1,000 feet, crosses the middle of Saline 
and Gallatin counties, and is, perhaps, related to some minor faults and 
igneous intrustions in this district. 



I Danville Folio, U S. Geological Survey. 



DEWOLF.] COAL EESOURCES OF ILLINOIS. 195 

Fulton and Peoria Counties. — Fulton county produced more than 
2^000,000 tons in 1907^ and Peoria about half as much. No recent work 
has been done by the Survey in Fulton, but Peoria has been studied 
carefully by Dr. J. A. Udden. Here the principal seam, called No. 5, 
is from 4 to 4.5 feet thick, free from persistent partings, and dips gently 
SE., usually about five feet, and only locally as much as sixty feet per 
mile. Shafts reach the coal at from 75 to 150 feet. In all, seven beds 
are present here within 300 feet of the surface, but only four have proved 
thick and persistent enough to be mined. No; 1, or the Lower Potts- 
town, is about 250 feet below No. 5, and about four feet thick, but is 
divided by a shale-parting, three feet thick, about fifteen inches below 
the roof. This coal is no longer worked. No. 2 is about 130 feet below 
No. 5 and thirty inches thick. It is worked by the long-wall method, 
and, according to the analysis of a mine-sample, appears to be a little 
better in quality than No. 5, though mining conditions may render the 
commercial output inferior. No. 6 lies 70 feet above No. 5, and has 
the characteristic band and roof-materials of the Blue Band seam, var- 
iously named Nos. 5, 6 and 7. The coal is a little less than four feet 
thick, but lies near the surface, and has been locally faulted and broken, 
so as to render mining difiicult. 

LaSalle, Bureau and Grundy Counties. — The LaSalle district includes 
three principal counties which produce together more than 5,000,000 
tons. The largest production is obtained by long-wall mining from 
seam No. 2, or the "Third Vein." The coal averages about three feet 
in thickness, and is blocky and of good quality. The method of mining 
introduces considerable ash in the screenings, and washers are used. The 
seam is reached by shafts from 125 to 450 feet deep. About 140 feet 
above No; 2 lies the seam, four feet thick (or more), called No. 5 in 
former reports. About forty feet above it lies No. 7, which is extensively 
worked under the uplands of the region by room-and-pillar methods. 
The geological work of the present season should assist in the correlation 
of these upper beds with others of the State, and bring up to date our 
knowledge of this important field. 

Western Field. — The coxmties along the western edge of the • State 
are underlain by coals No. 1 and No. 2, recently traced by David White 
from LaSalle and Eock Island counties on the north to Murphysboro 
on the south. At present, mining in these counties is largely from No. 
2, for local use. The lower seams usually measure from 2 to 3 feet 
only, but the highlands contain areas of thicker upper coals also. In 
view of the present and future development of the clay industries of 
this district, the coal promises to be of great importance. The clay lies 
between No. 1 and No. 2, at the horizon of the famous Chelthenham 
clav of St. Louis, Mo. 



196 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 



THE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF ILLINOIS COALS. 

(By J. M. LiNDGBEN.i) 



Introduction. 

Tlie importance of accurate sampling is evident. No matter how 
careful, the analysis, the results are of little value if the. sample be not 
truly representative. For example, if a sample of 100 pounds of coal,, 
selected for quartering, contains a piece of pyrite larger than the pieces 
of coal, and weighing three pounds, the inclusion of this pyrite in th& 
sample would increase the ash by about three pounds, and correspond- 
ingly raise the percentage of ash shown by subsequent analyses. Such a 
piece of pyrite should have been discarded as abnormal ; yet, had it been 
of average size and presumably present in every other 100-pound sample- 
similarly taken, it would have been normal, and should not have been 
discarded. Another mistake is made in sampling when the best-looking 
piece of coal is selected as representative of the pile. Such samples are 
too frequently taken. Still another improper method is to' select por- 
tions from different parts of the top of the pile, disregarding the coal 
underneath. This leads, in many cases, to serious errors, because the 
coal underneath is very likely to be of different character from that on 
the top. 

•Methods of Sampling. 

SAMPLING stock PILES. 

Probably the most common method of sampling coal is to select 
definite portions from different parts of the pile. In the case of a car- 
load of coal, sampled as it is unloaded, a good method is to select every 
twenty-fifth or thirtieth shovelful from different portions of the car. 
In sampling coal as it comes from the mine, it is customary to select 
a portion from each lot dumped into the coal-chutes. 

W. F. Wheeler and Prof. S. W. Parr have invented a sampler which 
has given satisfactory results on coal of small size, and in the use of 
which it is unnecessary to handle the entire pile. It is made in two 
parts, one of which consists of a heavy, galvanized iron pipe, six feet long 
and eight inches in diameter, having at one end handles for revolving it, 
and at the other end, on opposite sides, two notches, slightly sharpened,. 
so that, when the pipe is revolved, they will cut into the coal. The 



i Assistant Chemist, Engineering Experiment Station. 



I.INDGREN.] SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF ILLINOIS COALS. 



197 



second part is an iron rod, slightl}^ longer than the pipe and sharpened 
at one end, to which end is securely fastened a pipe of thin galvanized 
iron 7 feet by 5 inches in size, which will just fit into part No. 1. In- 
side this pipe is a series of sectional shutters, at right angles to the rod, 
which are arranged so as to fold fan-fashioned when operated in one 
direction, but to unfold and close the opening when operated in the 
opposite direction through the turning of a lever-arm at the top of the 
iron rod. Part ISTo. 2 also has handles for revolving. The apparatus is 
used as follows : Part No. 1 is showed slightly into the coal, whereupon 
part No. 2 is inserted, and, by revolving, pushed further into the coal. 
When the interior pipe is filled, the bottom is closed by means of the 
lever, and the pipe is pulled out and emptied of its load of coal. Part 
No. 1 is then pushed still farther into the coal and a second portion is- 
taken out; and so on, until the bottom of the pile is reached. By means 
of part No. 2 the coal is removed just in front of part No. 1, so that it 
€an easily be advanced. Such a device, of course, can only operate on 
small sizes of coal. 

Table I gives ash-determinations, calculated to a dry-coal basis, of 
<coal sampled in the three ways just described. 

Table I. — Dry Ash of Coul Sampled hy Three Methods. 



Kind of CoaL 



From coal- 
chutes. 
Percent. 



From ears. 
Percent. 



From bins. 
By pipe 
sampler. 
Percent. 



Sangamon egg 

■Sangamon screenings 
Berrinegg , 

IHerrin screenings 

"Westville eggi 

Westville screenings' 



17.87 
17.13 
14.32 
14.13 

10.55 

17.88 



16.63 
17.04 
14.90 
14.37 
13.98 
13.69 



17.45 

17.22 
14.32 
15.66 
14.21 
14.69 



FACE-SAMPLING. 

In taking a sample of coal which is to represent the quality of coal in 
the mine, it is extremely difficult tO' get a face of coal which is truly 
representative. Such a sample rarely represents the quality of coal 
actually mined, principally because of carelessness in mining. The re- 
sults obtained at the St. Louis Exposition Ftiel-Testing Plant showed 
that the usual method of mine-sampling cannot be relied on to represent 
ihe average commercial product of the mine.^ In many cases, however, 
it will correspond fairly with the lump coal. 



^ In this case only the car -sample and the sample taken by pipe sampler are comparable, because 
the sample from the chutes was picked clean at the top after each dump, before a shovelful was 
selected for a sample, leaving a portion about 2 ft. thick, which was not cleaned. Of course, when the 
•car was sampled during unloading this error was avoided. 

2 Professional Paper No. 48, United States Geological Survey, p. 142 (1906). 



198 



YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



Table, II. — Distribution of Ash in Coal During Quartenng Two-Pound 

Sample with Rifjie After Crushing to One-Eighth Inch 

Maximum' Diameter. 

(Ash equals percentage of dry coal.) 

(Whole sample) 2 lb. 



( I/3 sample) 



(1/4 sample) 



(1/8 gample) 



(i/ie sample) 



(I/32 sample) 



(1/64 sample) 



11.37 per 

cent. ash. 



.11.4,7 per 
cent, ash ^ 



11.49 per 

cent. asB: 



11.31 per 

cent. asM 



11.33 per 
cent, ash^ 



11.07 per 

cent.asht 



ll.J56per 

cent, ash 




(Vi28 sample) 1/4 oz. 



11.43 per 

cent, ash 



I/4 oz. 

10.70 per- 
cent, ash 



I/4 oz. 

11.91 per 

cent, ash 



11.47 per 
cent, ash 



13.06 per 
cent, ash 



11.16 per 

cent, ash 



1/4 oz. 



11. 20 per 

cent, ash 



* Calculated from two halves of sample 



LINDGREN.] SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF ILLINOIS COALS. 199 

A face-sample is taken in the following manner by the State Geolog- 
ical Suryey : A face of coal, which represents as nearly as possible the 
average coal in the mine, is cleaned by taking off a layer of 2 or 3 
inches, after which all loose pieces are picked off the face and roof. A 
large piece of oil-cloth is then spread out on the floor to catch the coal 
as it is sampled. A strip of coal at least five pounds to the foot is cut 
down with the pick. Any bone, blue-band, or other impurity exceeding 
three-eighths inches in thickness is discarded. 

QUARTEHING. 

A sample of coal having been selected by any of the above methods, 
is next reduced to an amount suitable for a working-sample in the 
laboratory. If it is in lumps, these are broken up to about egg-size, 
pieces of pyrite, clay, etc., being removed and crushed, and then 
returned to the pile and the whole thoroughly mixed. After quartering, 
opposite quarters are kept; the remaining coal is crushed to about nut- 
size and again thoroughly mixed and quartered, and the opposite quar- 
ters, occupying the position of the ones which were not taken first, are 
selected. This method is continued until a sample of from 600 to 800 
g., and of pea-size, is obtained. The sample is then ready for analysis. 

In order to determine to what extent a sample of coal could be quar- 
tered and still retain its original constitution with regard to ash, W. 
F. Wheeler conducted the following experiment: A two pound sample 
of coal, obtained in the ordinary manner, was selected and quartered in 
the usual way, using a riffle for obtaining the working-sample for each 
division. 

Fractional portions, representing 14, 1-8, 1-16, 1-32, 1-64, and 1-128 
of this sample, were separately analyzed for ash. The results, exhibited 
in Table II, showed a marked accordance, the sample representing 1-32 
being the only exception. 

. Methods of Keeping Samples. 

Face-samples are shipped to the laboratory from the mine in cylin- 
drical tin cans, conforming to the U. S. Geological Survey standard, 
Each has a screw top about which rubber tape is wound to make it 
air-tight. S. W. Parr and W. F. Wheeler^ have shown that coals de- 
teriorate rapidly after mining and exposure to air. The nature of these 
losses is discussed on later pages by Messrs. Barker and Wheeler. Be- 
cause of this deterioration it is desirable that samples be analyzed as 
quickly as possible after mining, and that they be kept air-tight. Coal- 
samples are usually kept in the Lightning or Mason jars. Parr and 
Wheeler have shown that the Mason jar does not make as perfect a seal 
as the Lightning. 

In Bulletin No. 17 of the Engineerino^ Experiment Station of the 
University of Illinois, S. W. Parr and N. D. Hamilton showed that coals 
submerged in water deteriorate but little, and, while this method ot 
keeping samples is not customary, it seems to be a very good one. 



1 Journal of the American Chemical Society vol. xxx., No. 6, p. 1027 (June, 1908). 



200 



YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



Methods of Analysis. 



AIR-DRYING LOSS. 



The sample should weigh approximately 700 g. The air-drying loss 
is determined by the loss in weight which the sample suffers upon dry- 
ing at room-temperature for from 24 to 48 hours. It may be explained 
that air-drying loss is determined merely to bring the sample into 
equilibrium with the surrounding air as regards moisture, so that it 
can be weighed without subsequent loss or gain of moisture seriously 
affecting accuracy. 

OVEN-DRYING LOSS. 

After having determined the air-drying loss, the sample is ground to 
buckwheat-size, quartered to about 150 g., pulverized so as to pass a 60- 
mesh sieve, and placed in a half pint Lightning jar. It is next thoroughly 
shaken, and 1 g. is weighed into a weighing-bottle of about 10 cc. ca- 
pacity, the glass stopper of Avhich fits closely over the top of the bottle. 
This bottle, with lid off, containing the coal, is heated at 105° to 108 °C. 
for one hour ,either in a toluene or an electric oven, after which the 
stopper is replaced and the bottle transferred to a desiccator, and al- 
lowed to cool, after which it is weighed. The loss in weight is called 
oven-drying loss. 

ASH. 

Either the residue from the determination of oven-drying loss or a 
fresh sample is used for this determination. In either event it is placed 
in a weighed porcelain crucible and heated slowly for half an hour over 
a low Bunsen flame. By this method all the volatile matter is driven off 
and the coal does not coke. Next, the flame is raised and the coal stirred 
with a platinum wire to hasten the combustion of the remaining carbon. 
When this is accomplished, the crucible is put in the blast for half an 
hour, with occasional stirring to insure complete combustion, after which 
it is weighed and the unburned residue reported as ash. 



Table III. — Analyses of Coal No. 5, in Saline County. (7 Samples.) 



' 


As Received. 


Oven-Dry. 




High. 


Low. 


Aver. 


High. 


Low. 


Aver. 


Moisture 


Per cent. 
6.64 

36.20 

52.82 

10.89 

3.30 


Percent. 
4.43 

33.48 

47.87 

7.17 

2.19 


1 
Per cent. 
5.90 

• 34.69 

50.41 

8.98 
2.60 


Percent. 


Percent. 


Percent. 


Vol matter. 


38.52 
55.25 
11.58 
3.52 


35.66 

50.94 

7.62 

2.30 


36 88 


Fixed carbon 


53 66 


Ash 

Sulphur 


9.55 

2.77 


B.t.u 


12,883 


12,159 


12,552 


13,700 


12,942 


13,197 



LINDGREN.] SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF ILLINOIS COALS. 



201 



Table IV. — Analyses of Coal No. 6 from- St. Clair, Madison and Clin- 
ton Counties. {21 Samples.) 





As Received. 


Oven-Dry. 




High. 


Low. 


Aver. 


High. 


Low. 


Aver. 




Percent. 
15.91 

40.80 

45.50 

14.26 

4.59 


Percent. 
9.41 

29.95 

37.43 

9.33 

1.39 


Percent. 
12.30 

35.92 

40.68 

10.84 

3.55 


Percent. 


Percent. 


Percent. 




45.05 

52.75 

16.56 

5.29 


34.72 

42.91 

9.69 

1.65 


40.94 


JFixed carbon^ 

Ash 


46.46 
11.72 




4.04 






B.t.u.... 


11,523 


9.916 


10,965 


12,982 


11,639 


12,500 



Analyses of best and poorest samples, based on B. t. u. as received. 





As Received. 


Oven-Dry. 




Best. 


Poorest. 


Best. 


Poorest. 




Percent. 
9.44 

40.80 

39.59 

10.17 

3.96 


Percent. 
14.81 

30.87 

40.21 

14.11 

2.55 


Percent. 


Percent. 


Vol. matter 


45.05 

43.72 

11.23 

4.37 


36 24 




47 20 


Ash 


16 56 


Sulphur 


2 99 






B.t.u 


11,523 


9.916 


12,723 


11,639 



VOLATILE MATTER. 

1 g. of coal is weighed into a tared platin-um crucible, "with evenly- 
fitting cover, placed on a platinum triangle and heated 7 min. by means 
of a Bnnsen burner, having a flame of 20 cm. high. The distance from 
the bottom of the crucible to the top of the burner should be about 7 
€m. After weighing, the volatile material is calculated by subtracting 
the moisture from the loss in weight due to heating. 

FIXED CAKbON. 

The fixed carbon is determined by calculation and is the result ob- 
tained by substracting the moisture, ash, and volatile matter from 100. 



CALORIFIC VALUE. 



Determinations of the heating-power in terms of B. t. u. are made 
with a Mahler calorimeter under carefully standardized conditions. 



i Determined only for 18 samples. 



202 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Analyses op Illinois Coals. 

The State Geological Survey has determined the compositioii and 
heating-value of. the Illinois coals in the seam for many localities by 
face-sampling and analysis, according to the uniiorm methods above 
described. The laboratory-work has been done by W. F. Wheeler and J. 
M. Lindgren u.nder the direction of Prof. S. W. Parr. Most of the 
samjales have come from scattered localities, and are only approximately 
representative of the seam for particular districts because of variations 
which occur, locally, from mine to mine. The available results of this 
general study are presented in Table V. More detaned- studies have been 
made in connection with quadrangle surveys in the Saline county and 
Belleville regions. These show great uniformity in the first field, which 
involves Coal No. 5 ^ xable III), and considerable variation in the latter 
field, which covers parts of St. Clair, Madison and Clinton counties, and 
from which the Blue Band or so-called No. 6 coal is produced. (Table 
IV). . 



LINDGREN.] 



SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS ILLINOIS COALS. 



203 



Table V. — Analyses and Heat-Values of Illinois Coals. 



County i 



Mine Sample. 



AS RECEIVED. 



■Is 

o p, 


"4 


Perct 


Perct 


35.39 


38.09 






36.10 


49.07 














37.00 


39.33 










35.92 
34.81 
36.88 
38.29 


36.74 
37.32 
40.27 
39.35 


34.06 
35.82 
38.57 
37.48 
36.63 
36.53 
35.79 


43.58 
38.94 
40.04 
40.51 
39.65 
47.65 
47.75 


35.22 
36.75 


45.84 
45.81 


















36.74 
36.95 
37.26 
36.92 
aline. 
36.72 
32.11 
32.95 
37.56 
34.38 


39.11 
38.04 
42.79 
42.52 

46.99 
48.96 
48.16 
43.40 
49.00 


35.89 


46.27 











Christian . . . 

Fulton 

Franklin . . . 
Franklin . . . 
Gallatin — 
Gallatin — 

Grundy 

Grundy 

Logan 

Macon 

Macoupin . . 
Macoupin . . 
Macoupin . . 

Peoria 

Peoria 

Perry 

Perry 

Perry 

Perry 

Perry 

Perry 

Randolph.. 
Randolph . . 

Saline^- 

Salinei 

Saline 

and 

White 

Sangamon.. 
Sangamon. . 
Sangamon. . 
Sangamon. . 
Sangamon. . 
Tazewell . . . 
Tazewell . . . 
Vermilion . . 
Vermilion . . 

White 

Williamson. 
Williamson. 
Williamson. 
Williamson. 
Williamson. 
Williamson. 
Williamson. 
Williamson. 
Williamson. 



Perct 

11.82 

15.09 

10.62 

14.40 

4.47 

4.30 

14.69 

14.16 

14.80 

13.91 

12.17 

12.75 

12.80 

14.73 

13.45 

10.37 

9.87 

9.31 

11.03 

11.11 

10.49 

9.93 

10.72 

4.89 

4.34 

5.73 

5.98 

6.71 

14.96 

13.71 

13.56 

14.39 

13.14 

14.30 

14.35 

12.96 

12.56 

See S 

6.29 

9.69 

10.15 

6.12 

6.69 

9.50 

6.80 

9.99 



Perct 
11.90 
10.63 

7.87 

6.90 
10.36 
10.74 

6.97 

5.00 
11.76 

9.76 
10.61 

9.73 
10.40 
12.61 
14.42 
12.48 
12.49 
13.33 
11.33 
14.13 
10.90 
12.08 
13.00 
10.93 
12.12 
11.19 
12.96 
10.73 

9.38 
10.82 

9.29 
11.68 
10.62 

9.85 
10.66 

6.99 

8.00 

10.00 
9.24 
8.74 

12.92 
9.93 
9.16 

11-. 04 
7.63 
6.94 



Perct 
4.15 
3.21 
0.67 
1.02 
3.56 



4.26 
3.78 
3.38 
3.09 
3.52 
2.96 
0.89 
0.90 
3.86 
3.44 
4.83 
4.53 
3.96 
5.85 
3.13 
3.51 
4.16 
3.87 
3.62 
4.13 
3.95 
4.36 
3.34 
3.02 
1.55 
1.23 

3.61 
1.05 
0.95 
4.15 
2.33 
1.02 
2.76 
0.92 
1.71 



Perct 
10,760 
10,573 
11,751 
11,459 
12,645 
12,452 
11,276 
11,531 
10,586 
10,804 
10,805 
10,829 
10,847 
10,451 
10,398 
11,018 
11,051 
11,047 
11,079 
10,542 
11,064 
11,028 
10,694 
12,298 
12,321 
12,177 
11,757 
11,889 
10,747 
10,691 
11,019 
10,534 
10,746 
10,875 
10,709 
11,580 
11,418 

12,251 
11,810 
11,887 
11,698 
12,144 
11,836 
11,918 
11,992 
12,211 



Perct 
4i'68 



37.82 



42.95 



42.13 
40.22 
41.14 
42.46 



38.27 
40.29 
43.09 
41.62 
41.03 
38.41 
37.41 



37.46 
39.39 



42.87 
43.14 
42.80 
42.25 

39.20 
35.56 
36.67 
40.02 
36.83 



38.50 



Perct 



45.80 
'5i'33 



Perct 
13.50 
12.52 

8.82 
8.08 
10.85 



45.72 



43.09 
43.12 
44.94 
43.68 



49.10 
43.82 
44.74 
44.97 
44.42 
50.10 
49.91 



8.17 
5.82 
13.81 
11.33 
12.87 
11.13 
11.90 
14.78 
16.66 
13.92 
13.86 
14.71 
12.63 
15.89 
12.17 
13.41 
14.55 
11.49 
12.68 



48.75 
49.11 



45.64 
44.41 
49.17 
48.60 

50.12 
54.21 
53.60 
46.22 
52.52 



49. ( 



13.79 
11.50 
11.04 
12.61 
10.76 
13.64 
12.23 
11.49 
12.45 
8.03 
9.15 

10.68 
10.23 

9.73 
13.76 
10.65 
10.13 
11.84 

8.48 

7 



Perct 
4.71 
3.79 
0.76 
1.19 
3.72 



12,203 
12,450 
13,148 
13,400 
13,235 



3.62 
1.83 
3.56 
3.82 
5.48 
4.89 
4.33 
3.97 
3.58 
3.93 
3.28 
0.98 
1.01 
4.34 
3.84 
5.36 
5.07 
4.16 



13,217 
13,436 
12,426 
12,549 
12,303 
12,414 
12,440 
12,257 
12,014 
12,293 
12,261 
12,181 
12,453 
11,859 
12,361 
12,245 
11,978 
12,931 



6.12 12,879 



3.73 

4.46 
4.55 
4.19 
4.78 
4.61 
5.03 
3.90 
3.53 
1.78 
1.41 

3.86 
1.16 
1.06 
4.42 
2.50 
1.12 
2.96 
1.03 
1.89 



12,505 
12,744 
12,640 
12,392 
12,749 
12,304 
12,372 
12,690 
12,504 
13,304 
13,058 

13,073 
13,077 
13,229 
12,461 
13,016 
13,078 
12,788 
13,323 
13,475 



742 

1,404 

419,420 

461 

1,092 

361 

733 

734 

720 

il,569 

737 

736,735 

738 

1,410 

1,409 

1,614 

1,615 

421 

1,523 



,591 

,592 

,616 

,610 

,095 

110 

360 

1,120 

1,121 

722 

741,740 

540 

721 

739 

1,412 

1,413 

558 

557 



1,613 
1,611 
1,612 

1,088 
460 

1,567 
459 
462 



i At some distance from mines of Table III. 



204 



YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



THE OCCLUDED GASES IN ILLINOIS COALS. 

(By Perry Barker.^ ) 



Ikteoductiok. 

In connection with the investigations on coal-deterioration conducted 
by the State Geological Survey and the Engineering Experiment Station 
of the University of Illinois, some determinations of the nature and 
amounts of occluded gases in Illinois coals have been made. 

The first facts of importance in regard to these gases occluded or 
mechanically inclosed in the coals of Illinois developed when a number 
of fresh mine-samples were left tightly sealed for ten months. Upon 
opening at the end of this time, the gases in the containers ignited and 
burned with considerable flame.^ 

Desceiption of Investigatioi^. 

In order to study the composition of the gases thus evolved, several 
samples were collected from fresh seam-faces in a similar manner and 
allowed to stand for seven months. They were then opened under water, 
and the gas surrounding the coal in the containers was collected by dis- 
placement. A similar set of samples was collected in jars which were 
filled with water, and whatever gas had been given off at the end of seven 
months was collected. The results of these two sets of analyses are given 
in Table I. 

Table I. — Occluded Gases in Nlinois Coals. 





I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 




642 
H46 


800 

38.8 


648 
*442 


800 
29.3 


787 
4331 


800 




97.8 






Per cent by volume. 

CO2 



18.50 


81.50 




1.87 
55.97 
42.16 


5.88 

7.64 



86.48 



1.03 
35.39 
63,58 


0.88 

11.83 

87.29 








1.08 


CH* 


90.28 


N 


8.64 







I. Lebanon, Lebanon City Coal Co., sealed, dry. 

II. Lebanon, Lebanon City Coal Co., sealed, submerged. 

III. Bennett, Bennett Mine, International Coal Mining Co., sealed, dry. 

IV. Bennett. Bennett Mine, International Coal Mining Co., sealed, submerged. 
V. O'Fallon, Mine No. 2, St. Louis & O'Fallon Coal Co., sealed, dry. 

VT. O'Fallon, Mine No. 2, St. Louis & O'Fallon Coal Co., sealed, submerged. 



^.Assistant Chemist Engineering Experiment Station. 

2 Trans. Amer. Ins. Min. Eng., xxxviii, 630 (1908). 

3 At normal temperature and pressure. 
" Total gas from containers. 



BARKER.] 



GASES IN ILLINOIS COALS. 



205 



It is evident that aside from the additioii of methane and carbon 
dioxide to the ordinary constitntents of air, a decrease in the percentage 
of oxygen originally contained in the air of the jars had taken place. 
In order to test the extent of this absorption of oxygen, a number of 
samples of coal were placed in jars with large volumes of air. These 
samples were portions of the series that had been sealed for ten months 
and later had been partly air-dried. Table II shows the general nature 
of this change. 

Table IL — Occluded Gases in Illinois Coals. 





I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


VIII. 


Weight of coal, grams 


109 

873 


139 

849 


180 
816 


183 
814 


146 
843 


134 

853 


138 
850 


153 

837 







Per cent by volume. 
CO2 



N... 



0.48 


0.94 


0.68 


1.87 


0.25 


1.23 


1,11 


0.16 


0.13 








0.25 














6.28 





2.17 








99.36 


98.93 


93.04 


98.13 


97.33 


98.77 


98.89 



1.62 

1.45 



96.93 



I. Springfield, Sangamon Mine, Sangamon Coal Co. 

II. Springfield, Sangamon Mine. Sangamon Coal Co. 

Ill . Eldorado , Mine No . 8, O ' Gara Coal Co . 

VI. Marion, Chicago & Big Muddy Coal Co. 

V. Herrin, Squirrel Ridge Mine, Chicago & Carterville Coal Co. 

VI. Duquoin, Greenwood, Davis Coal Co. 

VII. Belleville, Suburban Coal Mining Co. 

VIII. O' Fallon, Mine No. 2, St. Louis & O' Fallon Coal Co. 



The two sets of analyses in T'ables I and II give some indication of 
the nature of the alterations that are going on when coal is exposed, 
but give nO' information as to the composition of the gas remaining in 
the coal. Moreover, the samples were of various sizes of coal that had 
been broken from the face of the seam, and they had been exposed, even 
if only for short periods. In order to get coal closely representative of 
the material as it occurs in the seam, a set of samples of drill-dust were 
collected in the following manner: As the drillings fell from the hole, 
they were collected in an ordinary half -liter fractionating-ilask fitted 
with a stop-cock at the side tube. When the flask was filled, it was sealed 
with a rubber stopper which was coated with a rubber-resin vacuum 
cement. These flasks were taken to the laboratory as soon as possible, 
and all the gases contained therein were removed by means of a mercury 
air-pump, and collected over mercury. The flasks were then allowed to 
stand for several days, after which they were again connected with the 
air-pump, and any gas that had been evolved was removed. 

In order to have some extreme types of laboratory-weathered sam- 
ples to compare with the fresh drillings, a set of coals that had been used 
for some previous tests were evacuated in the above manner. These 
were portions of mine-samples about two years old, which had been quar- 

^ At normal temperature and pressure. Total gas from containers. 



206 



YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL, NO. 14 



Tabl^ III. — Occluded Gases in Illinois Coal. 

Last portions of air. 



I. II. III. IV 



VI. VII. VIII. IX 



Time of standing, days 
Weight of coal, grams.. 
Volume of gas, cc,i, — 
Cc. of gas per 100 g.,^. - 

CO2 

O 

CH^ 

N 

Per cent by volume. 
CO2 

O 

CH^ 

N 



7 
261 
141.2 
54.21 
2.12 
2.87 
12.22 
37.00 



9 

209 

96.6 

46.2 

1.91 

2,06 



42.23 



14 

220 
192.1 
87.32 
3.37 
0.94 
19.01 
64.05 



2 

205 

33.5 

16.37 

1.27 

2.54 



13 
244 

287.4 

117.8 

6.55 

■0.58 



0| 38.22 
12.56 72.45 



4 

204 

40.6 

19.91 

1.23 

2.75 



15.! 



13 

217 

160.6 

74.00 

3.27 

0.95 

1.57 

68.21 



204 

63.3 

30.97 

0.54 

5.04 



25.39 



231 
197.2 
85.50 
10.34 
0.95 
19.81 
54.40 



3.92 


4.15 


3.86 


7.80 


5.56 


6.20 


4.43 


5.30 


4.46 


1.04 


15.50 


0.49 


13.80 


1.28 


22.53 





21.79 





32.44 





2.12 


68.25 


91.39 


73.31 


76,70 


61.51 


80.0 


92.17 



1.79 

16.25 



81.96 



12.09 

1.11 

23.17 

63.63 



Gas removed by vacuum. 



III. I IV. 



V. 


VI. 


VII. 


VIII. 


13 


12 


13 


11 


244 


204 


217 


204 


76.4 


5.8 


20.4 


20.5 


31.30 


2.84 


9.4 


10.04 


4.63 


0.69 


3.18 


2.01 


0.29 


0.15 








22.20 





0.09 





4.18 


2.00 


6.13 


8.03 



IX. 



Time of standing, days . 
Weight of coal, grams... 

Volume of gas, cc.,i 

Cc. of gas per 100 g.,^... 
GO, 



CHj 

N.. 



13 

261 

26.9 

10.31 

1.84 

0.50 

6.14 

1,83 



209 
14.9 
7.11 
5.74 
0.10 

1.27 



12 

220 

48.8 

22.18 

1.Q6 

0.14 

19.15 

1.21 



10 
205 
1.9 
0.93 



13 
231 
26.0 
11.26 
3.51 
0.82 
2.17 
4.76 



Per cent by volume. 
CO^ 



CH, 

N.. 



17.85 

4.83 

59.59 

17.73 



80.50 

1.30 



18.20 



7.58 
0.61 
56.37 
5.44 



14.79 
0.92 

13.36 



24.20 


33.84 


20.0 


32.09 


5.90 








7.32 





1.00 





19.26 


69.90 


65.16 


80.0 


41.33 



I. Springfield, Sangamon Mine, Sangamon Coal Co., drilUngs. 

II. Springfield, Sangamon Mine, Sangamon Coal Co., face-sample, 2yr. old. 

III. Herrin, Squirrel Ridge, Mine, Chicago & Carterville Coal Co., drillings. 

IV. Herrin, Squirrel Ridge Mine, Chicago & Carterville Coal Co., face-sample, 2yr. old. 
V. Clifford, Mine No. 8, Big Muddy Coal & Iron Co., drillings. 

VI. Clifford, Mine No. 8, Big Muddy Coal & Iron Co., face-sample, 2 yr. old. 

VII. Marion, Mine No. 3, Peabody Coal Co., drillings. 

VIII. Marion, Mine No. 3, Peabody Coal Co., face-sample, 2 yr. old. 
IX. Westville, Mine No. 44, Dering Coal Co., drillings. 

X. Westville, Mine No. 44, Dering Coal Co., face-sample, 2 yr. old. 



J- At 0° and 760 mm. pressure. 
2 Figured to coal as sampled. 



BARKER.] 



GASES IN ILLINOIS COALS. 



207 



tered, reduced tO' buckwheat-size^ and air-dried. These two series cor- 
respond as to location of the mines, so that comparison of the changes 
in the occluded gases can be made by inspection of Table III. 

The striking feature of the analyses in Table III is the large loss of 
combustible gases by the fresh drillings. While this amounts to as 
much as 30 cc. per 100 g. in the fresh samples, no such gases were de- 
tected in the old lots. However, it must be understood that the relative 
amounts of gas in coal from these various mines cannot be critically 
judged from these analyses, as some of the working-faces had been with- 
in short distances of long-standing exposures. (A universal shut-down 
in the Illinois coal mines during April and a part of May, 1908, made 
it impossible to get samples representative of continuous workings.) 
Some idea of the rapidity of transpiration of occluded gases from exposed 
faces can be gathered from the following data. 

As a drill-hole was driven, the dust from the first 2.5 feet was col- 
lected in one flask, while that from the last three feet Avas sealed in a 
separate container. As can be seen in Table IV, the sample farther 
from the exposed face contained more occluded gas and had less changes 
produced in what did remain. 

Table IV. — Occluded Gases in Illinois Coul. 



II. 



III. 



IV. 



Time of standing, days 

Weight of coal, grams 

Volume of gas at 0°C., 760 mm. 

Cc . of gas per 100 g 

CO2 



CH|. 
N... 



7 

182 

174 

95.30 

7.21 

0.59 

11.28 

76.22 



231 
197.2 
85.47 
10.34 
0.95 
19.81 
54.37 



13 

182 
9.6 
5.27 
1.76 

2.30 
1.21 



13 
231 

26.0 
11.26 
3.51 
0.82 
2.17 
4.76 



Per cent by volume. 
CO2 



0.... 
CH^. 

N... 



7.57 


0.62 


11.73 


80.08 

! • 



12.09 

1.11 

23.17 

63.63 



33.33 



43.74 

22.93 



32.09 

7.32 

19.26 

41.33 



I. Westville, drillings from first 2.5 ft. of hole, last air. 

II. Westville, drillings from last 3 ft. hole, last air. 

III. Westville, drillings from first 2.5 ft. hole, gas by vacuum. 

IV. Westville, drillings from last 3 ft. of hole, gas by vacuum. 



In addition to the loss of combustible gases, the drill-samples showed 
more extensive absorption than did the laboratory-weathered ones. From 
this -it may be concluded, either that the oxygen has entered into some 
combination with the coal itself, or that a reaction has taken place, re- 
sulting in the formation of carbon dioxide. The presence of consider- 
able amounts of carbon dioxide in the gases from the fresh samples 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 190b. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



seems to bear out the latter conclusion, altliougli this gas does not com- 
pletely replace the oxygen of the air. It may also be possible that the 
carbon dioxide formed and taking the place of the occluded gases is only 
given off at higher temperatures. That this is true to some extent is 
shown by the fact that 69 per cent of the gases removed from one of 
these fresh samples at 100° C. consisted of carbon dioxide. 

It is certainly true that this absorption of oxygen takes place as soon 
as the gases escape from the fresh coal. A study of some of the stages 
of this absorption or oxidation can be made from Table V. In this 
table all samples were from the same mine. Nos. I and II were partly 
air-dried face-samples about two years old. From No. 1 the surrounding 
air in the container was collected by displacement and analyzed. No. 
II was left in one of the sealed fractionating-flasks for two days. At 
the end of that time both the surrounding air and some of the inclosed 
gases were removed by means of the air-pump. No. Ill is a flask of 
drillings from which the surrounding air and occluded gases were re- 
moved as above. No. lY is the analysis of the gas given off after the 
surrounding air had been removed and the flask had stood in a vacuum 
for twelve days. No. Y is the analysis of the air that had been ad- 
mitted to the evacuated flask and left in contact with the coal for seven 
days. 

The preceding results give some light upon the changes produced by 
the deterioration of sealed laboratory-samples, but contain no data as 
to samples subjected to outside exposure. Table YI gives a comparison 
between samples of fresh drillings and samples exposed to the weather. 
No. I is a sample of drillings from Westville, while No. II was collected 
off the surface of a pile of the same screenings fifteen months old, and 
No. Ill is a sample of the same screenings that had been stored outside 



Ta]Ble Y. — Occluded Gases in Illinois Coal. 





' 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


Weight of coal grams 


146 
843 


20.5 
33.5 


220 
192,1 


220 

48.8 


220 


Volums of gas cc 


130.4 






Per cent by volume. 

CO2 


0.25 

0.25 

2.17 

97.33 


7.80 

15.50 



76.70 


3.86 

1.04 

21.79 

73.31 


7.58 

0.61 

86.37 

5.44 


1.63 





0.37 


CHi 


14,14 


N 


83. 8& 







I. Old face-sample in contact with large volume of air. 

ni . Old face-sample sealed 2 days . 

■III. Dri .lings, sealed 14 days. 

IV. Drillings, in vacuum 12 days, 

f- V. Drillings, second air in contact with coal 7 days. 



BARKER.] GASES IN ILLINOIS COALS. 

TabILiE VI. — Occluded Gases in Illinois Coal. 



209 



Last portions of air. 





I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


Time of standing, days 

Weight of coal, grams 

Vol. of gas, 0°C., 760 mm 

Cc. of gas per 100 g 


7 
231 
197.2 
85.50 
10.34 
0.95 
19.81 
54.40 


3 

200 

44.2 

22.10 

1.40 

3.25 



17.45 


6 

200 

55.8 

27.9 

0.25 

5.75 



21.90 


13 

217 

160.6 

74.01 

3.27 

0.95 

1.57 

68.22 


19 
224 
134.3 
60.0 
3.38 
0.38 
0.54 
55.70 


261 
141.2 
54.21 
2.12 
2.87 
12.22 
37.00 


3 

200 
240.5 
120.25 


CO^ 


3.03 





22.09 


CHi 


0.66 


N - - . 


94.47 






Percent by volume. 

CO2 


12.09 
1.11 

23.17 
63.63 


6.34 

14.71 



78.95 


0.90 

20.61 



78.49 


4.43 

1.28 

2.12 

92.17 


5.64 
0.64 
0.54 
93.18 


3.92 

5.30 

22.53 

68.25 


2.51 





18.36- 


CH, 


0.55 


N 


78. 5& 











Gas removed by vacuum. 





I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


'■ 


VI. 


VII. 


Time of standing, days 

Weight of coal, grams 

Volume of gas, 0°C., 760 mm. 


13 

231 
26.0 
11.26 
3.51 
0.82 
2.17 
4.76 


14 
200 
26.9 
13.45 
1.4 
2.8. 
0.15 
9.10 ' 


13 

200 
16.8 
8.4 
2.85 
0.7 
0.6 
4.25 


13 

217 

20.4 

9.40 

3.18 



0.09 

6.13 


7 
217 
19.3 
8.88 
2.99 
0.36 
0.10 
5.43 


13 

261 

26.9 

10.31 

1.84 

0.50 

6.14 

1.83 


13 
200 
23.9 
11 95 


CO.-, 


2 39 





81 


CH^ 


2 39 


N 


6 36. 






Percent by volume. 

CO-2 


32.09 

7.32 

19.26 

41. S3 


10.41 

20.82 

1.12 

67.65 


33.93 
8.33 
7.15 

50 59 


33.84' 



1.00 

65 16 


33.67 
4.02 
1.05 

61.26 


17.85 
4.83 
59.59 
17.73 


20 oa 





6 7& 


CH, 


20 00 


N 


53 22 











I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 



Westville, Mine No. 44, Bering Coal Co., drillings. 

Westville, Mine No. 44, Dering Coal Co., screenings, 15 months old. 

Westville, Mine No. 44, Dering Coal Co., screenings, 2 months old. 

Marion, Mine No. 3, Peabody Coal Co., drillings. 

Marion, Binkley, Miles Co., outcrop coal. 

Springfield, Sangamon Mine, Sangamon Coal Co., drillings. 

Springfield, Sangamon Mine, Sangamon Coal Co., screenings, 2 months old. 



—14 G 



210 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

for two months. No. IV is a sample of drillings from Marion, while 
N'o. V is from an outcrop of the same seam one mile from the place 
wiiere No. IV was taken. This outcrop had been exposed for one year. 
No. VI is a sample of drillings from Springfield, while No. VII was 
collected from the surface of a pile of 1.5-inch screenings from the 
same mine. These screenings had been stored outside for two months. 

I Conclusions. 

The conclusions drawn from these investigations may be summarized 
as follows: 

1. Loss of combustible gas begins as soon as pressure upon the coal 
in the seam is released and air is brought into contact with the newly 
exposed surfaces. 

2. As soon as the gases occluded by the coal are released, an ab- 
sorption of oxygen from the atmosphere begins. The oxygen may enter 
the coal substance and combine with it or may unite with carbon to 
form carbon dioxide. 

3. Carbon dioxide is undoubtedly formed to some extent by the 
action between the coal and whatever oxygen it has already absorbed. 

4. Upon outside exposure, coal loses most of its occluded gases and 
even a large part of the carbon dioxide formed by the "absorption of 
oxygen. 

Experiments at higher temperatures will be conducted in order to de- 
termine, if possible, more exactly the changes that are produced when 
coal deteriorates, and to throw some light on the cause of spontaneous 
combustion. 



RICE.] MINING WASTES AND COSTS IN ILLINOIS. 211 



MINING- WASTES AND MINING COSTS IN ILLINOIS. 

(By George S. Rice.^) 



Introduction. 

In coal mining operations throughout the State of Illinois there is a 
greater range in the amount of coal extracted from a given volume of 
coal-seam than might be expected from the remarkable uniformity in 
thickness of the chief seams. The percentage of yield varies from about 
50 to 95 per cent, or more. The latter high yield is obtained in the 
long-wall mines of northern Illinois, embracing the Wilmington and the 
so-called "Third Yein" fields. The coal-seam mined in these two dis- 
tricts is the same geologically — the No. 2 of the Worthen Survey. The 
lowest yield is from the thick, more deeply buried, "Blue Band^' seam 
of central and south central Illinois, in some localities termed "No. 5,'^ 
in others "No. 6," and elsewhere "No. 7." 

The variation in yield from the total amount of coal under a given 
land-surface is still greater, for in the thick-seam districts there are 
usually other seams than the one worked that it is possible, physically, 
to work. These are, in many cases, rendered more or less unworkable, 
when the distance between the seams is small, by being undermined. 

Causes of Mining- Waste. 

GENERAL. 

The influencing conditions causing the great losses that are at present 
incurred are : 

1. Cheapness of "coal in place;" that is, in the seam. 

2. Low market prices, resulting from extreme competition. 

3. Character of the seam, roof, and floor as determining the method 
of mining. 

4. Surface-subsidence due to mining. 

5. Interlaced boundary ownerships. 

6. Carelessness in mining operations. 

The first two factors, taken together, are the controlling ones in most 
mining operations in influencing the choice of a mining system. The 
majority of Illinois operators are sufficiently progressive to find ways 
and means to take out practically all the coal under a given area if it 
could be made evident that it paid to do so. That many do not do all 
that can be done in this direction is apparent ; but if, without unusual 
investment, a profit of operation could be shown in taking out all the 



.Consulting Engineer, Chicago. 



212 YEAR-BOOK EOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

coal over the profit made by present methods, the industry could un- 
doubtedly find men to accomplish the task. In other words, from an 
engineering standpoint practically all the coal under a given area can 
be taken out. It is a question of cost. 

CHEAPNEiSS OE COAL IN PLACE. 

This is chiefly due to the great abundance of coal. Except in the 
barren northern one-fourth of the State, lying north of the outcrop of 
the coal-basin, the development of a tract depends primarily not on the 
possibility of finding coal in that particular locality, but on the question 
whether it is a suitable place, from a market standpoint, to open a mine, 
the thickness of seam and the quality of the coal being considered. 

The price of coal-rights varies from $10.00 per superficial acre in the 
middle part of Illinois, away from the mining centers, to $100.00 per 
acre near developed mines. Or, in the case of leasing, from two cents 
per ton run-of-mine hoisted, in the southern part of the State, to five 
cents in the northern part. The cost of the fee is relatively sO' much 
cheaper per ton than leasing that the latter system is not much used. 
The ownership of the coal by the operator is conducive to better mining, 
but relative to other items that go to make up the total cost, that of the 
"coal in place^^ is so low as to be almost negligible. In central Illinois, 
in some cases, as a cost of only $10.00 per acre, two workable seams, 
from 6 to 8 feet thick, are obtained. Allowing only 50 per cent yield 
of the two seams, 13,000 tons would be produced per acre, the purchase 
cost thus being 1/13 of a cent per ton, or about 1/1000 of the total cost 
of production in central Illinois. In the Wilmington long-wall field the 
average cost of the coal-rights is about $50.00 per acre. The seam 
there, although it averages a trifle less than three feet in thickness, pro- 
duces about 5,000 tons per acre. The cost is therefore about one cent 
per ton in place, which is 0.75 per cent of the total cost of production. 
Hence, it may be seen there is little incentive, from the standpoint of 
the purchase-price of the coal, to save the latter in mining operations. 

LOW MARKET PRICES. 

The tremendous development of the coal-carrying railroads and the 
policy of making low ton-mile rates for long hauls has resulted in 
excessive competition, both from within and from without the State. 
The cheaply produced coals of the eastern states, and particularly West 
Virginia, resulting from favorable natural conditions and lower labor- 
cost, with through low freight-rates, have enabled them to enter the 
natural coal markets of Illinois and sell at prices very little above what 
the Illint)is coals bring. The high quality of these coals, particularly 
those that make little smoke, has allowed them to set the pace in mak- 
ing prices. 

The competition between the Illinois coals has been even more severe. 
This results from the multiplicity of ownerships, due mainly to the ease 
of opening new mines. Each period of unusual prosperity in the western 
coal business, like that at the time of the anthracite strike, is followed by 
an immense increase in capacity. For example: In 1906 and . 1907 



RICE.] 



MINING WASTES AND COSTS IN ILLINOIS. 



21B 



railroad shipping mines operated an average of 190 and 195 days^ dur- 
ing the respective years, out of 300 working days; in other words, only 
63 and 65 per cent of the time (See Figs. 2 and 3). To a certain ex- 
tent this is unavoidable, as the markets are in a climate of extreme cold 
in winter, and as the Illinois coal stocks very indifferently, the winter 
demand tends to fix the capacity. This, in turn, makes the labor-rates 
high, to cover the period of idleness. On the other hand, it makes 
severe competition during the spring and summer months, in the effort 
of each operator to keep his mine running as much as possible. 



Yearly 
Output, 
Tons. 


1897 
1898 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 


Daily 

Capacity. 
Tons. 


45,000,000 
40,000,000 
35,000.000 
30,000,000 
25,000,000 

20,000,000 

15,000,000 






















250,000 

225,000 

200,000 

175,000 

150,000 

125,000 
100,000 


























































; 




















/ 


















1 / 




















1 




















/ / 




















/ / 
/ / 






































/ / 




















/ / 




















1 1 


















^-^ 


1 § 














/ 


-^l^ 


es [ ;s 














A^ 






1 














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h 




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M 




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. 














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y^ 
















y* 


i»" 




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4 














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Fig. 2.— Illinois Shipping Mines; Yearly Output of Coal, Also Daily Capacity for a Period of 10 Fisca 

Years. 

The annual coal report of Illinois for 1906, compiled by the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics, gives as the average value, or selling price, per ton, 
of all sizes on cars at the mines in northern long-wall districts, $1.41; 



214 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 11 



in the "shooting-coaF' districts, from $0,866 to $1.153 ; and for the whole 
State, average, $1,029. As the State treats the individual mine returns 
as confidential, the figures given are generally regarded by operators 
as essentially correct. The average hand-mining rates for the long-wall 
districts are $0,754 and $0,784, and of the "shooting-coaF' districts from 
$0,458 to $0,609. The underground hauling, timbering, brushing, hoist- 
ing, top-labor, and supplies must be added to the foregoing figures to 
obtain total operating costs. The average total cost per ton of coal 



Days in 
Operation 


1897 
1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 
1907 


Prices. 


225 
200 

175 

150 






















$1.25 

1.00 

.75 

.50 
.25 












/ 


y 












/^ 


\ 




/;°^ 


\ 












y.^^ 


^^s 


.--''^^ 


c'-^" 


^\ 










j 


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/ 














N 


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/ 


















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/ 


















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.-rr^Q-^ 


'"> 
















.l^^'" 


%^- 




coal 












A""" 







f-Sll-ViJ- 










.--,> 


F-.OM 


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verag 


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Fig. 3.— Illinois Shipping Mines: Days in Operation, Average Value, and Pick-Rate, Yearly, for a Per- 
iod of 10 Fiscal Years. 

loaded on cars, including general and selling expense and amortization, 
but not capitalization interest charges, is from $1.20 to $1.30 for the 
coal produced in the long-wall districts, and from $0.70 to $0.95 for the 
other districts. It is safe to say that the average net profit per ton 



RICE.] MINING WASTES AND COSTS IN ILLINOIS. 215 

throughout the State for a whole year does not exceed 20 cents, and 
if the interest on the capital be taken out, the average profit will be re- 
duced to 10 or 15 cents per ton; actually the average profit is probably 
less than these figures. 

It will therefore be seen that, with the small margin of profit, there 
is little incentive for the individual mine operator of either Illinois or 
elsewhere to conserve, beyond customary good practice, the coal he ow^ns 
or leases. 

CHARACTER OF SElAM^ ROOF AND FLOOR AS DETERMINING THE METHOD 

OF MINING. 

It is the system of mining adopted that determines the proportion of 
coal won in a given seam. Where the long-wall system can be physi- 
cally and commercially used, the problem is solved, for in a well handled 
long-wall mine the only loss of coal is in the fine particles, which become 
mixed with the fire-clay and roof-dribblings and get shoveled back into 
the gob. Probably not more than two' per cent is lost in this way. 

Under the ordinary long-wall conditions of northern Illinois, falls of 
roof, especially during periods of idleness, local carelessness in leaving 
^'points" or projections of the face, and abandonment of corners in the 
ownership of the land cause additional losses. In one mine, at which 
a record was kept for a period of six years, the total loss of coal from 
all causes was five per cent. 

About 5,300,000 tons were produced in 1906 by long-wall mines, 
nearly all in the Wilmington and the Third Vein districts, at the north 
end of the Illinois field. The output of these districts has been practi- 
cally stationary for some years, owing to the competition of eastern coals 
and of the thick-seam coals of middle and southern Illinois. Long-wall 
is the only system that can be successfully used in the No. 2 seam, as 
found in the northern districts. Briefly, the conditions are these : 

A blocky coal when mined by undercutting, but tender and flying 
to pieces when "shot^' down; a ^^soapstone'^ (shale) roof without fissure- 
cracks, until such are formed by the successive settlements caused by 
the undercutting; a clay under the coal that generally presents fairly 
easy cutting; and a harder sandy clay -floor which causes the coal and 
under-clay to break or work, when the roof ^Veight" is properly thrown 
on the long-wall face, by systematic building of pack-walls and keeping 
the faces aligned. Finally ,the mines, with one or two exceptions, are 
dry. 

In the larger part of the Illinois field the ^^advancing long-walF^ of 
the northern "thin-vein" field is not practicable. The roof is generally 
too hard to ^'hreak" properly, and there is generally no "draw-slate" 
to make buildings with. The other conditions, clay mining and dry 
work, are all right, but the former are obstacles to "advancing" long- 
wall, without the extraordinary expense of importing stone for pack- 
walls. The several workable seams are considered below in order. 

No. 1 of the Worthen Survey is not generally identified throughout 
the State. Coal worked in the vicinity of Rock Island is called No. 1. 
It occupies channels and local depressions cut into the shale previously 



216 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

laid down on the Burlington limestone. It seems likely that this coal 
may belong to a later period than the shaly seam which quite regularly 
underlies the No. 2 seam in the Wilmington and Third Vein districts. 
The system of mining this seam, is the ordinary room-and-pillar method, 
the pillars in some cases being withdrawn. The yield is from 65 to 70 
per cent of the territory covered by the entries. The channels are usually 
narrow and the coal thins along the margin^ so that all coal, less than 
about 3 feet thick, is lost. As a whole, No. 1 seam has little commer- 
cial importance in the State. 

No. 2 is a remarkably persistent seam, apparently extending through- 
out the whole of the Illinois basin. It varies from 1.5 to 4 feet in 
thickness. While a high-grade Illinois coal, the cost of production makes 
it commercially available only in the northern field, where it is exten- 
sively opened, as already described, by long-wall mines. Elsewhere there 
are large areas of this seam, running from 2 to 2.5 feet in thickness.^ 
While this is too thin to work at present, it is not underlain by valu- 
able coal, and hence will not be damaged by any mining operations be- 
low it, but will remain as a reserve and problem for future operatoTS. 

Nos. 3 and 4 seams are not well-defined horizons and are practically 
negligible, so far as at present known. 

No. 5 is an important seam. It has been extensively developed in 
Pulton county and in the Springfield district, where it shows great uni- 
formity. In the central and southern part of the coal basin it is not 
clearly defined. Its characteristic feature is the presence of clay-slips 
running irregularly through the coal, and indicating shattering, with sub- 
sequent filling. It has a strong slate roof, whi^h is more or less sandy, 
and presents a pebbly, knobby surface when exposed in the roof; 
usually there is a "draw-slate" between roof and coal, which is in some 
places strong enough to be held up by timbering. The coal itself is 
clean. The irregular clay-slips, "horses," and sulphur-balls are frequent 
but are separable. The floor is a shale, which exfoliates when exposed 
to the air. 

In the Fulton county field this seam is from 4 to 5 feet thick and 
remarkably even. It is mined by the room-and-pillar system. As it 
is shallow, the pillars are left very small, and, in general, are not pulled. 
A great deal of coal in the vicinity of the outcrops is rendered unwork- 
able by nearness to valleys filled with glacial drift. Within the work- 
able areas the yield by the present methods is from 60 to 65 per cent of 
the coal in place. 

In the Springfield district, No. 5 is from 5 to 6 feet thick. The 
room-and-pillar system is employed. Some pillars are drawn, but gen- 
erally the clay-slips and "horses" are so frequent that an effort is made 
to lay out the pillars to include them. On the whole, the yield is about 
the same as in the Fulton county field. South of Springfield, and in 
the Third Vein district. No. 5 coal is more pockety. As it is from 160 
to 190 feet above seam No. 2, and as the latter is worked only long-wall, 
the unworked areas will not be damaged by working out the lower seams. 

No. 6 is the great producing seam of the State. Except for a few 
developments in northern Illinois, in Bureau county, the mines work- 

1 Editor's Note— This seam is commercially worked also at Murphysboro in Jackson county. 



RICE.] MINING WASTES AND COSTS IN ILLINOIS. 217 

ing it are in central and southern Illinois. The seam lies from 40 to 60 
feet ahove the No. 5 horizon. It is characterized by a ^^lue band/' 
which occurs from 2 to 4 feet above the bottom. The seam is from 5 
to 9 feet thick. The Virden-Mt. Olive seam and the Duquoin-Ziegier 
seam both belong, in my opinion, to the "Blue Band'' seam. The seam 
in the former district has generally been called No. 5, although driUing 
indicates a pockety seam below it at the No. 5 horizon. The State 
Geological Survey's recent investigations, I am informed, show that 
the Herrin seam in Williamson county, heretofore called No. 7, also 
belongs to the No. 6 horizon. 

The main roof of the "Blue Band" seam is a limestone, usually with 
a shale or clay layer, 1 foot to 4 feet thick, between it and the coal. 
In some places the limestone comes down to the coal, in others it dis- 
appears entirely. In all cases the main roof is very strong, and this has 
an important bearing on the system of mining adopted. The coal is us- 
ually a brighter, cleaner coal in itself than the No. 5 coal, but in central 
Illinois it has a large amount of "sulphur" (iron pyrites) in balls, lenses, 
and stringers. The coal, and locally, the roof of this seam, contains 
considerable marsh gas in the more deeply buried portions. The floor 
is a clay containing, below the mining, many "nigger-heads." This clay 
readily "squeezes" when subjected to pressure, as when pillars are too 
small. The main roof is very difficult to "break," so that, when the coal 
is from 350 to 600 feet or more deep, it is very essential to leave large 
pillars. Many mines, in other ways well systematized, have had serious 
difficulty from "squeezes" brought on by leaving too-thin pillars or reb- 
bing them. The older mines were all operied on the room-and-pillar 
plan. Lately, the majority of the mine's have been changing to the 
'^^panel" system with beneficial results, but as yet no systematic attempts 
have been made to pull pillars. The result is, that in the deeper mines 
only one-half of the coal is secured, taking into account barrier as well 
as other pillars. 

As a whole, there is taken out of this seam only from; 50 to 60 per 
cent of the coal it contains, the gross quantity of which throughout the 
State certainly exceeds the contents of any other seam, and possibly of 
seams Nos. 5 and 7 together. It is the seam now most actively worked, 
and will continue to be the most productive ; but its exploitation involves 
the largest losses, and hence calls for the most earnest study in the in- 
terest of great economy. The coal, when freed from impurity, is a 
very strong steam-coal, and the seam tends to improve in quality as well 
as thickness in going south. 

No. 7 is not generally present in northern Illinois. If it ever was 
so, it has been generally eroded. Outside of the Danville district, it 
certainly does not exist as a thick seam. In that district it is known as 
the "Danville seam." The G-rape Cteek seam, which is below it, and 
in which there has been the greatest development, is considered to be No. 
6. The correlation of these various seams by the State Survey is looked 
forward to with great interest. As mined at Danville, No. 7 is from 
5 to 7 feet thick. It has been opened up by the usual room-and-pillar 
system, and the pillars are not drawn. Owing to the numerous slips and 
poor roof the yield is low, probably but little over 50 per cent. 



218 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

- There have been no workable seams discovered, above the No. 7. 
Here and there in the upper part of the deep sections of the measures 
in the central part of the basin, as form d by drilling, there are seams 
1 to 2 feet in thickness^/ but the timje is very remote when they can be 
made available. 

THE SUEFACE, SUBSIDENCE DUE TO MINING. 

The influence of this fa,ctor upon the yield results from the high value 
of Illinois lands for agricultural purposes , well improved, tiled land be- 
ing worth from $100.00 to $175.00 per acre. In mining coal by the 
long-wall system, where the overlying surface is flat, the tile-drains are 
deranged and swampy places are made, although the surface may sink 
only from 1.5 to 2 feet. This is particularly the case in the Wilmington 
district. In the La Salle district the ground is more rolling and the 
subsidence has little effect. Although the goaves in the mines of these 
districts are supposed to be nearly filled, in reality they are not, and 
the settlement is practically one-half the thickness of the seam. If the 
long-wall system were applied to the thick seams, when applicable at all, 
it would cause a considerable derangement of the surface, and where 
the latter is so nearly level as the prairie-land of central Illinois, it makes 
the question of subsidence a serious one. It may be solved to a certain 
extent through draining the sunken lands by pumping, but even with 
such a method, aside from the expense, there is a serious difficulty from 
storm water. When the subsidence of the surface is from 3 to 4 feet it 
will render previously level lands of little use for raising crops until the 
particular area has come to full settlement and has been retiled. The 
same is true' if all the coal be taken out by any other system, and is even 
more emphasized where no pack-walls are used, because then the sub- 
sidence is practically the full thickness of the seam. If it were possible 
to systematize mining so that the land nearest the water courses was 
first undermined and then in succession the land further away, the 
damage done to farming would be minimized. However, until the agri- 
cultural land in the United States becomes insufficient to fill the needs of 
the population, which would be reflected in a continual increase of price 
for farming land, the money loss from temporarily destroying the sur- 
face in places is relatively small, as compared with the selling-price of 
the coal mined under the seam. Taking the average value of the sur- 
face at $125.00 per acre, if 80 per cent be rendered worthless, the im- 
mediate money-loss would be $100.00 per acre. A seam 6 feet thick 
would contain per acre 11,000 tons of coal in place, yielding, at 90 per 
cent, 9,900 tons. The damage done by practically destroying the surface 
would be only 1 cent per ton. If the land prices should rise two or three 
times above the value stated, this loss would still not prohibit raining. 

INTEELACED BOUNDAEY 0V7NEESHIP. 

The losses in mining arising from this factor have been perhaps less 
important in the past than they may be in the future. I had occasion 
some time ago to examine a property where there was coal within a 



RICE] MINING WASTES AND COSTS IN ILLINOIS. 2i9 



quarter of a mile of the shaft on either side^ yet the operator was obliged 
to mine coal at a distance of one and a half miles. Some of that near 
the shaft could not be purchased, yet it lay in such a way near a geolog- 
ical uplift that it would not pay to open another mine to rea>ch it. A 
number of such instances can be found. There have been large pur- 
chases, by various corporations, of coal-rights through Illinois, which 
have been taken up checker-work fashion, and unless the State inter- 
poses its authority it is conceivable in some cases that coal may be 
lost through improper development due to adverse ownership. Such 
effects, in a number of cases, have been avoided by adjoining owners 
getting together and trading to form areas suitable for the layout of in- 
dividual mines. 

OARBLESSNESS IN MINING OPEEATIONS. 

Losses from this source have been very great. They may be set down 
under these heads: 

1. Improper system of mining. 

2. Carelessness in following any system of mining by which blocks 
of coal are lost, and, where pillars are being pulled, carelessness in fail- 
ings to systematize the work, so that "squeezes^^ will be avoided. The 
same is true of advancing work, where improper proportioning of pillars 
or alignment of roads has brought on "squeezes." 

3. Inadequate surveys, records and maps, so that, with change of 
underground management, there has been a, failure to give proper notice 
of pillars and blocks of coal that temporarily have been passed by. 

4. An entirely inadequate system for filing maps and survey records 
of abandoned mines with either the county or the State. The absence 
of definite knowledge compels new adjacent mines, as a matter of safety, 
to keep farther away from an old abandoned mine, which may be full 
of water or gas, than would be necessary. At present it is impossible to 
find any map of a mine abandoned some years back. There is also in- 
sufficient attention paid to compelling operators of mines that are about 
to be abandoned to bring up the mine Surveys in a careful manner. In 
my opinion, the preservation of mine maps is properly a function for the 
State, as it is now for a county to record deeds, and there should be a 
permanent bureau established for the proper recording of the Surveys 
and maps of abandoned mines. This bureau also should take charge of 
and systematically file the maps of "going" mines. 

Eembdies for Waste in Mining. 

POSSIBLE saving. 

I believe it is possible to take out from 90 to 95 per cent of the coal 
under a given area,, even if the character of the roof is such that pillars 
cannot be pulled and the advancing. long- wall system is not applicable; 
that, in general, this can be done at an additional cost which need not 
make it prohibitive. In fact, taken over the whole life-time of the mine, 
it may be a profitable operation. 



220 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Wliere advancing long-wall can be nsed^ it is plainly the most direct 
system to apply, but, as already observed, it is inapplicable in Illinois, 
in most cases, outside of the Ko. 2 seam. 

PILLING SYSTEM. 

Two general systems suggest themselves, one of which is a replacement 
with material sent down from the surface. This method is more or less 
employed in the anthracite district of Pennsylvania, where the culm-bank 
is used for the filling. It is alsO' used extensively in Silesia. In Illinois, 
tlie substitute would have to be surface-sands and gravel. That this 
would be impracticable in the great majority of cases throughout the 
State is self-evident, particularly if water, the usual vehicle for trans- 
poTtation, is employed, inasmuch as the majority of the thick seams in 
Illinois have clay unde;r them which water would soften and thus tend 
to cause a "squeeze." Aside from this, much farm land would be de- 
stroyed in getting the filling material. 

RETREATING LONG-WALL. 

;The other system is driving to the boundaries of the property and 
then using either retreating long-wall or semi-long-wall systems, such as 
have been extensively developed in England. One or the other of these 
systms, in my opinion, could be applied in almost all cases, meeting the 
obstacles of strong roof and clay floor. The difficulties of a retreating 
system are these : The delay in getting an output, the increase in cap- 
italization, and the added cost in the early stages of the mine, due to 
the increased capitalization. The off-set would be the saving of the 
coal ; but this is a minor item of expense, and is balanced by the damage 
to the surface. 

Estimates of Costs. — ^Taking a theoretical case, the figures would be 
about as follows: Let us assume, in the "Blue Band" seam of central 
Illinois, coal averaging 7 feet in thickness and 400 feet deep; shafts in 
the center' of a group of four sections of land (2,560 acres) ; a mine 
equipment costing $125,000; townsite, coal-rights and miscellaneous out- 
lays as much more; making a total capitalization^ of $250,000. Assume 
a pair of entries to be driven to the middle of one side of the property, 
thence to a corner, with additional stubs, making a total of about 8,000 
yards of single entry. The use of machinery for driving the entries is 
presupposed, both for the sake of speed and for the advantage of the 
under-cutting, which allows the coal to be blasted down with small 
charges. Hence, three shifts could be used. Assuming an average ad- 
vance of five yards per day, the cost would be roughly about $10.00 
per yard in excess of the value of the coal produced. This would make 
a total charge of $80,000 in excess of the ordinary cost of development. 
At a speed of five yards per day it would take about 800 working days 
to drive the pair of entries the two miles to the comer, plus some stubs. 
Allowing for the inevitable delays this would mean 2.5 years to get to 
the same stage of development ordinarily reached when the main and 



KICE.] MINING WASTES AND COSTS IN ILLINOIS. 221 

escape shafts have reached coal a.nd have been connected underground, 
xillowing six per cent per annum for half the period (1.25 years), the 
interest on $80,000 wonld be $6,000. Possibly the expenditure of $50,- 
000 of the entire plant and town-site investment previously mentioned 
could be deferred till the final period of development. If so, $200,000 
would be drawing interest for two years and six months — say at six per 
cent per annum. We then have : 

Excess cost of 8,000 yd. entry complete $80,000 

per cent interest on $80,000 for 1 year and 3 months 6,000 

per cent interest on $ 200,000 for 2 years and 6 montlis 30,000 

Total excess cost of special development over that of ordinary development $116 ,000 

Hence, this additional amount of capital would be required. At six 
per cent the interest on $116,000 will constitute an annual charge of 
$6,960. If the theoretical plant has an annual average output of 300,000 
tons, which would be normal for a commercial mine for the investment 
mentioned ($250,000), this fixed annual charge would amount to 2.32 
cents per ton hoisted. 

The cost of mining at the face, under the present labor contracts, 
would probably be the same as it is under the prevailing system. The 
cost of hoisting, dumping, and loading would also be the same, but at 
the start certain other items would be greater; the "care of mine^^ cost, 
due to the keeping up' of the first long roads, would be larger than at any 
subsequent period. The same would be true of haulage; it has been as- 
sumed that an electric haulage for the two miles (four miles round trip) 
over what would be merely "gathering'^ in the conventional starting 
of a mine, at the center of the property, and which would be similar to 
the development at the corner of the property, should be between 4 
and 5 cents per ton, considering labor, fuel, repairs, and sinking fund for 
the haulage plant. 

During the life time of the mine this cost would be constantly de- 
creasing, instead of increasing, as in the conventional advancing mine. 
The average over the whole period would be practically the same. In 
the "care-of-mine" cost, however, the average during the whole life 
time of the mine should be considerably less than that of the conven- 
tional advancing mine. How much less is conjectural, but that the sav- 
ing would more than compensate for fixed charges arising from the 
greater first-cost of the retreating mine, I ha,ve no^ doubt. At the 
stairt, the situation would have to' be faced that the cost of the coal 
would be still further increased something like this : 

Cents 
per ton- 
Interest on additional capital 2.32 

Additional cost of haulage 4 . 50 

Cost of maintaining and ventilating four miles of single entry, labor, timber and fuel, $40 per day 2 . 60 

Total additional cost at start 9 . 42 

Effect of Introducing New- System. — ^Under present market condi- 
tions it would practically wipe out all profits for the average Illinois 
mine. This, together with the deferment of the time of getting the first 
returns, which ordinarily is from 1 to 1.5 years, to a total of 3.5 or 4 
years, brings about a condition making it virtually impossible to enlist 



222 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull, no, 14 

new capital to open a mine in this way. The plan seems feasible only for 
the largest companies, and these would gradnally change; that is, start 
mines on the retreating plan while operating their old properties on 
conventional lines. Evidently, large consolidations conld best effect this 
purpose. To force an immediate change of old as well as new mines 
by State or national laws would be too drastic. To make the require- 
ment for all new mines, if legally it can be done, would undoubtedly 
have the effect of restricting new developments. If the law were national 
in scope it would probably result in such curtailment of new output 
that very soon there would be a shortage of fuel and an increase in price 
until capital was again attracted. The effect would be even more severe 
in the mountainous states than in Illinois, inasmuch as the development 
of satisfactory methods to meet the physical disadvantages of steeply- 
pitching seams, or even level ones running under high mountains, will 
be difficult, and still more so where the seams are faulted. 

LEGISLATION NEEDED. 

Much, however, can be accomplished by voluntary means and by the 
making of such laws by the State as would require the filing of proposed 
plans of development for any new mine, and their approval by a board 
of examiners before mining is allowed to begin, plans leading to unsafe 
conditions and too wasteful in method not being permitted. This would 
amount to the giving of free engineering advice by specialists ; but if 
it aided in conserving the mineral resources of the State and the country 
it would be worth more than the relatively small cost of maintaining 
such a bureau, either by the State, or by the State and the national 
government together. 

EDUCATION NEEDED. 

Much can be done by a campaign of education. This country has 
highly developed its coal mining machinery, and in this respect has 
been in the front rank, enabling it to produce cheap fuel with rela- 
tively high labor cost, but in the manner of laying out our mines under- 
ground and in directing the work at the face we have been practically 
stationary for years. When unusual conditions are encountered in a 
mine, that part of the mine is too often abandoned. We have fires and 
disasters sometimes due to lack of knowledge, care, or thoroughness on 
the pai-t of the underground foremen, who are usually striving to make 
a record for tonnage. 

Having so much easily mined coal, we have tended to avoid all ad- 
verse conditions, picking out the good spots. This has not developed 
our skill in meeting difficult conditions, so that we are undoubtedly far 
behind England and Europe generally in our work at the ^^face" of the 
mine. Our best mining foremen have been trained abroad in a prac- 
tical way, even if their schooling has sometimes been acquired here. 

We have much to learn; and now that the government has started on 
its campaign of education it is to be hoped that Illinois and other min- 
ing states will awake to the call for "the conservation of natural re- 
sources." 



SNODGRASS.] DOMESTIC USES OF ILLINOIS COAL. 223 



THE USE OF ILLINOIS COAL FOR DOMESTIC PURPOSES. 

(By J. M. SNODGRASS.)^ 

Under "domestic purposes;" it is intended to include all heating, 
cooking, etc., by the burning of coal in stoves, ranges, and furnaces, or 
under house-heating boilers, in dwellings or other buiiclings. The amount 
of coal or other fuel so burned is large, and the question of its efficient 
combustion without undue smoke and dirt, and without troublesome fire 
conditions, is directly important to a large number of consumers and to 
the community as a whole. A satisfactory solution of the problems con- 
nected with burning Illinois coal for domestic purposes would mean a 
very considerable saving for the consumer and a much better market 
both within the State and throughout the territory naturally supplied 
with this coal. 

Until recently, this subject has received little consideration as com- 
pared with the use of coal for power and for heating upon a large scale. 
The manufacturers of stoves,' house-heating boilers, and like apparatus, 
have interested themselves more or less in this phase of the fuel ques- 
tion; but the results of their investigations are either not available, or 
are applicable to particular types of apparatus only. 
• The first settlers in the West, coming as a rule from more eastern 
states, brought with them the apparatus and methods of heating and 
cooking with which they were already familiar. These were largely 
adapted to the burning of anthracite coal and wood. Throughout Illi- 
nois, until comparatively recent years, the so'-called ^n3ase-burner," a 
stove adapted for anthracite coal only, was commonly used for heating 
residences of the better class. In cooking stoves and ranges, wood or 
anthracite coal was, and still is, quite generally employed, especially 
where the expense of these fuels is not considered prohibitive. With 
the advent of hot-air furnaces and house-heating boilers, coming at first 
largely from the eastern market, the use of anthracite was still continued 
to a large extent. Owing to the constantly increasing price of anthra- 
cite and to the coal miners' strike of 1902, with the attendant scarcity 
of this kind of coal at that time, the use of soft coal for domestic pur- 
poses has now become much more common. 

The fact that anthracite, and apparatus designed for burning it were 
first in the field, was in itself an advantage for that fuel over Illinois or 
other soft coals. Anthracite possesses a comparatively high heating value ; 



i Prepared under the direction of L. P. Breekenridge, Director of the State Engineering Experiment 
Station. 



224 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

little of it need be lost in handling; it can be burned efficiently and but 
a small portion of it is ash or inert matter. Consequently, a smaller 
weight of anthracite than of average Illinois coal will have to be handled 
in the generation of a given amount of heat. Moreover, anthracite is 
easily handled, comparatively free from dust, and has an advantage over 
Illinois coal in the matter of cleanliness in the boiler room. It holds 
fire well. The fire is easily regulated, does not smoke or make soot to 
an objectionable extent, leaves little ash, and, ordinarily, the coal does 
not clinker badly. 

The burning of Illinois coal is usually accompanied, to a greater or 
less extent (depending upon a number of conditions, such as furnace 
and boiler arrangements, kind, size, composition and preparation of the 
coal), by some or all of the following disadvantages : It is dirty, soiling- 
clothing or other material with which, it may come in contact. In handl- 
ing it, more or less dust is raised. Fires are more difficult to regulate 
and, under many conditions, do not keep as well as an anthracite fire 
Smoke, soot, and noxious gases are given off from the fire, and these 
are much more liable to escape from the furnace into the boiler room 
than is the case with anthracite coal. The heating value of the coal is 
lower, and the ash content is higher than in anthracite, and it is diffi- 
cult to burn it with the same efficiency. These conditions necessitate a 
large supply for a given amount of heating tO' be done, more storage 
space and more handling of coal. The high ash implies a correspond- 
ingly large amount of ashes to be moved, and the tendency to clinker 
to a troublesome degree is more pronounced. 

For the purposes of thef present paper, coke can best be roughly 
classed with anthracite. When burned in stoves and heaters it possesses 
many of the properties and advantages of anthracite coal, and, to a large 
extent, is free from the objectionable features incident to the burning 
of soft coal. Like anthracite, however, it must, for' use in Illinois and 
most other western states, be transported long distances, or the coal 
from which it is prepared must be so transported. Coke as a, by- 
product from local gas plants is on a somewhat different footing from 
coke imported for fuel purposes only, and must be considered with this 
fact in view. 

The great advantage of Illinois coal for the Illinois user and others 
within a reasonable distance of the field is its low price. First-class 
Illinois coal for domestic purposes can be purchased for one-half or less 
than one-half the price of anthracite. While the heating poAver of the 
anthracite is in general greater, the difference is not so great as to be 
in any sense commensurate with the difference in price. In Table I, 
which relates to some fuels tested under house-heating boilers at the 
University of Illinois, it will be noted that the B. t. u. (British thermal 
units) per pound of the anthracite listed is 12,690 as compared with 
a value of 12,278 for a comparatively high priced Illinois coal and a< 
value of 10,473 for a somewhat cheaper Illinois coal. In one case the 
Illinois coal costs 46 per cent of the price of the anthracite coal and 
contains 96.7 per cent of its calorific capacity. 

In the other case the Illinois coal costs only 34 per cent of the price 
of the anthracite and contains 82.5 per cent of its calorific capacity. This 



SNODGRASS,] 



DOMESTIC USES OF ILLINOIS COAL. 



225 



Table I. — Costs of Various Fuels. 

Fuel- tests with House-heating Boilers. 



Kind of Fuel. 


Cost per ton 
of 2,000 lb. at 
Urbana, 111. 


Cost in per 
cent based on 

anthracite 

coal as 100 per 

cent. 


B.t.u.perlb 
as fired . 


B. t. u. in per 
cent based on 

anthracite 

coal as 100 per 

cent. 


Anthracite coal 


$8.25 
5.50 
5.00 
6.00 
2.75 

3.75 


Percent. 
100 

67 

61 

73 

34 

46 


12,690 
14,753 
12,033 
12,488 
10,473 

12,278 


Per cent. 

100 


Pocahontas coal 


116.3 




94.8 




98.4 


Illinois coal (Christian county), nut.. 

IlUnois coal (Williamson county), 
washed hut . 


82.5 
96.7 







great discrepancy in price per heat-unit suggests the need of improve- 
ment in the methods of burning the cheaper fuel. Evidently, if all other 
conditions could be equalized or eliminated, the B. t. u. delivered by the 
fuel would be the direct measure of its value. 

During the past two years the Engineering Experiment Station of the 
University of Illinois has made many tests of different fuels, chiefly 
Illinois coals. Those made upon fuels burned in the furnaces of house- 
heating boilers of standard types and of sizes suitable for average resi- 
dences have embraced anthracite and Pocahontas coal, coke, a number 
of Illinois coals, and briquetted coal. These tests are still going on, 
and will be reported in the regular bulletins of the station, hence they 
will not be discussed in detail here. The relation of price to heating 
value, however, will be illustrated by a few figures taken from the data 
at hand. 

Table III presents this relation, as based upon evaporative perform- 
ance, for several of the best known kinds of fuel. The tests were made 
upon two house-heating boilers, here designated as Di and D2 ; the former, 
made of four horizontal cast-iron sections (the base and grate section, 
the fire-pot, the intermediate section, and the dome), and the latter of 
vertical sections, connected by means of external drums or headers. 
Table II shows the dimensions. 

11. — Dimensions of Test-Boilers Di and D2. 




sq. ft. 



Rated capacity, radiating-surface 

Area of grate-surface 

Sectional area of chimney 

Total heating-surface 

Total water and steam space 

' — 15 G 



800 

4.28 

1.07 

43.7 

Cu.Ft. 
7.38 



1,075 

6 

1.07 

75.87 

Cu. Ft. 
11.16 



226 YEAK-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

The height of the chimney above the grate in both cases is 39 feet. 

Each boiler is supplied with special feed-water supply apparatus and 
a load-regulator, as well as with the gauges, thermometers and other 
auxiliary apparatus necessary for test purposes. 

For the tests here considered, the evaporative performance of the 
boiler and fuel was deemed the best basis of comparison, and the tests 
were conducted with that as the main item sought. The problems of 
regulation, length of time of holding fire, smokelessness, ash, fire con- 
ditions, etc., was not overlooked but necessarily became secondary in im- 
portance; and observations and results relating to these questions are not 
reported here. 

Fires were started according to the standard method of the A. S. M. E. 
code. The tests varied in duration, but were approximately either 8, 
16, or 24 hours long. The fire was drawn when the boiler-pressure 
dropped below 4 or 5 pounds on the last firing, and did not again rise 
upon the opening of the damper and the closing of the check. The ma- 
terial drawn out at the close of the test was immediately put into a 
galvanized can with a close-fitting cover to prevent further combustion. 
Analysis of this partly-consumed or "residuaP^ fuel furnished suitable 
corrections for the determination of fuel actually burned. The ash was 
kept separate from the residual fuel, being taken from the furnace and 
ash-pit before the fire was drawn. The fuel was sampled in the usual 
manner by taking a small portion from each firing. Analyses of the 
fuel, ash, and residual fuel were made at the chemical laboratories of the 
University of Illinois. 

The feed-water, delivered to each boiler through measuring tanks, was 
the condensation from heating coils, and had a temperature near 180° F. 
Steam was exhausted to the atmosphere, after passing through a load- 
regulating device, arranged to give a load equivalent to about 65 per cent 
of the boiler-rating. A separator with suitable connections was used to 
determine the moisture in the steam; and the usual observations con- 
cerning temperatures, pressures, drafts, etc., were made. 

Table III shows results, which are, for the most part averages of 
from three to six tests with each kind of fuel. Columns 1 and 2 give 
the kind and cost of each fuel. The samples were purchased mostly 
from local dealers, and the prices are given for quantities of from 
1 to 5 tons only. Almost all these fuels can be purchased somewhat 
more cheaply in larger quantities ; but domestic consumers are very likely 
to) be retail purchasers. Column 3 gives the heating capacity per 
pound for each of the fuels listed, and column 4 the cost of 14,600; 
B. t. u. as purchased in each. (The number of 14,600 B. t. u., as the 
calorific capacity of a pound of pure carbon, is taken as a convenient 
unit for comparison. Column 5 shows that the boilers were operated at 
practically the same average capacity. The evaporation of 0.3 pounds 
of water per hour from and at 212° F. is taken as the equivalent of 
one square foot of radiation. Columns 6 an 7 give two of the principal 
operating conditions. Columns 8 and 9 s^ive the cost of evaporating 
1,000 pound of water from and at 212° F., and the fuel cost per liour 



Snodgrass.] 



DOMESTIC USES OF ILLINOIS COAL. 



227 



Tale III. — Comparison of Fuel Costs — Data and Results — Fuel-Tests 
With House-Heating Boilers. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 










III 


-2 




1^ 




3 










^ s'^ 


O 


i:, 


d-t^ 
























► 


1 












> 


I- CD 

KM 


li 


Kind of Fuel. 


5 


M 


6 




1| 

to ^ 

^1 


^1 


!I 


^ 

11 




O 


1 


6 


1? 


&1^ 

H OS- 




13 








o 


■ i 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Per Ct. 




,— < 


(-1 


§ 
















3 


K 


■* 
















o 

1 


6 


o 
o 

o 


Boiler. 


Boiler. 


Boiler. 


Boiler. 


Boiler. 


Boiler. 




D^. 


D,. 


D,. D5. 


D,. D,. 


Di- 


D,. 


Di. 


D^. 


D^. 


D2. 


Anthracite coal 


8.25 


12,690 


0.47 


65.9 


62.3 


5.6 


4.4 


3.6 


2.7 


62.5 53.7 


1.88 


1.62 


50.3 


58.6 


Pocahontas coal 


5.50 


14,753 


0.27 


63.6 


64.0 


5.2 


4.1 


3.5 


2.7 


40.2 32.6 


1.20 


0.98 


44.9 


55.4 


Coke (gas-plant by product).. . . 


5.00 


12,033 


0.30 


65.4 


62.5 


5.3 


4.2 


3.6 


2.7 


36.3 


31.5 


1.09 


0.95 


55.6 


63.6 


Coke (Solvay process) 


fi no 


12,488 


35 


64 4 


60 8 


4 6 


4 


3 5 


"^ 6 


38 1 


37 1 


1 15 


1 11 


61 1 


62 9 


Illinois coal (Christian county) 






























nut - 


?. 75 


10,473 


19 


63 5 


6'^ 3 


7 8 


7 


3 5 


?, 7 


30 1 


'^S H 


91 


86 


42.0 


44.4 


Illinois coal (Williamson coun- 
































ty) washed nut 


3.75 


12,278 


0.22 


63.9 


64.8 


6.0 


5.5 


3.5 


2.8 


31.2 


28.7 


0.93 


0.86 


47.4 


51 5 







of serving 100 square feet of radiating surface. Column 10 gives the 
calculated efficiency of the boiler, furnace and grate, operated under the 
conditions of the tests. 

It will be noted that the cost of evaporating, 1,000 pounds of water 
from and at 212° F. varies from 62.5 cents for anthracite to 28.6 cents 
for the cheapest of the Illinois coals tested. If evaporative performance 
alone be considered, this shows a saving of 54.2 per cent of the cost of the 
anthracite in producing the same effect. The similar differences between 
the same Illinois coal and the Pocahontas coal and the cokes, while not 
as great, are sufficient to warrant, other conditions being equal, the choice 
of Illinois coal on the ground of economy. Certainly a possible saving 
of from 10 to 50 per cent in the cost of a material which enters into 
practically every home, and the consumptions of which in Illinois alone 
is annually millions of tons, at several dollars per ton, is an object worthy 
of every possible effort. 

The endeavor of manufacturers to furnish stoves and furnaces suit- 
able for Illinois coal, and that of coal dealers and others interested to 
disseminate information concerning this question, are evidence of a de- 



228 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [BULL. NO. 14 

mand for such apparatus and information^ indicating that the general 
public appreciates the advantage to be gained by using this coal, as soon 
as some of its more pronounced disadvantages have been eliminated. In- 
deed, by the extent to which it is already using soft coal for domestic 
purposes, in spite of the attendant disadvantages, the public shows that 
it is determined to have the cheaper fuel. In this matter, the consumer 
is ahead of the manufacturer, the coal dealer, and the investigator. 



BEMENT.] 



SMOKELESS COMBUSTION OF COAL. 



229 



THE SMOKELESS COMBUSTION OF BITUMINOUS COAL. 

(By a. Bement.)^ 



The present paper deals specially with Illinois coal; but the problem 
of smokeless combustion is the same for all bituminous coal, its diffi- 
culty being proportional to the amount of volatile matter in the fuel. It is 
to be assumed for the present purpose that coal from the Eastern Interior 
field, of which Illinois is a part, will make practically as much smoke 
as any other bituminous fuel, and, therefore, that a method or appar- 
atus adequate for the smokeless combustion of this coal will be useful for 
.any other. 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION. 
¥iG. 4.— Improved Form of Boiler, Served by Smoke-Proof Furnace of the Kind Used in Electric Station 

Shown in Fig. 1. 

Many persons still honestly doubt the possibility of burning bitumin- 
ous coal without smoke. But experience has proved that it is entirely 

i Consulting Engineer, Chicago. ^ 



2B0 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1907. [BULL. no. 14 

feasible in steam-making to employ apparatus which will be, except when 
fires are first lighted, entirely smokeless, so that a. photograph taken of 
the chimney woxild show no smoke whatever — in fact, wonld give no 
indication whether the chimney was in service or not. Since, in many 
plants, fires are lighted only abont once a month, this is practically a 
continuons smokeless operation. The achievement is dne entirely to the 
inherent characteristics of the apparatus itself, and is not dependent in 
c^xjty sense upon the care or skill of the attendant. Chimneys have re- 
mained smokeless even when coal was being burned at the rate of one 
ton per minute. 

Plate 3 is from a photograph of the Harrison street electric gener- 
ating station of the Commonwealth Edison Company, Chicago, at which 
plant originated the smoke-preventing scheme here described. The 
boilers are of the Heine type, served by chain-grate stokers, and the ap- 
plication of the tile roof originated with Mr. W. L. Abbott, chief oper- 
ating engineer of that company. The principle of the furnaces iff illus- 
trated by Fig. 4, which shows an improved form of water-tube boiler, 
devised by me, employing this tile furnace-roof, which is carried by 
the lower row of tubes in the boiler, thus forming an adequate com- 
bustion chamber. 

The requirements for smokeless combustion, simply stated, are: (1) 
That the evolution of gas from the coal shall proceed uniformly; (2) 
that the gases distilled uniformly from the coal shall enter a fire-brick 
chamber, either (a) of sufficient length to allow their complete natural 
combustion, or (h) provided with such auxiliary mixing and baffling 
devices as will effect the artificial mixture and complete combustion of 
the gases before their exit from the chamber. 

Uniform evolution of the volatile gases of the coal is the essential 
feature of the process, and it is for this reason that mechanical stokers, 
as a class, are more effective in preventing smoke than any apparatus 
accompanied with intermittent firing. A stoker, however, which, through 
abnormal working or incorrect manipulation, feeds irregularly, has the 
effect of a hand-fired furnace. Hence, forms of stokers depending up- 
on gravity feed or having an inclined grate are objectionable, because 
sliding of the coal, or disturbance of the fuel bed by the attendant, may 
cause fresh coal to roll down in a large mass. Again, stokers which re- 
quire that the fuel bed be disturbed in the removal of ash and clinkers 
cannot be depended upon for uniform feed of the coal, except under 
conditions of most favorable manipulation and suitable size and character 
of fuel. The chain-grate stoker, which operates with a. horizontal fuel 
bed, receiving the fresh coal at one end and automatically and continu- 
ously discharging ashes at the other, insures a uniformity in feed of coal 
and condition of fuel bed not attained hitherto with any other machine 
of the kind. This form of stoker is shown in Fig. 4. In combination 
with a tile furnace roof, it satisfies requirements (1) and (2a) above 
stated. The adoption of this form of apparatus is extending rapidly. 
The University of Illinois has recently employed it in connection with 
an experimental boiler in its engineering laboratory. 



Bement.] smokeless COMBUSTION OF COAL. 2B1 

Present practice largely tends, however, to some intermittent form of 
fuel supply, such as an irregularly working stoker, or hand firing, and 
attempts to secure a smokeless combustion are generally hampered by 
such conditions of firing. In such cases, requirement (2&), above stated, 
becomes imperative ; and, for this purpose, resort is often had to various 
fire-brick walls, arches, etc., and other auxiliary mixing devices, such as 
steam- jets, with or without supplementary air supply. These schemes 
are never entirely successful unless there is a large and well-distributed 
auxiliary air supply available in the furnace chamber immediately aftei 
firing and while the volatilization of the coal is going on, because, after 
a fresh charge of coal is added, there is, for the first few moments, an 
evolution of volatile matter at a rate enormously larger than that of the 
whole remaining period between firings. Now, complete combustion- 
requires not only a proper mixing, but a proportionately adequate supply 
of air. Consequently, with apparatus of any intermittent type, unless 
the rate of fuel supply approximates in uniformity that of a good stoker 
(which means, by hand, almost continuous firing), it is necessary not 
only to employ some powerful auxiliary mixing device, but also to fur- 
nish at times an extra air supply. The latter may be done by means of 
a steam-jet, automatically put in service as soon as the fresh coal is 
added, and discontinued after the expiration of a sufficient interval. 

It is thus evident, that the stoker which produces results equal to 
that of the chain-grate is the only one which can be depended upon, 
under adverse conditions, to insure a positively smokeless result, inde- 
pendent of the skill, favorable disposition, or fidelity of the operator. 
Eecently, a new form of underfeed stoker had been employed in the 
eastern states, which in considerable measure conforms to the chain- 
grate in its methods of disposal of the ash and in the manner of feeding 
the fuel. It has met with considerable favor where semi-bituminous 
coal, low in ash, is used. In feed of fuel and ash removal it resembles 
the well known "underfeed" and Eoney types of stokers, having a fuel 
bed sloping to the rear, at which point are located dumping-grates for 
the removal of the ash — the fuel being introduced below the fire-bed at 
the front. Air supply by a forced draft entering the bed at the bottom 
insures that the volatile gases will become mixed with the air to a con- 
siderable extent before they leave the surface of the fire. With favorable 
fuel this form of apparatus has given satisfactory results under the 
Babcock & Wilcox type of boiler, without a tile roof, in those cases 
where the boiler was set high above the fire. But thus far there has been 
no reason to expect that with coal high in volatile matter and containing 
much ash it would be possible to secure favorable results without the 
aid of a tile roof furnace or its equivalent. The ash would necessarily 
have an important effect, because greater in quantity and sometimes 
readily fusible. Such large clinkers migh be formed that their re- 
moval would be difficult while the fire was in action. Conditions in 
Illinois, so far as ash content of the fuel is concerned, are quite serious, 
since the usual stoker fuel, under present methods of preparation, con- 
tains approximately 16 per cent of ash. It is with such fuel that the 



232 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

result shown in Plate 3 has been secured. The general tendency at 
present is toward- the abandonment of hand-fired apparatus and the cor- 
rection of stoker operation so as to insure a uniformity in fuel feed. 

One of the things which has operated seriously against the installation 
of many stoker applications is the general prevalence of the fallacy that 
it does not pay to employ stokers in small plants. It is, however, coming 
to be realized that only through stokers is it feasible to obtain the uni- 
formity of feed required, not only for smokeless burning, but for good 
economy. 



WHEELER.J WEATHERING OF COAL. 233 



THE WEATHERING OF COAL. 

(By W. F. Wheeler. )i 



ExPEiEIMENTAL DaTA. 

Eor the past two years the Engineering Experiment Station of the 
Ubiversity of Illinois has carried on experiments to determine the na- 
ture and extent of the chemical changes taking place in stored coal.^ 
Storage^ under varying conditions., has been tried in order to learn how 
coal may be stored with the minimum loss by weathering. In these ex- 
periments different portions of the sample of coal were exposed to: (1) 
Eegular weather conditions out-of-doors; (2) dry indoor storage at about 
100° F. in boiler room; (3) the same, except that the coal was wet 
thoroughly every two or three days; (4) entire and continued submer- 
sion at about 70° F. Only the calorific value of the ash and water-free 
coal was made use of in determining the extent of the weathering. With 
this factor determined for the fresh coal as a basis of comparison, the 
submerged coal was found to remain practically unchanged for a period 
of nine months, while the other three portions of the same samples 
showed losses varying from 2 to 10 per cent, with no marked advantage 
in favor of either the outdoor or indoor storage, except that the coal 
with a large amount of pyrite was not broken up so much when kept dry 
as when wet often. The loss in calorific value practically ceased by 
the end of five months, although a slight loss occurred during the next 
four months. 

A new series of experiments is now going on under more nearly normal 
storage conditions. Car-lot samples were obtained from three Illinois 
mines working different seams of coal. A car of 1.25 inch screenings 
and a car of 1.25 inch to 3 inch nut was shipped from each mine. One- 
half of each car was piled out-of-doors in an uncovered bin about 3.5 
feet deep; the other half was piled about five feet deep in a covered bin, 
and a representative sample of each was submerged under water. Each 
O'f these cars of coal was sampled at the mine as the car was loaded, 
and again, about a week later, when it was unloaded. The purpose of 
sampling and analyzing the coal immediately after mining was to find 
out the composition of the coal before it had any chance to oxidize or 
lose its occluded gases. The second analysis, at the end of a week, was 
to serve as an indication of the rate of loss for that period. In Table I 
the analyses of the coal up to the end of the sixth month of storage are 
jDresented. 

i Chemist, State Geological Survey. 

2 Bulletin No. 17 of the Engineering Experiment Station of the University of Illinois, by Prof. S. W. 
Parr and N. D. Hamilton, presents the results of a preliminary series of tests on small samples of Illinois 
coal. A historical review of the literature on weathering and spontaneous combustion, and a summary 
of the opinions of various authorities are also given. 



284 



YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NC. 1* 



The losses represented in Table I range from 0.4 to 1.3 per cent at the 
end of one week after mining, from 0.2 to 2.2 per cent at the end of 
two months, and from 0.7 to 3.0 per cent at the end of six months. The 
average loss at the end of one week was 0.8 per cent; at the end of two 
months, 1.3 per cent, and at the end of six months, 2.0 per cent. 

Table I. — Loss m Calorific Value During Transit and Six Months'' 

Storage. 

Screenings. 



Coal from 



Sampled. 



Dry Coal. 



Ash. 



Sul- 
phur. 



B.t.u. 



o , 3 

C3-i3 ft- 



B.t.u. 



Per 
cent. 



Westville, Illinois • 



Springfield, 111. 



Herrin, Illinois. 



Same day as mined 

7 days after mining 

2 months after mining ^ 
2 months after mining ^ 
6 months after mining ^ 
6 months after mining* 
6 months after mining ^ 

Same day as mined 

4 days after mining 

2 months after mining^ 
2 months after mining* 
6 months after mining ^ 
6 months after mining* 
6 months after mining ^ 

Same day as mined . . . 
6 days after mining — 
2 months after mining ^ 
2 months after mining* 
6 months after mining ^ 
6 months after mining* 
6 months after mining ^ 



17.88 
13.84 
15.21 
15.26 
15.63 
14.51 
13.87 



17.13 
17.04 
17.22 
18.33 
17.02 
17.30 
19.86 



14.13 
14.37 
15.66 
12.62 
13,76 
13.60 
14.38 



2.35 

2.58 
2.72 
2.51 
2.44 
2.25 
2.32 



4.92 
4.47 
5.00 
4.70 
4.54 
4.67 
5.60 



3.17 
3.34 

2.67 
2.98 
2.84 
3.03 
3.54 



11,937 

12,462 
12,068 
12,124 
11,969 
12,081 
12,270 



11,752 
11,684 
11,645 
11,414 
11,526 
11,466 
11,127 



12,426 
12,287 
12,133 
12,608 
12,342 
12,372 
12,262 



14,684 
14,627 
14,392 
14,453 
14,328 
14,247 
14,379 



14,478 
14,351 
14,365 
14,254 
14,154 
14,136 
14,220 



14,658 
14,553 
14,545 
14,602 

14,476 
14,496 
14.528 



57 
292 
231 
356 
437 
305 



127 
113 

224 
324 
342 
258 



0.39 
1.99 
1.57 
2.43 
2.98 
2.08 



0.88 
0.78 
1.55 
2.24 
3.36 
1.77 



0.72 
0.77. 
0.38 
1.24 
1.11 
0.89 



3-INCH NUT COAL. 



Westville, Illinois 



Springfield, 111. 



Herrin, Illinois 



Same day as mined 

7 days after mining 

2 months after mining^ 
2 months after mining* 
6 months after mining^ 
6 months after mining* 
6 months after niining^' 

Same day as mined . . . 
4 days after mining.. . . 
2 months after mining^ 
2 months after mining* 
6 months after mining ^ 
6 months after mining* 
6 months after mining^ 

Same day as mined . . . 
6 days after mining — 
2 months after mining ^ 
2 months after mining* 
6 months after mining^ 
6 months after mining* 
6 months after mining^ 



10.55 
13.98 
14.21 
13.08 
13.53 
11.76 
15.37 



17.87 
16.63 
17.45 
16.83 
16.03 
16.30 
15.90 



13.98 
14.90 
14.32 
14.08 
13.81 
13.06 
15.65 



4.25 
2.65 
2.47 
2.13 
2.10 
2.14 
3.34 



5.75 
5.10 
4.66 
5.02 
4.91 
4.52, 
4.2l| 



12,991 
12.412 
12,265 
12,475 
12,396 
12,571 
12,013 



11,741 

11,800 
11,626 
11,796 
11,798 
11,682 
11,854 



3.75 
3.02 
4.12 
3.84 
3.45 
3.60 
3.12 



12,499 
12,341 
12,409 
12,378 
12,455 
12,469 
12,097 



14,768 
14,586 
14,439 
14,523 
14,456 
14,365 
14,391 



14,655 
14,461 
14,361 
14,452 
14,338 
14,218 
14,338 



14,751 
14,682 
14,727 
14,634 
14,652 
14,551 
14,528 



194 
294 
203 
317 
437 
317 



1.23 
2.23 
1.66 
2.11 
2.73 
2.55 



1.32 
2.01 
1.39 
2.16 
2.98 
2.16 



0.47 
0.16 
0.79 
0.67 
1.36 
1.51 



Outdoor storage. 



Covered bins. 



Stored under water. 



Wheeler.] 



WEATHEEING OF COAL. 



2B5 



The loss taking place during the firs£ week after mining represents 
two-thirds of the total for two months ; and since very little coal can. 
be used inside of a week after it is mined, not much importance attaches 
to the small additional losses of a two months^ storage period. It may- 
be of interest, to add that the amount of loss by each of the three coals 
in question is in line with their reputation in the market — the Herrin 
coal breaks up least, Springfield next, and Westville most. A small 
sample taken from each car is being used to determine any change in 
weight which may accompany the change in calorific value, but, as yet, 
no results are available from these experiments. It is thought, however, 
that the weight of the dry coal will increase, due to the addition of oxygen 
to the coal. A sizing test of the coal is to be made in connection with 
this series of experiments to determine the amount of disintegration 
which takes place. It seems probable that this change in the size of the 
coal may have greater economic importance than the slight change in 
its composition. The loss in calorific value shown by the car-lots of 
coal in a period of two months is smaller than was expected, judging 
from the results of the preliminary series of experiments. The discrep- 
ancy is accounted for, most likely, by the greater exposure of the early 
samples, which consisted of but 25 pounds of coal each. 

Two samples of old pillar-coal were also collected and compared by 
analysis with fresh coal from the same mine, to determine the extent of 
weathering in coal exposed for a long time underground. As the an- 
alyses in Table II show, the loss in calorific value is not very great, 
being in both instances under three per cent. 

The Edwards coal presents an extreme case of weathering. The second 
sample was taken from near an outcrop that had been covered with soil 
and forest on a gentle slope, and had not been subject to erosion in recent 
years. The coal in this case had become so changed as to appear nearly 
like lignite, and the analysis shows a corresponding resemblance. The 
high moisture, nearly 30 per cent, is characteristic of the lignites, as is 
also a high percentage of oxygen^ and a low calorific value. 

Another point of importance in connection with the weathering of 
coals of the type found in Illinois and our western states is the occur- 

Table II. — Analyses of Pillar Coal and Fresh Coal. 







Total 
mois- 
ture. 


Analysis of Dry Coal. 




Coal Feom 


Ash. 


Vola- 
tile 
matter. 


Fixed 
Car- 
bon. 


Sul- 
phur. 


Heat. 


Heat 
water- 
sulphu 
coal. 


, 


Pillar-coal exposed 22 yrs. 

Fresh face, same mine 

Pillar-coal exposed 27 yrs. 

Fresh face, same mine 

Fresh face 300 ft . from out- 
crop 


Perct. 
10.18 


Perct. 
16.21 


Perct. Perct. 
38.26 45.43 


Perct. 
5.01 


B.t.u. 
11,797 


B.t.u. 
14,472 


Belleville, 111. \ 


9.76 


15.80 


41.29 


42.91 


4.76 


12,202 


14,785 


f 


4.76 


13.84 


.36.56 


• 49.60 


3.84 


12,514 


14,754 


Equality, 111. \ 


4.47 


10.85 


47.82 


51.33 


3.72 


13,235 


15,188 


Edwards, 111. \ 


13.86 


16.25 


40.72 


43.03 


3.91 


12,044 


14,618 




29.81 


16.86 


39.27 


43.87 


0.85 


9,257 


11 164 









236 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

ence of a loss in calorific value even when samples are kept sealed np 
away from the air. The coal loses methane at first and absorbs oxygen 
from whatever air may be in contact with it. Each of these processes 
accounts for a part of the loss of heat units. If umpire samples are to 
be kept in connection with coal contracts calling for a specified calorific 
value, the heat unit basis, this fact must be kept in mind, since the loss 
in this way may become as much as 300 B. t. u. in a few months, as was 
shown in connection with my paper^ presented at the Toronto meeting 
of the Institute, July, 1907, and again, with additional data, in the 
Journal of the American Chemical Society, for June, 1908. 

Summary. 

The results to. date on this series of tests confirm the conclusion set 
forth in the summary of Bulletin No. 17 by Prof. S. W. Parr and Mr. 
Hamilton, except that 4 per cent seems to be amply sufficient to cover 
the losses sustained by Illinois coals under regular storage conditions, 
the larger losses indicated in the former series being probably due to the 
small size of the samples exposed as against car-load lots in the present 
series. In these latter tests, the losses sustained by the submerged coal, 
though small in amount, are only slightly less than those indicated for 
the exposed coal. 



1 Pure coal as a basis for the comparison of Bituminous Coals, Trans., American Ins Min. Eng., 
rxxxviii., 621 to 632 (1908). 



Francis.] 



LOW TEMPERATURE DISTILLATION. 



237. 



THE MODIFICATION OF COAL BY LOW-TEMPERATURE 

DISTILLATION. 

(By C. K. Francis. )i 



Introduction. 

Since 1902 the laboratory of applied chemistry of the University of 
Illinois^ under the direction of Prof. S. W. Parr, has been engaged in 
the investigation of bituminous coal, especially from Illinois, with a 
view to such a modification of it as will permit combustion imder or- 
dinary conditions without the production of smoke. Eecent investiga- 
tion, directed primarily to the development of fundamental facts and 
principles, has included a careful study of the chemical changes or re- 
actions that may accompany the treatment of coal under varying temper- 
atures and' in different atmospheres. 

Briefly outlined, the method is as follows: About 4 or 5 pounds of 
the coal was placed in a cylindrical retort, fitted with a three-quarter 
inch pipe at each end, one pipe serving as inlet tube for the gas used as 
an atmosphere', and the other as an outlet for the gases produced. These 
pipes also permitted the revolving of the retort .during the operation. 
The atmospheres used in the experiments so far have been nitrogen, 
oxygen and steam. After the air was washed out of the retort by the gas 
to be experimented with, the retort was heated. The period of heating 
varied from two to three hours, the temperature from 200° to 425° C. 

Nitrogen. 
The results obtained in an atmosphere of nitrogen may be represented 
by those from a test in which the coal was heated for three hours, at an 
average temperature of 402° C. The analyses of the coal and the 
product, calculated for the same amount of ash, dry basis, are given in 
Table I. 

Table I. — Analyses of Coal and Product. 





Original 

coal. 
Percent. 


Product. 
Per cent. 


Ash : 


8.30 
36.23 
55.47 

2.24 


8 30 


Volatile matter . . 


15 26 


Fixed carbon . . 


51 98 


Sulphur 


1.32 


B.t.u 

B. t. u. (unit coal) .... 


13,244 
14,567 


9,819 
14 702 







1 Research Assistant in Applied Chemistry, University of Illinois. 



238 



YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



The expression "unit coal"^ is used here to represent the ash, water 
and snlphur free material. The formnla for calculating the B. t. u. 
to the "unit coal" basis may be expressed as follows: 



B. t. u.— (Weight of S X 4,050) 
100— (Ash + H2O + 5/8 S) 



X 100 = B. t. u. per lb. unit coal. 



The gas evolved from the coal under this treatment had the following 
composition : 



Per Cent. 



Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide 

lUuminants 

Oxygen 

Carbon monoxide 

Methane 

Hydrogen 

Nitrogen . . 

Volume of gas 

Weight of coal 



17.33 

9.54 

0.0 

7.66 

32.66 
2.37 

29.97 



50 liters. 
2,120 g. 



Steam. 

The results after treatment in an atmosphere of steam for two hours 
at an average temperature of 381° C. were as follows: 





Original 

coal. 
Percent. 


Product. 
Percent. 


Ash .... 


8.72 
39.07 
54.19 

2.57 


8 72 


Volatile matter 


25 78 


Fixed carbon 


55.79 


Sulphur ■ : 


2.14 


B.t.u 


13,304 
14,605 


11,959 
14,813 







i Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. xxviii., No. 6, p. 632 (May, 1906); and Trans. 
xxxviii., 621 (1908). 



Francis.] 



LOW TEMPERATURE DISTILLATION. 



289 



The gas evolved from the coal under this treatment had the following 
composition : 



Per Cent. 



•Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulpiride . 

K 

Illuminants 



Oxygen. 

•Carbon monoxide. 

Methane 

-Hydrogen 

Nitrogen 

Volume of gas 

Weight of coal 



32.40 
7.30 
0.80 
9.60 

20.60 
0.00 

29.30 



37 liters. 
2,400 g 



The carbon dioxide present in this gas, and, probably, also that pro- 
duced when nitrogen was the atmosphere, may have been due to the 
residual oxygen in the retort. Indeed, the decrease in quantity of the 
carbon dioxide as the process was continued seems to indicate some such 
-explanation. 

Oxygen. 

The results after treatment in an atmosphere of oxygen for 4.5 hours 
■at an average temperature of 379° C. were as follows: 



Product. 
Per cent. 



Ash 

Volatile matter . 
Fixed carbon . . . 
Sulphur 



B.t.u 4- 

33 . t . u . (unit coal) 




11,588 
14,793 



240 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. U 

The composition of the gas evolved from the coal -under this treatment 
was as follows: 



Per Cent. 



Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide . 

Illuminants 

Oxygen 

Carbon monoxide 

Methane 

Hydrogen 

Nitrogen 

Volume of gas 

Weight of coal 



12.7a 
3.53 
9.27 
4.74 

13. 6& 
O.OO 

56.05 



50 liters. 
2,000:g. 



In all cases the product has a lower heat value than the coal. This 
rediiction is accounted for by the hydrocarbon values represented in the 
gaseous and oil products of distillation. Especial attention should be 
given to the heat values calculated to the unit coal basis. These values 
show a consistent increase throughout. A tentative explanation is, that 
the oxygen and nitrogen compounds of the volatile matter have been 
more largely driven off than the hydrocarbon compounds. If the loss in 
volatile matter, as shown, had been chiefly that of the marsh-gas (CH*) 
series, a reduction in heat values for unit coal must result. If, however, 
the loss is made up of water of composition, there would be a relative 
increase in the heat value of the residual coal. The weight of water 
condensing in the flasks and separated from the oil, showed in each test 
an excess over the possible amount which could come from the free 
water present, amounting to 3 per cent in Test No. 4, 4.5 per cent in 
Test No. 6, and a little less than 3 per cent in Test No. 7. These figures 
must represent the percentage of decrease in the water of composition. 
A loss of 2 per cent in this constituent would raise the B. t. u. factor, 
referred to the "unit coal basis, from 14,657 to 14,864. This seems to 
warrant the conclusion that a loss of water of composition occurs, which 
is an important point for further confirmation, since a fundamental pur- 
pose of this investigation is to develop, as nearly as may be, the con- 
ditions which govern the various decomposition processes. 

Enough has already been developed to indicate that the product ob- 
tained by the treatment here outlined, or possibly a combination of two 
atmospheres, would have a special value for domestic use and for such 
industrial operations as require a smokeless fuel. While much of the 
volatile constituent remains, it has undergone a change which makes it 
not difficult to carry on combustion without the production of smoke. 
This fact is, perhaps, suggested by the rather close resemblance in com- 
position to the so-called smokeless coals. Because of the very fragile 
character of this material, it would need probably to be briquetted. 



FRANCIS.] LOW-TEMPEEATURE DISTILLATION. 241 

The investigation of certain phenomena noticed in the preliminary 
experiments and in the work just described^ suggested certain specific 
investigations. For example^ carbon dioxide was present in the evolved 
gases when an inert gas^ nitrogen or steam^ was used as an atmosphere. 
In each case the amount was considerable^ ranging from 13 to 37 per 
cent. In several of the tests an occasional rise of the temperature in 
the retort was noted, seemingly independent of the internal source of 
heat. The first investigation suggested was the determination of the 
temperature at which oxidation of coal begins, and the actual ignition 
point in different atmospheres. The apparatus devised for this purpose 
consisted of a purifying train, a heating chamber, and an apparatus for 
detecting carbon dioxide when evolved. In the flask employed as a 
heating chamber were placed two thermometers, one of which indicated 
the temperature of the gas, the other that of the coal under observation. 
Any difference in the readings of the two was due to reactions taking 
place within the coal. Oxidation was said to begin when carbon dioxide 
was detected at the outlet. 

The results of these tests may be summarized as follows : Finely 
pulverized coals in contact with oxygen, either pure or diluted, as in the- 
case of air, begin to oxidize at between 120° and 135° C. In some in- 
stances, however, this temperature of oxidation is higher, but in none 
of the tests did it exceed 155° C. The ignition temperature varies with 
the type of coal and, to a certain extent, also with the fineness of division. 
Powdered bituminous coals ignite in oxygen at a temperature of about 
160° ; buckwheat sizes ignite at from 260° to 300° ; finely divided semi- 
uituminous coals at about 200°; and anthracite at about 300° C. Bit- 
uminous coals ignite in air at about 330° C. 

The investigations of the phenomena occurring under the same condi- 
tions in atmospheres of steam and nitrogen are not completed. It has 
been demonstrated that an appreciable amount of carbon dioxide is 
formed in an atmosphere of pure steam, but at 315° C. there is an abrupt 
rise of temperature in the coal of over 50°, the limit of the thermometer 
preventing an exact determination. Since no increased appearance of 
carbon dioxide accompanied this rise in temperature, it must be at- 
tributed to the exothermic character of the decompositions occurring at 
that stage. Similar conditions were observed in a corresponding experi- 
ment, using nitrogen; but, since a small amount of oxygen remained in 
the nitrogen, giving as a result a moderate test for carbon dioxide at the 
exit tube, this matter of temperature differences in nitrogen must await 
further and more careful examination. Indeed, the general proposition 
here indicated, of a probable exothermic behavior, is of considerable im- 
portance, and calls for a carefully devised series of experiments, which 
are now in progress. 



-16 G 



242 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 



GENERATION OF POWER FROM ILLINOIS COAL. 

Its Electrical TRANSMissioi;r and Use by the Illinois Traction 

System. 

(By H. C. Hoagland.)'- 



Introduction. 

The Illinois Traction System^ otherwise known as the McKinley Sys- 
tem, is an organization furnishing interurban car service, electric light, 
power, steam heat and gas in central Illinois. Since it consumes 20,000 
to 25,000 tons per month of Illinois coal, mined in the several fields of 
the State, and transmits the power long distances, a description of the 
equipment is of interest. This growing practice of power transmission 
promises large development in the immediate future. 

Principal Power Houses. 

the PEORIA POWER HOUSE. 

At the Peoria power house there are installed eight 400 H. P. Stirling 
boilers, which are fired automatically with Green chain grates, receiving 
their supply of coal from a bunker system overhead. The coal is elevated 
into the bunker, system by a grab bucket and crane, which takes it direct 
from the cars or from storage bins of about 600 tons capacity located 
under the tracks. 

In the turbine room are installed two 2,000 K. W. Curtis turbines, 
two 750 K. W. rotary convertors, and the auxiliary apparatus for the 
operation of such a plant. This power-house furnishes through the 
rotary convertors the 650 volts current for the operation of the Peoria 
Railway. The current is generated at 2,300 volts and stepped up through 
six 700 K. W. Westinghouse, water-cooled, oil-insulated, transformers 
to 430 volts, and through a 3-phase, General Electric, self -cooled, trans- 
former for the motor exciter set to 2,300 volts. 

• To the bus bars in this station is connected a transmission line, which 
carries the current at 33,000 volts to two A. C. substations on the Peoria, 
Bloomington & Champaign Traction Company's line. One of these, 
located at Danvers, has a capacity of 400 K. W. Here the current is 
stepped down from 33,000 volts to 3,300 volts, or the voltage used on 
the A. C. trolley. At Morton, 111., the substation has a capacity of 800 



Electrical and Mechanical Engineer of the Illinois Traction System. 



HOAGLAND.] POWEE GENEEATION AND TRANSMISSION. 243 

K. W., and the cnrrent is also stepped down from 33,000 to 3,300 volts 
for the trolley. These two substations are run in multiple on a single 
phase trolley. They both receive their current from the same phase. 

This transmission line also carries current to one substation on the 
Peoria, Lincoln & Springfield Ey., and two substations on the Spring- 
field & Northeastern Ey., which have a capacity of 400 K. W. each. 
These substations are operated in multiple on the trolley, like those just 
described,' except that they receive their current from a different phase 
from that furnished to the above company. This line also extends to 
the Eiverton power-house, from which current can be supplied to the 
substations on the Peoria, Lincoln & Springfield and the Springfield & 
E'ortheastern when desired. 

The transmission line also extends from Danvers east to Heyworth 
where a 300 K. W. rotary convertor substation is installed to step down 
current to the Chicago, Bloomington & Champaign Traction Company's 
line at this point. The line extends from here south to Clinton, 
Emery and Decatur. A portable substation of 300 K. W. capacity is 
installed at Clinton and at Emery. At Decatur the transmission line 
enters the substation through an oil switch and is connected to a common 
bus bar. From this the two 300 K. W. rotary converters in the Decatur 
substation and a 300 K. W. motor generator set, used for day lighting 
during the summer, may receive their supply of current. 

THE RIVEETON POWER-HOUSE. 

At the Eiverton power-house, which is located about six miles east of 
Springfield, there is installed eight 400 H. P. Babcock & Wilcox boilers, 
four of which are fired by Babcock & Wilcox stokers, and four by Green 
chain gates. These stokers receive their supply of coal from a storage 
bunker overhead, to which the coal is delivered by a conveyor system 
from a steel hopper in a track outside of the power-house. The ashes 
are taken by the same conveyor system to a bunker in the front end of 
the boiler-room and on the same level with the coal bunker. From this 
the ashes are fed through a spout to a car on the same track, used for 
unloading coal. 

In the engine room at Eiverton is installed one 28" x 56" cross com- 
pound condensing Hamilton Corliss engine, direct connected to a 1,000 
K. W. 2,300 volt General Electric generator. There are also installed 
one 1,000 K. W. Curtiss turbine, and one 2,000 K. W. Curtiss turbine. 
These generators are all connected to a common bus bar through remote 
control oil switches, electrically operated. 

Ftom this power-house a transmission line extends east thirty-five 
miles to Decatur, and here connects to the common high-tension bus bar 
in the Decatur power-house. There is also a transmission line extending 
north from Eiverton over the line of the Springfield & Northeastern 
Traction Company, and the Peoria, Lincoln & Springfield Traction Com- 
pany, and power can be furnished from this power-house to the single 
phase A. C. substations, as above, noted. 



244 YEAK-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. i^ 

The third transmission line extends from Eiverton to Stallings^ a dis- 
tance of about ninety miles. In this line 300 K. W. substations are 
located at Chatham, Yirden, Anderson, Emerick, Gillespie, Staunton, 
Haniel, Edwardsville and Stallings. There is also a transmission line 
running across country from G-illespie to Litchfield, a distance of about 
ten miles, where another 300 K. W. substation is installed. From Litch- 
field, current is supplied both to the St. Louis & N"ortheastern Traction 
Company^s lines running from Staunton to Hillsboro, and to a storage 
battery at Hillsboro. 

The substations on the main line from Eiverton south furnish power 
to the St. Louis & Springfield Traction Company's lines between Spring- 
field and Staunton, and to the St. Louis & Staunton Traction Company's 
lines from Staunton to G-ranite City. From Granite City the cars run 
over the East St. Louis and Suburban tracks to their terminal near the 
Eads bridge. At Granite City the company is building a bridge across 
the Mississippi Eiver to carry its cars directly into the city of St. Louis. 
This will be completed in about two years. 

Going back to Decatur, a transmission line runs east from Decatur 
over the line of the St. Louis, Decatur & Champaign Traction Company 
to Champaign, a distance of fifty miles, and supplies current to 300 
K. W. substations located at Oakley, Bement and White Heath. This 
line' terminates in the power-house at Champaign, where the current is 
stepped down from 33,000 volts to 15,000 volts. At Champaign there is 
a 500 K. W. double-ended generator, direct connected to a Eussell engine, 
which furnishes three-phase current through step-up transformers to a 
transmission line running to Danville. There is also a 500 K. W. Bullock 
direct current generator, direct connected to an Allis- Chalmers engine, 
which supplies the city lines in Champaign and the interurban lines 
running out of Champaign to Decatur and to Danville. There is, in 
addition, a 540 K. W. General Electric generator, direct connected to a 
Fulton Corliss engine. 

From this power-house a 15,000 volt transmission line runs along the 
tracks of the Danville, Urbana & Champaign Ey. Co. to Danville, a dis- 
tance of thirty-five miles, furnishing power to 300 K. W. rotary con- 
vertors located at St. Joseph and Fithian. The line terminates in the 
Danville power-house and is connected to a bus bar through solenoid 
operated oil switches. A transmission line running south from the Dan- 
ville power-house to Georgetown furnishes current to a 300 K. W. rotary 
at the latter place, and also to the shops of the Danville Car Company. 
The Georgetown substation operates the line to Georgetown and Eidge- 
farm, a distance of eighteen miles. The Catlin line, extending a dis- 
tance of five miles, is also supplied from the D'anville power-house. 

In the new addition to the Danville power-house is installed a pair of 
36" X 60" Hamilton-Corliss twin engines, direct connected to a 2,000 
K. W. 6,600 volt General Electric generator. This generator works on 
the transmission line between Danville and Georgetown, and also between 
Danville, Champaign and Decatur. There are installed in the boiler- 
room ten 400 H. P. Stirling boilers and two 500 H. P. Stirling boilers, 
makino- a rated capacity of 5,000 H. P. 



HOAGLAND.l POWEE GENEEATION AND TRANSMISSION. 245 

In the old engine room at Danville are installed one 300 K. W. 250 
Yolts three wire Western Electric generator, direct connected to a T'andon 
compound Eussell engine; one 26" x 52" cross compound Hamilton 
engine to which is direct connected an 800 K. W. 2,300 volts General 
Electric generator; one 28" x 48" Hamilton-Corliss engine, to which is 
direct connected a 600 volt G-eneral Electric, direct current generator 
for railway use. There are also six engines from 150 to 500 H. P. 
capacity, to which are belted generators from 100 K. W. to 300 K. W, 
capacity each, for day service. There are also in this station two 300 
Iv. W. rotary convertor equipments that receive their initial power from 
the transmission line. 

Minor Power Houses and Utilities. 

At Edwardsville is installed a 500 K. W. generator, direct connected 
to a cross compound engine, which works in multiple with the generators 
in the Kiverton power-house, supplying current to the transmission lines 
at 33,000 volts. At Bloomington the company owns a power-house in 
^vhich are installed eight 400 H. P. Stirling boilers and two 300 H. P. 
Heine boilers. This plant furnishes electric lighting, steam heat- 
ing, hot water heating and street railway service. At Danville, the 
company furnishes electric lighting, steam heating, gas and street rail- 
way service. At Urbana a power-house of 700 H. P. capacity supplies 
electric lighting and steam heat. At Champaign, electric lighting, gas, 
steam heating and street railway service are maintained. At Decatur, 
the company provides electric lighting, steam heating, gas and street 
railway service. The Decatur power-house also has a capacity of 200 
H. P. of Stirling boilers. At Peoria, the company furnishes street rail- 
way service only, at Edwardsville, electric lighting, and at Granite City, 
electric lighting and street railway service. At Jacksonville, another 
power-house is operated from which is furnished electric lighting and 
street railway service. Gas is provided from these properties also. 

The interurban system comprises about 450 miles of interurban rail- 
way as well as the several city lines mentioned. Several extensions to 
the interurban system are proposed. The company not only handles a 
passenger business, but operates sleeping cars and chair cars between 
Springfield and East St. Louis and points north, and from Danville to 
points south. It owns and operates several refrigerator, express 
and freight cars, and several hundred coal cars. The coal for the several 
power houses on the system is largely handled by electric locomotives 
on the company^s own tracks, as well as a large quantity of coal for com- 
mercial purposes. 

All of the cars signaled over the company^s private telephone lines, 
by dispatchers located at Staunton, Decatur, Mackinaw and Danville. 
Duplicate telephone lines for the commercial use of the company in 
handling its enormous business are also being installed. The cars are 
protected by Blake signals operated by the dispatchers, and the Peoria, 
Bloomington and Champaign Traction Co. has recently been equipped 
with McClintock automatic block signals. 



246 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

The Purchasing Department of the Company is located at Decatnr, 
where the supplies are stored for use along the lines. The general re- 
pair shops are also at Decatur. These are equipped with elec- 
trically driven wheel lathes, boring mills, planer lathes, pipe cutting 
machines, etc. Car barns are provided at Danville, Champaign, Decatur, 
Bloomington, Peoria, Lincoln, Staunton and Jacksonville, where in- 
spections and minor repairs are made. 

The office of the electrical, mechanical and operating engineers is at 
Decatur. The general accounting offices are in Champaign and the 
general manager has offices at Danville and Springfield. 



BAIN.] SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 247 



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 

(By H, Foster Bain.) 



Coal Ebsbrves. 

In the section of this paper written by Mr. DeWolf, the amount of 
available coal in Illinois is shown to be so large as to warrant a feeling 
of security for the fntnre. It is not likely that any scarcity will be felt 
in this field for several generations to* come. While, as indicated by Mr. 
Lindgren in the analyses submitted, the grade of the coal is not the 
highest, this is more than offset by the abundance. 

Mining Costs and Conditions. 

It has been shown by Mr. Eice that there are large losses in the present 
methods of mining employed in this field, but that the remedy for these 
may be easily found so far as technical performance is concerned. The 
difficulties lie in the financial and industrial situation, and until the 
average price of coal increases or the rate of interest falls, only minor 
improvements are to be expected. Certain changes which are possible 
even under present conditions are pointed out. 

Present Methods or Utilization. 

Illinois coal is now largely used for domestic heating, power genera- 
tion and locomotive consumption. For the first purpose the most im- 
portant limiting factor is its supposed lower heating value as compared 
with competing eastern coals. This, Mr. Snodgrass shows, is, price con- 
sidered, fictitious; and it is suggested that with the development of 
proper apparatus such actual difference as does occur may be decreased, 
if not entirely wiped out. It is therefore to be expected that the domestic 
market 'for Illinois coal will in the future not only expand with the 
population but at an increasing rate, both by actually displacing com- 
peting coals and by the capture of a larger share of the new market. 
While this phase of the subject has not been discussed here, it may be 
pointed out that the increased use of wa-sheries in preparing coal for 
the market will aid this movement by furnishing to domestic users a 
cleaner and lower ash coal. 

For power generation in stationary plants a smokeless coal is becoming 
increasingly important, and Mr. Bement shows that it is entirely possible 
to bum the worst of the Illinois coals with extremely satisfactory re- 



248 



YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



suits as regards smoke. This removes one of the large handicaps iinder 
which Middle Western coal has heretofore labored. One of the develop- 
ments of the future will undoubtedly be as suggested by Mr. Hoagland 
toward larger central power plants and the distribution of energy, prob- 
ably as electricity. 

One other development which is likely to influence the future market 
of Illinois coal is the larger use of the gas engine. It is to be regretted 
tnat specific data on this point could not be included in this symposium. 
The reports of theFuel Testing Plant of the U. S. Geological Survey^ 
show that Illinois coals are excellently adapted to such use; and as a 
matter of fact they are now being so used at one or two points. The 
large installation of gas engines in the steel plant at Gary is one of the 
significant signs of the times. It cannot be doubted that there will be an 
increasing use of gas engines; and since the gas producer tends to some 
extent to wipe out the margin between high grade and low grade coals, 
in the long run this change will be to the advantage of the coal fields of 
the interior. 

It, is somewhat difficult to get at the amount of coal used for locomo- 
tive purposes. In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907, Illinins pro- 
duced 46,700,608 tons of coal. For the corresponding term the locomo- 
tive consumption for the State of Illinois, as given by the State Eailway 
and Warehouse Commission, was as follows: 





Lo'ComoUve 


Consumption of Coal in 


. Illinois. 






Passenger 
service. 


Freight 
service. 


All service, in- 
cluding switch- 
ind and con- 
struction. 








39,183,431 
2,140,199 . 
109.34 


50,167,137 

4,590,916 

183 


113,584,275 




9,220,119 




138.01 







These figures are representative only. While most of the coal came 
from the Illinois mines, a minor portion was from Indiana and eastern 
states. On the other hand, a very large tonnage of Illinois coal goes to 
supply locomotives running in other states. At present it is impossible 
to give figures covering this tonnage, though ixiey are being collected. 

The performance figures given, representing as they do a very large 
engine mileage, may safetly be assumed as averages in computing future 
consumption with increased railway activity. The average number of 
engine miles per ton, including switching and all kinds of sendee, 
amounted to 12.85. Corresponding figures for September, 1907, for 
various roads in the Middle West using Illinois coal were, 13.38, 12.2, 
14.7, 17.18, 13.69. The figure is probably a little low rather than the 
reverse. It will be noticed that approximately 20 per cent of the coal 
output was used for locomotive purposes in the State. In 1905, the 
corresponding figure was 25 per cent. About half of this is used in 



i Bulletins Nos. 261 (1905), 290 (1906), 332 (1908), and Profesional Paper No. 4S U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, pp. 981 to 1325 (1906). 



BAIN.] SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 249 

the freight service, and it may be roughly computed that 1,000,000 tons 
are burned in hauling to place of consumption the remaining 50,000,000 
tons of output. 

Possible Future Improvements. 

One great hindrance to a wide use of Illinois coals is the poor shipping 
quality. They do not stand rehandling, and in storage they are subject 
to deterioration and spontaneous combustion. For this reason they do 
not enter distant markets, except by all-rail routes and at the season of 
maximum demand. This not only limits the total output of the mines, 
but adds to the normal cost per ton the expense of idle plants and men 
for some 30 or 40 per cent of the time, it being necessary in order 
to meet maximum demands to have a capacity in large excess of the 
average demand. For these reasons studies of the weathering and deter- 
ioration of our coals are of peculiar interest. Different phases of this 
subject are brought out by Messrs. Barker and Wheeler, while Mr. 
Francis gives some of the fundamental facts regarding the decompos- 
ition of coal and its oxidation at low temperature. The weathering 
studies now going on are too incomplete to permit the drawing of general 
conclusions. It is shown that submerged coal does not deteriorate, except 
by loss of the occluded gas; and, since it is also protected from spontan- 
eous combustion, such a storage plant, where commercially feasible, may 
be best. It is hoped, however, that a more satisfactory solution of the 
difficulty may be found. In this connection Mr. Francis' work on what 
might be called ^^nthracitizing coal" offers some suggestions though not 
as vet any conclusions commercially available. 

Markets for Illinois Coals. 

The coal production and consumption for 1906, the last year for which 
figures are available, may be estimated as shown in the tabulated state- 
ment on the following page. 

It will be noted that the railways are the largest users of Illinois 
coals. N"ext to them stand the cities of St. Louis and Chicago. On 
the face of the figures St. Louis is much the larger user. These figures 
are slightly deceptive, since it is impossible to separate the eastern coal, 
aside from anthracite, from the Illinois coal handled by the roads run- 
ning into St. Louis. In 1906, in Chicago, 2,961,926 tons of Indiana 
coal were also used. In the year studied 4,265,528 tons were used at 
or near the mines and did not enter the general competitive market. It is, 
apparently, safe to conclude that at least half the coal mined is used 
within the State. If the quantity of coal shipped from the mines to local 
dealers were known it is probable that this portion would be found to be 
larger. In other words, Illinois derives not only tne benefit of mining 
hut the profit from burning half its output. 



250 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908, [bull, no. U 

Production and Consumption of Illinois Goal for 1906. 



Tons. 



Tons. 



Total production 

Consumpfon: 

Used by railways within the State (estimated by percentage) . 

Shipped to Chicago : 

Shipped to St. Louis 

Used at mmes 

Sold to local trade and to employees 



41,480,104 



Shipped to railways outside, and to local consumers within and 
outside the State 



Total. 



9,333 OOO 
H, 968, 102 
26,600,216 
31,374,308 
^2, 891, 220 

n6,313,158 



41,480,104 



Of the local markets, that of Chicago is the most important and can 
l3e studied in most detail. The receipts and shipments at this point in 
1906 are oiven below. ' ' 



Coal Receipts and Shipments at Chicago' in 1906. 

(Chicago Bureau of Coal Statistics.) 



Receipts. 


Tons 


Tons. 


Anthracite: 

By lake - 


781,751 
744,531 
403,976 




By rail 




stock Jan 1st 










Total 




1 930 258 


Pennsylvania hituminous 


925,237 
856,833 
914,420 
342,919 








West Virginia 




Coke 














3,039,409 


lUinoi s coal: 

Northern field 




1,100,915 

3,153,956 

270,456 

442,775 


Southern field 




Central field 




Eastern field - 










Total niinois 




4.968.102 



1 Chicago Bureau of Coal Statistics. 

2 St. Louis Coal Traffic Bureau. These figures include eastern coal received by railway. 

3 According to U. S. Geological Survey. 

* By difference, assuming no stock carried over. 



STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



BULL. NO. 14, PL. 4. 




Geological Structure at Duquoin, showing the easterly dip by 50 foot contours which indicate the 
elevation above sea level of Coal No. 6. 



BAIN.] 



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 



251 



Coal Receipts and Shipments at Chicago in 1906 — Concluded. 


Receipts. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Inriiana coal: 

Brazil block 


165,075 
2,796,851 












Total Indiana 




2,961,926 








Total Western coal 


7,930,028 


Total coal and coke 




12,495,719 


Shipments: 

Anthracite 




542,554 


Bituminous ... 




2,772,204 


Coke 




258,316 








Total shipments 


3,573,164 









Corresponding figures for a series of years show that in this important 
market the use of Illinois and Indiana coal has been increasing at the 
expense of eastern coals. That at the present ratiO' of prices they may 
well be expected to continue to do so-, is shown by the following tabula- 
tion, in which the Chicago price is an average of the Black Diamond 
weekly quotations for January and February of 1907 (a period of normal 
demand), and the fuel value is based on large commercial deliveries 
lor one year with semi-monthly sampling and analysis by the Fuel En- 
gineering Co. For convenience in further discussion the freight rate to 
Chicago is added. While it is probable that only a portion of the coal 
marketed in Chicago actually sold at the prices indicated, much being 
delivered under long-time contracts, the prices none the less fix the ratio 
of competition, since they are the quoted prices for the excess coal' reach- 
ing out for a market. 

Competing Gouls in- Chicago MarTceis. 



Coal. 



Chicago Price. 



Freight-Rate. 



Thousand 

B.t.u. 
for a cent. 



Franklin county (Ul.) screenings 
Clinton county (Ind.) mine-run. 

Springfield (111.) mine-run 

Pittsburg (No . 8 Ohio) 

Carterville, 111., washed No. 2. . . 

Pocahontas 

Hocking (Ohio) 

Indiana block 



$1 59 
1.77 

1 75 

2 91 

2 90 

3 46 
3 54 
3 20 



$1 00 

70 
0-75 

1 60 

1 00 

2 05 
1 65 
80 



140 
124 
122 
90 



70 



The average for the five western coals gives 107,000 B.t.u. for a cent, 
and for three eastern coals, 80,000 B.t.u. It will be noted that con- 
sumers using eastern coals and Indiana block pay on an average 64 
per cent greater coal bills as a penalty for not adapting their furnace.? 



252 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



to the burning of the local coals. At these prices the producer of Car- 
terville washed coal is able to spend 49 cents a ton more on his product 
than the miner of Pocahontas coal, and yet deliver the same number 
of heat-units for a dollar to his Chicago customers. It is evident that 
Pocahontas, the best of the eastern coals, can never be delivered in Chi- 
cago at existing freight rates in competition with Illinois coals when 
consumers adapt their furnaces to economical and smokeless burning of 
the latter. 

This leads to an inquiry regarding existing and future freight rates. 
As is well known, coal freight rates generally are very low and the rate 
per mile dacreases rapidly with distance. The following are a few coal 
freight rates per ton per mile. 

Illinois Coal Freight Rates. 



Approximate 

rate per 

ton-mile. 

Cents. 



Northern Ulinois to Chicago 

Central Illinois to Chicago 

Southern Illinois to Chicago 

Chicago and Northern Illinois to St. Paul and Minneapolis 

Central Illinois to St. Paul and Minneapolis 

Southern Illinois to St. Paul and MinneapoUs 

Peoria to Omaha 

Central Illinois to Omaha 

Southern JUinois to Omaha 

Pittsburg district to Chicago 

Pocahontas to Chicago 




While these figures show some difference between local and long dis- 
tance shipments it must he remembered that a minimum initial charge is 
to be taken into account, and if they be plotted it will be seen that there 
is small likelihood of the local rates decreasing much relative to the dis- 
tant rates unless the whole system be changed. It is to be expected, 
therefore, that, so far as freight rates are concerned, competition will 
remain substantially as it is at present. 

The decrease in the rate per ton per mile with distance gives a marked 
advantage to higher grade coals in the distant m^arket. If, for example, 
two coals differ in original price 25 cents, selling for $1.00 and $1.25 
respectfully, the difference is equivalent to 20 per cent of the price of the 
better coal. If now an initial freight rate of 50 cents be paid, the differ- 
ence amounts to only 14 per cent, and with each increase in freight the 
original difference in cost decreases until when a $2.00 rate is paid it 
amounts to only 7,6 per cent. This is the explanation of the fact that 
screenings are used near the mine, and only washed coal and lump are 
exported to a distance. Indeed, lump coal has a fictitious value within 
the mining regions and finds a local market for special purposes only. 



BAIN.] SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 253 

Practically no Illinois coal moves eastward. This is due not only to 
competition based on the quality of the eastern coals, but to the present 
organization of freight traffic, which makes it difficult to get cars. Such 
coal as goes east from this coal field is supplied by Indiana. To the 
west, Illinois coal dominates the markets of Missouri and Iowa almost 
to the eastern margin of their own coal fields, and has a scattering trade 
beyond. To the southwest, coal is furnished to the railways to a point 
about half way between St. Louis and Kansas City, and to a few supply 
stations beyond. Directly south, there is very little coal movement except 
to supply certain connecting railways. The larger markets are domi- 
nated by eastern coal shipped by river, a traffic practically closed to Illi- 
nois operators for the present, owing to lack of terminals within the 
State, and the poor stocking-qualities of the coal. To all intents and 
purposes the only Illinois coal delivered to the rivers is that used by the 
local steamboats. 

To the north and west, the coal goes in large quantities into south- 
western Wisconsin, northern Iowa, southern Minnesota, and eastern 
South Dakota. On the one hand it must meet the competition of the 
nearer Iowa fields, and on the other, of the lake-shipped eastern coal. 
The size of this lake trade may be illustrated by the figures for 1907. 



Lake Shipments of Coal in 1907. 






Tons. 


Western Pennsylvania coal 


8,306,143 


Ohio coal . . . 


3 703 322 


West Virginia coal 


3,343,752 






Total 


15,353,217 







The lake coal dominates the market as far south as Milwaukee, and it 
is only of recent years that Illinois coal has begun to go in any quantity 
as far northwest as St. Paul and Minneapolis. In the territory between 
these points there is much debatable ground, and if methods of storage 
can be devised so that the coal may be shipped in the summer, large 
increases in trade may be looked for. The same is true of western Iowa 
and eastern Nebraska, where at present there is only a moderate trade. 
If, in addition to finding a solution of the storage problem, water trans- 
portation be made available, Illinois coal may become a dominant factor 
in the Northwest. It must be admitted, however, that this is far from 
being accomplished, and for the present, in extending the markets, reli- 
ance must be placed mainly on a campaign of education in the proper 
burning of high volatile coals. 

The purchase of coal on specifications is also to be commended. This 
not only leads to closer studies of coal bills and conditions of burning, 
but, by means of the inspection system, improves the mining and cleaning 
of the coal. While doubtless criticism can be fairly made of particular 
specifications, it is believed that the system itself will, in the long run, 
commend itself both to buyers and sellers. 



254 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 



COAL DEPOSITS AND POSSIBLE OIL FIELD 
NEAR DUQUOIN ILLINOIS. 

(By Jon Udden.) 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 255 

Rocks or stratigraphy -. r 255 

Coals ....:.. 257 

Structure - 258 

Coal production 259 



UDDEN.] COAL AND OIL STUDIES AT DUQUOIN. 255 



INTRODUCTION. 

Perry county is situated in the southwestern part of the State, and 
has an area of 440 square miles. The adjoining county on the north is 
Washington, on the west Eandolph, on the south Jackson, and on the 
€ast Franklin and Jefferson. The region under consideration is situated 
in the southeastern part of the county, where Duquoin is the most 
important coal center. Very little has been written on the local geology, 
the most important contribution being that of A. H. Worthen in his 
Geology of Perry County.^ J. M. Nickles published a geological section 
extending from St. Louis to Shawneetown,^ which crosses the extreme 
northeast corner of the county. Later, Prof. Frank Leverett contributed 
to our knowledge of the glacial geology as well as to that of the water 
resources, giving complete data of the deep salt well put down b}' 
the Illinois Central Coal and Coke Company.^ The reports of the State 
Bureau of Labor Statistics giving very interesting data on mining and 
labor conditions, equipment and complete statistical data on coal produc- 
tion. Many other publications touching in a general way on the field 
could be mentioned. Ashley's^ and DeWolf^s^ contributions being per- 
haps the most important ones of recent dates. 

The Eocks or Steatigraphy. 

The country rock belongs to the Pennsylvanian series, and in places 
where the mantle covering has been removed by erosion, outcrops of 
shale, sandstone and limestone may be noted. These are, however, very 
limited on account of the general presence of the drift cover. The sur- 
ficial deposits are variable in thickness and usually show near the base 
the presence of buried portions of trees. Whether this buried vegetation 
occurs between two drift sheets cannot definitely be determined on 
account of the meagerness of detail in the records. 

Ftom deep explorations it is possible to ascertain the relation and 
thickness of some of the underlying formations. In this neighborhood 
some fifty tests, from 45 to 500 feet in depth, have been made for coal, 
besides two deep holes, one about 1,000 feet and the other 3,600 feet. 



1 Geol. Surv. of 111., vol. III., pp. 84-103, 1868. 

2 Rep. 111. Board World's Fair Commissioners. P. 169, 1893. 
a 111. Glacial Lobe, U. S. Geo. Surv. Mon. 38, pp. 771-773. 

t U. S. Geol. Surv. 18tli Ann. Rept., pt. 3, pp. 202-283. 1902. 
=s Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., pp. 1100-1169. October, 1908. 



256 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



The record of the deepest boring made by the Illinois Central Coal and 
Coke Coanpany at St. Johns, kindly furnished by Mr, John E'orrester has 
been interpreted by the writer and is as follows: 

LOG OF DEEP BORING AT ST. JOHN'S, ILLINOIS. 



Thick- 
ness. 
Feet. 



Depth. 
Feet. 



Recent and Pleistocene- 
Glacial drift 

Pennsylvanian— 

Lime rock 

Sandy shale 

Shale and coal 

Sandy shale 

Clay shale 

Sandy shale 

Sand rock 

Sandy shale 

Fire clay and shale 

Shale with partings 

Sand rock, fresh water 

Mississippian — Chester, Cypress and Ste. Genevieve 

Lime rock 

Sand rock, 15 per cent salt ., . 

Sandy shale 

Sand rock - 

Sandy shale 

Lime rock 

Sand rock 

Shale 

Sand rock 

Lime rock 

Sand rock 

Clay shale 

Sandy shale 

Mixed shale 

Lime rock 

Shale 

Lime rock 

Clay shale 

Lime rock 

Sandy shale 

Clay shale 

Sandy shale 

Lime rock 

Sand rock 

Lime rock 

Sandy shale 

Sand rock 

Sandy shale 

Lime rock 

Red marl 

Sand rock 

Sandy shale 

Sand rock 

Soft shale 

Sand rock 

Blue lime 

. Sand rock 

Shale 

Sand rock 

Shale 

Red marl 

Shale 

Lime rock 

Shale 

Sand rock 

Lime rock 

Sand rock 

Lime rock 

Shale with partings 

Lime rock 

Shale 



42 



0- 42 



3 


42- 45 


16 


45- 61 


10 


61- 71 


25 


71- 96 


3U 


96- 126 


80 


126- 206 


15 


206- 221 


23 


221- 244 


12 


244- 256 


55 


256- 311 


178 


311- 489 


31 


489- 520 


15 


520- 535 


28 


535- 563 


15 


563- 57& 


32 


578- 610 


8 


610- 618 


25 


618- 643 


13 


643- 656 


10 


656- 666 


3 


666- 669 


10 


669- 679 


30 


679- 709 


35 


709- 744 


35 


744- 779 


16 


779- 795 


20 


795- 815 


25 


815- 840 


15 


840- 855 


5 


855- 860 


15 


860- 875 


40 


875- 915 


67 


915- 982 


20 


982-1,002 


20 


1,002-1,022 


10 


1,022-1,032 


22 


1,032-1,054 


13 


1,054-1,067 


20 


1,067-1,087 


20 


1,087-1,107 


4 


1,107-1,111 


39 


1,111-1,150 


40 


1,150-1,190 


90 


1,190-1,280 


10 


1,280-1,290 


10 


1,290-1,300 


5 


1,300-1,305 


5 


1,305-1.310 


10 


1,310-1,320 


10 


1,320-1,330 


14 


1,330-1,344 


4 


1,344-1,348 


4 


1,348-1,352 


16 


1,352-1,368. 


7 


1,368-1,375 


14 


1,375-1,389 


10 


1.389-1,399 


15 


1,399-1,414 


6 


1,414-1,420 


20 


1,420-1,440 


35 


1,440-1,475 


23 


1,475-1, 49a 



UDDEN.] COAL AND OIL STUDIES AT DUQUOIN. 257 

Log of Deep Boring at St. Johns, Illinois — Concluded. 



Depth. 

Feet. 



Mississippi— Chester, Cypress and Ste. Geneyieve^ Concluded. 

Sand rock 

Shale, mixed . . .^ 

Lime rock 

Sandy shale 

Lime rock 

Shale 

St. Louis, Salem and Warsaw- 
Lime rock, 38 per cent salt 

Shale 

Lime rock, 38 per cent salt 

Fire clay or shale 

Lime rock with partings 

Shale 

Osage and Kinderhook — 

Lime rock with partings 

Sandy lime rock 

Light gray lime rock 

Spar, calcite crystals : 

Devonian- 
Light gray lime rock, hard 

Light gray hme rock, soft 

Silurian — Cincinnatian and Galena-Trenton — 

Mainly limestone to 3,600 feet 



1,498-1,518 
1,518-1,537 
1,537-1,541 
1,541-1,549 
1,549-1,589 
1,589-1,604 

1,604-1,696 
1,696-1,699 
1,699-1,949 
1,949-1,969 
1,969-2,026 
2,026-2,036 

2,036-2,148 
2,148-2,208 
2,208-2,271 
2,271-2,275 

2,275-2,773 
2,773-3,000 

3,000-3,600 



Another boring, 1,000 feet deep> near the above, was pnt down by the 
same company. 

The deeper parts of these two records present a rather puzzling geo- 
logic section. As shown in them and in some fifty other records, the 
Pennsylvanian series has a maximnm thickness of about 500 feet, consist- 
ing principally of shales, sandstones, some limestone and coal. The 
Mississippian series is represented by abont 1,700 feet of sediments. 

From 3,063 to abont 3,150 there is a shale which contains some thin 
ledges of limestone. At 3,100 feet this shale is black and contains 
bituminous material. It lies about the same distance below the red 
marls of the Chester that a similar shale does in a well at Mascoutah — 
about 1,700 feet. In the Mascoutah well this shale lies 500 feet above 
the St. Peter's sandstone, which formation does not appear to have been 
reached by the St. Johns well, and which probably lies here at a depth 
of 3,800 feet below the surface. 



Coals. 

As has already been stated, the principal sediments consist of shales, 
sandstone and limestones. Associated with these are coal beds of vari- 
able thickness, but the only seam mined in this area is the Blue Band 
or No. 6. Besides this, two other coals are of interest, one occurring 
above the No. 6, coal, and one below it, possibly No. 5. The topmost 
coal occurs from -15 to 120 feet above the No. 6 seam, having a thick- 
ness varying from a few inches to a couple of feet. It is not workable 
on account of being so thin and irregular in its occurrence. 

Below No. 6 coal should occur No. 5 coal, but the records that have 
been studied from this vicinity do not as a rule extend below No. 6. It 

—17 G 



258 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

is possible that No. 5 may occur under this region as it does further west 
in the county, but presumably it is too thin tO' be worked profitably. 
Elsewhere it has beeen found some 60 to 70 feet below the Blue Band 
coal, and in one test hole northeast of Duquoin it has been found 64 feet 
below No. 6, where it had a thickness of only one foot. 

The Blue Band coal, or Ko. 6, is found at depths ranging from 45 to 
470 feet (see table No. 1). It varies in thickness from 5 to 13 feet B 
inches, averaging about 6 feet 2 inches as shown by measurements made 
in the mines. It is characterized chiefly by the development of a band 
of shale or clay that is highly impregnated with sulphide of iron, in 
places being nearly pure iron pyrites. This has been called the Blue 
Band, and from it the coal derives its name. The band varies in thick- 
ness, but as a . general rule seldom measures less than 1 inch or more 
than 2 inches. Its position is also somewhat variable, but it generally 
lies about 18 inches above the fire clay fioor. There is another band that 
occurs about 24 inches from the top of the coal, and generally consists 
of iron pyrites. 

These two bands divide the coal seam into top, middle and lower 
benches which differ somewhat in physical character as well as in the 
amount of sulphur and in B. t. u. values. 

Over the coal there is usually a band of shale known as draw slate. 
This varies in thickness, bu.t seldom exceeds 10 inches. Above this 
occurs a shale usually light grayish in color, fine textured, and very 
hard. Its thickness is very irregular; in places it is entirely absent, and 
it may attain a thickness of 30 feet. 

Above the shale occurs a ledge of limestone, dark grayish in color, and 
containing numerous fossils. It varies in thickness, and is reported in 
places to be as much as 18 feet. This limestone may be entirely absent 
over small areas! It often happens that in the same mine the limestone 
may occur above the coal with or without an intermediate shale. It is 
known locally as the roof limestone, or '^'^cap rock.^^ 

Structuee. 

An unusual structural feature for this part of the State occurs at 
Duquoin, and its true character has beeen misunderstood by many. West 
of the Illinois Central main line the coal lies at shallow depths beneath 
the surface, but to the east it is reached only by deep shafts. This condi- 
tion and the fact that the coal is thicker to the east has lead to the 
erroneous idea that two distinct coals are mined on the east and west. 
There now seems to be no doubt that the two are identical, and that the 
difference in the depth to the coal near Duquoin is due to a dip of quite 
unusual magnitude for this part of the State. 

The accompanying map is based on some sixty records of shafts and 
bore holes furnished by local operators. Levels were run, in the course 
of this study, to each of the locations so as to determine the elevation 
above sea level of coal No. 6. The contours are lines of equal elevation 
and the arrows indicate the direction of dip. 



UDDEN.] COAL AND OIL STUDIES AT DUQUOIN 259 

As near as tlie geologic structure can be made out from the explo- 
rations thus far made, it may be described as an irregular monocline, 
caused by the sinking of the formations on the east side of Duquoin. 
South of Duquoin there is a rapid dip of the coal to the east, and in a 
distance of two miles the coal had descended from about 400 feet altitude 
to sea level. North of town the dip to the east appears to be at a greater 
rate than that observed south of town — about 250 feet in less than a 
quarter of a mile. This, however, may be due to faulting. The dip 
northward from Duquoin is very gentle, averaging about 12 feet to the 
mile. Nothing definite is known about the amount of the dip westward 
but it seems more than likely that there is a very slight dip for some 
distance to the west. Thus in and around Duquoin a small irregular 
domelike structure has developed and is represented by the 400-foot 
contour. 

Some faulting has taken place in this area. A northwest-southeast 
fault occurs in the Queen mine and probably occurs under the west prop- 
erty of the Paradise mine. Outside of the immediate area other faults 
are known to occur. At the White Walnut mine one has been encoun- 
tered crossing the east and west entries about 1,500 feet from the shaft. 
It is a normal fault with a throw of 32 feet to the east, the strike being 
nearly north and south. 

The domelike structure and the high monoclinal are suggestive of 
conditions favorable for the accumulation of oil. From the drill records 
it appears that the sandstones necessary for holding oil are also present. 
But it may be that the faulting which has taken place is extensive 
enough to allow the escape of such accumulation. The extent 
to which the sands are full of water is unknown. The heavy Pottsville 
sand running down 311 to 489 feet in depth in the drill record quoted, 
is reported to carry fresh water, which is so far unfavorable. Salt water 
is reported in several of the lower sands. From the map it will be seen 
that the boring already done was not at the highest point on the dome 
and there is perhaps some encouragement to be derived from this fact. 
In general the area has not been adequately tested for oil and gas. 

Coal Production". 

In Perry county there are twenty-one mines and in the immediate 
neighborhood of Duquoin there are eleven, as shown by the map and 
table. Those most modern in their equipment and having the largest 
tonnage are Paradise Coal & Coke Co., Duquoin Operating Co., Majestic 
Coal & Coke Co., and Brilliant Coal & Coke Co. 



260 



YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 









ft f§"^^ 



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UDDEN.] 



COAL AND OIL STUDIES AT DUQUOIN. 



261 



With, one exception the coal is hoisted to the surface through shafts. 
The Kew Moon Mining Company operates a slope. The shafts are of 
clonble compartments, usually varying in width, but most commonly 
either 9 by 14 feet or 9 by 18 feet. The mines are laid out on the room 
and pillar plan, with modifications permitting the mining of coal most 
economically. Shooting off the solid prevails, althougli one mine has 
equipment for machine mining. Mule haulage is most general, but one 
mine has electric and another gasoline haulage. All large mines are 
-equipped with shaker screens, and a number have a revolving screen for 
rescreening the smaller sizes. One mine is equipped with a washery. 

The chemical character and heating value of the coal is indicated by 
the accompanying figures. These are derived from careful samples col- 
lected by the Survey from three typical mines. They represent the full 
thickness of the seam and include the total moisture present. For com- 
parison, similar figures are given for this same coal bed as mined in the 
Belleville region to the northwest and in Williamson county to the 
southeast. 



Locality. 



Total 
moisture . 



Dry Coal. 



Ash. 



Sulphur. 



B.t.u. 



Duquoin^ 

Belleville district^ . 
Williamson county 



10.42 
12.30 

8.67 



13.47 
11.72 
10.23 



2.74 
4.04 
2.17 



12,336 
12,500 
13,057 



Coal has been mined in this country for many years, and as early as 
1863 it was shipped over the Illinois Central to points north of Duquoin 
into Champaign and Chicago. No accurate data on production is to be 
had for these early years, but since 1882 the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
has collected the data, and David Eoss, secretary, has kindly furnished 
the figures below. The total coal production for Perry county to the 
present year amounts to 20,447,349 tons, valued at $16,160,306.00. It is 
interesting to note that the aggregate value of the coal has incr-eased 
with the total tonnage each year, with two exceptions. In 1895 and 1905 



i Average of 3 samples . 

a Average of 21 samples. 111. Geol. Surv. Bull. 8 p. 254. 

5- Average of 11 samples. 111. Geol. Surv. Report in progress. 



262 



YEAK-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



the aggregate value fell below the tonnage, intermpting the relative rate 
of increase. During this period the average value of lump coal has 
increased 90 cents to $1.19. 



Year.i 


Total tons 
produced 
all grades 


Average 
value at 
mines of 
lump coal 
per ton. 


Aggregate 

values 
total tons 
all grades. 


1882 


276,845 

299,305 

255,868 

259,375 

213,112 

319,552 

306,235 

381,347 

497,768 

604,152 

461,068 

860,151 

530,490 

587,444 

726,507 

689,921 

845,329 

879,422 

680,653 

664,278 

789,625 

1,031,751 

1,250,174 

1,26 ,718 

1,443,926 

1,743,922 

1,610,411 


$0.90 
.98 
.98 
.979 
.934 
.877 
.942 
.945 
.880 
.88 
.87 
.95 
.94 
.80 
.72 
.679 
.765 
.782 
.84 
.956 
.95 
.956 
1.213 
1.173 
1.123 
1.194 
.875 


$ 249,160 
293,319 
250,750 
253,928 
199,047 
280,471 
288,473 
360,648 
438,396 
459,129 
340,182 
679,484 
417,966 
373,809 
523,085 
410,071 
522,637 
537,085 
462 965 


1883 


1884 


1885 


1886 


1887 


1888 


1889 


1890 


1891 


1892 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 


1899 

1900 


1901 


539,866 
656,078 
977 140 


1902 


1903 


1904 


1 152 660 


1905 


1 111 867 


1906 


1,347,235 
1,625,217 
1,408,763 


1907 


1908 






20,477,349 


.783 


$16,160,306 



^- Fiscal year ending June 30. 

2 Average value per ton of total produ 



BAGG.] CARBONIFEROUS FORAMINIFERA. . 263 



CASTS OF FORAMINIFERA IN THE CARBONI- 
FEROUS OF ILLINOIS. 

(By RuFUS Matheb Bagg, Jr., Instructor in Geology, University of Illinois.) 

CONTENTS. 

Page. 
General description 264 

Conditions of deposition of glauconite 266 

Origin and composition of the carboniferous granules 268 

Probable conditions of deposition 269 

Summary 270 



264 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [BULL. NO. 14 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

While investigating some Co'al Measure clays of the Upper Carhonifer- 
ons at Georgetown^ Illinois, the writer discovered that at least two of 
the clay strata subjacent to the coal seams contained a fair sprinkling 
of glauconite-like grains. It appears strange that these greenish grains 
have never before been observed, since they are visible to the unaided 
eye and are scattered rather abundantly though irregularly through the 
clay beneath the coal seams, designated as Nos. 6 and 7 of the Illinois 
series. These greenish granules are perfect casts of foraminifera, chiefly 
of Bndothyra baileyi (Endothyra bowmani, Phillips) and, while the 
original shell substance is entirely removed, the septation of the forms 
has been preserved in detail. 

N'ot only are many of these casts duplicates of the Endothyra bowmani, 
Phillips, but in addition there are several other planospiral types resem- 
bling the Nonionina group of recent oceans but which presumably rep- 
resent either Lituola or Trochammina. 

Since Ostracoda are common in the upper Paleozoic of the middle 
west it is quite probable that some of the casts represent this group, but 
they would be difficult to recognize owing to the unchambered condition 
of the original organism. 

These grains, when seen under the microscope in cross section, possess 
either calcific nuclei or iron pyrite (Marcasite?) centers of irregular 
form. These nuclei effervesce in cold hydrochloric acid and leave a 
cavernous structure in the interior which represents in part the original 
shell chambering. 

Where the material is marcasitic a very dark, almost greenish border 
encloses the nucleus (Ferrous sulphate ?)' and the outer margin is 
of olive green color like the New Jersey green sand. 

It is supposed that these pseudomorphs, at least where the iron has 
replaced the shells, were formed in situ and that the replacement of the 
foraminiferal substance was very gradual after the entombment of the 
organism in its final resting place. 

This central nuclear replacement in the case of calcite is quite in 
contrast with that of the ISTew Jersey cretaceous glauconite which shows 
an olive green center and a darker exterior. We infer therefore that 
these particles in the Carboniferous formed very slowly and steadily 
after the entombment of the organism. The segregation of the calcitic 
or iron material forming a portion of the original test was in some 
cases protected from ultimate decay bv the encasing ferrous sulphate 
( ?) border which is insoluble in cold hydrochloric acid. In this case 
the shell was removed probably by percolating waters at a subsequent 



STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



JiULL. NO. 14, PL. 5. 






Enlarged Views of Endothyra baileyi. 
(Indiana Geological Survey. ) 



BAGG.] CAEBONIFEEOUS FOEAMINIFERA. 265 

date or was entirely replaced by the infilling substance. The Carboni- 
ferous glauconitic pseudomorphs differ from the New Jersey greensand 
in that they have not been subsequently enlarged by accretion. There is 
a remarkable uniformity in the size of the granules and the Carboni- 
ferous material was never rolled like the New Jersey glauconite. An 
analysis of the New Jersey greensand grains selectecl and analysed by 
T. Sterry Hunt gave the following : 



SiO... 
FeO-,. 
MgO. 
CaC. 
AI2O. 
KO3.. 
NaaO. 
N,0.. 



50.70 
22,50 
2.16 
1.11 
8.03 
5.80 
0.75 
8.95 



100.00 



The Silurian glauconite analysed by Hunt contained less iron and 
more alumina than that of the New Jersey Cretaceous. 

In discussing the New Jersey cretaceous glauconite beds Bagg states '} 
^Tt is an interesting fact bearing on the origin of greensand that the 
writer has frequently found shells of f oraminif era filled with glauconite. 
This is especially noticeable in Polymorphina communis^ which in some 
cases where the shell is broken away, shows the interior filled with light 
green glauconite still bearing upon its outer surface the smooth impress 
of the shell. Many Cristellariae are partially filled with a light brown 
clay suggesting the early stage in the formation of the glauconite grain.^' 

The important data of the New Jersey cretaceous which bears upon 
the present report is contained in the next paragraph: "It is perhaps 
rather remarkable that among so many grains of glauconite sO' few per- 
fect casts of foraminifera are found and so sm'all a number of inter- 
mediate stages, but it must be remembered that the shell-wall of the 
form is always thin and easily destroyed through solution in the per- 
colating waters of such porous beds." * * * "From the size of the 
glauconite grains and the peculiarity of their shape it is probable that 
the glauconite has grown by accretion around an original nucleus, so that 
the outline of the delicate shells is only exceptionally preserved. Trans- 
verse sections of the glauconite grains show a difference in color and 
texture between the internal and external parts, the inner portion being 
of a light olive green and softer than the dark green irregular border." 

It will be seen from the above therefore that in both these points, 
namely the lack of secondary enlargement and the absence of erosive ac- 
tion upon the grains at the time of their deposition the carboniferous 
material differs from the greensand of the cretaceous series. 



i The Cretaceous Foraminifera of New Jersey. Bulletin U. S. Geol. Survey No. 88, 1898. p. 13. 



266 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

The carboniferous foraminifera were enibedded in very fine silt-like 
clay where the decomposition of the test went on so' slowly that the snb- 
stitntion of the psendomorph iron compound had sufficient time to fill 
the entire shell before the superstructure was removed in solution. 

The upper stratum of clay beneath the so-called No. 7 coal seam 
lis massive, plastic and where measured was over six feet in thick- 
ness. The giauconitic like granules do not appear toi be confined 
to any given layer of this clay. The lower clay nearly one hundred feet 
beiow is five feet in thickness, is darker in color, full of slip planes and 
carbonaceous matter and is more indurated. It is heavier, but it contains 
the same types of granules found in the series above. This lower clay 
looks more like a fire clay than the upper stratum, though it is not 
highly refractor}^ 

The water in which these foraminiferal shells were deposited must 
have been very quiet and sufficiently out from shore to^ escape wave 
action or the delicate granules would have been abraided and in such 
erosion the septal markings of the test would have disappeared. 

Conditions op Deposition op Glauconite. 

Glauconite is supposed to represent, an off-shore deposit of considerable 
depth. It forms today in limited amount in the marine waters off 
Cape Hatteras as shown by Prof. J. W. Bailey^ where the greensand 
fills the shells of Ehizopods and corals at depths of from forty to fifty 
fathoms. 

Grlauconite is moreover deposited near the mud line adjacent to coasts 
and is usually found along the higher portions of continental slopes 
where land derived materials are available and are deposited in percep- 
tible yet small amounts. According to Murray and Eenard,^ greensand 
covers about one million square miles of the sea floor and while gener- 
ally occurring at from one to two hundred fathoms has been noted at 
depths ranging down to 900 fathoms. 

Ehrenberg,^ the father of microscopical science, was the first to point 
out the connection of glauconite to foraminifera. 

Murray and Eenard in the challenger reports above referred to, offer 
the following well known explanation of the origin of greensand on the 
supposition that the chambers of the organism first become filled with 
a muddy sediment. 

"If we admit that the organic matter enclosed in the shell, and in the 
mud itself, transforms the iron in the mud into sulphide, which may be 
oxidized into hydrate, sulphur being at the same time liberated, this 
sulphur would be oxidized into sulphuric acid which would decompose 
the fine clay, settling free colloid silica, alumina being removed in solu- 
tion, thus we have colloid silica and hydrated oxide of iron in a state 
most suitable for their combination.'^ 

Glauconite does not form where sedimentation is rapid and it is sup- 
posed that its formation is favored by considerable changes in temper- 
ature. ' 



1 J. W. Bailey " On the Origin of Greensand and its Formation in the Oceans of the Present Epoch," 
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Vol. V, 1856, pp. 364-368. 

2 Challenger Reports, Deep Sea Deposits, see pp. 167-172. 

2 Abhandlung d. k. Akad. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1855, pp. 85-176. 



BAGG.] CARBONIFEROUS FORAMINIFERA. 267 

Dr. W. B. Clark^ very briefly discusses the origin of greensand in a 
paper entitled, "Origin and Classification of the Greensands of New 
Jersey/^ Eegarding the conditions of deposition of the New Jersey 
greensands, Clark states that these glauconite formations were probably 
laid down at a distance of from fifteen to thirty miles off shore and at 
very moderate depths. Clark points out that greensand is not an orig- 
inal deposit, but requires both inorganic rock constituents and the pres- 
ence of foraminifera. 

The rock making minerals mentioned include quartz, magnetite, feld- 
spar, hornblende, augite, zircon^ epidote, tourmaline and garnet. In the 
carboniferous clays the clay constituent predominates but we note in 
addition to minute quartz fragments, magnetite, and other massive rock 
constituents. 

The pseudomorphs of iron resembling glauconite of the carboniferous 
seldom exceed one millimeter in diameter and the average will probably 
be much less than this. From the addition of a phosphatic cement the 
grains may, however, attain a diameter of several centimeters. The 
carboniferous material possesses a nearly uniform dark green color which 
persists throughout the entire mass save for the calcite or marcasite 
nucleus. A section of the locality where this material was discovered is 
given on the following page. 

G-lauconite occurs in many formations such as the Cambrian of Wis- 
consin and Eussia, the Calcaire Grossier (Middle Eocene) of France, in 
the Tertiary Zeuglodon beds of Alabama, but it is particularly developed 
both in Europe and in America in the Upper Cretaceous. In England, 
the Lower Cretaceous greensand overlying the Weald clay is from 250 
to 450 feet thick. The New Jersey Upper Cretaceous greensand series 
have a maximum thickness of over 200 feet and if we include the clay 
marls, which are partly glauconitic, attain a total of about 500 feet in 
the Atlantic Coastal Plain belt. 

While conditions may have re-occurred again and again throughout 
past epochs in which glauconite could have been developed it seems to 
be rare in Paleozoic time if we expect the Cambrian and perhaps Pre- 
cambrian deposits of the iron region north of Lake Michigan. 

Prof. C. K. Leith,^ in his paper on the "G-enesis of the Lake Superior 
Iron Ores^^ described the hydrous iron silicate resembling glauconite 
under the term Greenalite. Leith states, "The greenalite granules, be- 
lieved to have constituted the bulk of the original Mesabi iron-bearing 
formation, are similar in physical and optical properties to glauconite or 
greensand, but differ in almost lacking potash. "They have been called 
glauconite by Spurr,^ who argues that the absence of potash may be 
due to secondary alteration and that in any case the composition of glau- 
conite, as far as determined, is so variable and uncertain as to warrant 
the application of the name to the Mesabi granules, so similar to glau- 
conite in physical and optical properties." 



i Journal of Geology Vol. II., 1894, p. 161. 

2 Economic Geology, Vol. I, No. 1, 1905. p. 64. 

a Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. Minn. Bull. X. (See also Amer. Geol. Vol. xxix). 



268 



YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL, NO. 14 



Origin and Composition of the Carboniferous Granules. 

The composition of the pseudomorphic material which has substi- 
tuted the foraminiferal shell in the carboniferous was thought at first 
to be a form of glauconite. Since tests for potassium failed to reveal 
this element which is essential in glauconite it was thought that the 
substance might be similar in composition to the greenalite of the 
mesabi iron district as described by Dr. C. K. Leith. 

The carboniferous material was therefore analyzed in the chemical 
laboratory of the University of Illinois and was found to have the fol- 
lowing composition : 



Per Cent. 



FeSa 

Fe^Og 

!»' 

AI3O3 

SiC, 

CaO 

MgO 

Loss on ignition 



10.84 

54.10 
2.20 
3.80 

trace. 
1.80 

33.69 



106.43 



In the analysis given by Dr. Leith on the Mesabi Greenalite the min- 
eral is shown to be mainly silica, ferrous iron, magnesium oxide and 
water. The ratio of four analyses calculated on the basis of 100 is 
given on page 114 of the Monograph No. XLIII the Mesabi iron-bearing 
district and is as follows: 



1 


2 


3 


4 


«.! 


43.7 


47.7 


40.2 


42.1 


47.7 


44.6 


50.9 


2.8 


8.8 


7.8 


8.9 



Average. 



SiOa 
FeO 
MgO 



46.8 

46.3 

7.1 



From this the theoretical proportion of the ferrous iron to the silica 
would be silica 45.62 and ferrous iron 54.38 per cent. 

If we assume from the above that the ferrous iron should approximate 
o4.38 per cent we find the amount checks closely with the carboniferous 
pseudomorphs fro^m Illinois, but in Greenalite the granules show only 
0.56 per cent of alumina and a high content of silica. In the car- 
boniferous grains FeSa must represent the marcasitic nucleus and the 
ferrous iron which surrounds this center is darker colored from organic 
matter and presumably this matrix contains iron in ferrous sulphate 
form. The protoxide of iron would largely account for the greenish 
color of the entire granule. The substance would not appear then 
to be greenalite since it differs from that mineral in its silica content. 



BAGG.] 



CAKBONIFEEOUS FOEAMINIFERA. 



269 



It agrees with it in lacking potash^, in having a corresponding amount of 
magnesia and in containing only a trace of calcium. It differs from 
glaiiconite in lacking potash and in possessing a low alumina and silica 
content. 

Were these greenish particles as well rounded as the New Jersey glan- 
conite, which show no septal markings we might argue that they had 
been formed by a redeposition of the oolitic material containing Endo- 
thyra. This conld be explained by supposing the shells to be rapidly 
filled with clayey substance at the time of their deposition and the altera- 
tion into concretionary form to have occurred at a later date. 

In. the case of oolitic limestone we do not have a rock which would 
redissolve and be transported from Mississippian beds into carbonifer- 
ous clays of the coal strata. It is more probable that the foraminifera 
lived in the shoal carboniferous ocean and that after the deposition of 
their shells the iron compounds replaced the original substance. 

It is not difficult to imagine the continued existence of microscopic 
Proto'zoan life from the Lower into the Upper Carboniferous epoch, 
since the poAver of locomotion is well developed in Protozoa and the 
rapidity of reproduction would enable the forms to survive a few adverse 
conditions. 

Probable Conditions of Debosition. 

The reappearance of the glauconite-like granules subjacent to two coal 
seams nearly 100 feet apart reveals a similarity of -conditions which were 
repeated. The intervening time was sufficiently extended to allow about 
one hundred feet of thin bedded shale to be laid down. 

section west of georgetow^n. 



Material. 


Thickness. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


Soil 


2 
8 
129 
3 
6 
80 
5 
5 
5 




Glacial clay 




Calcareous shale 




Coal (No 7) 


10 


Plastic clay, with pseudomorphs resembling glauconite 




Calcareous shale, fine bedded 


8 


Thin shale and coal seams 




Coal (No .6) 


6 


Slip clay, with pseudomorphs 








Total 


245 









From the section alread}^ given it will be noted that above the clays 
containing the pseudomorphs resembling glauconite there are two coal 
seams, the lower one 51/2 feet thick and correlated with "No. 6" and an 
upper bed 3 feet 10 inches thick, some 100 feet higher up in the section. 
The base of these two coals is sharply defined by a definite plane from 



270 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

the subjacent clays. There is, therefore, no gradual transition from the 
clay intO' the coal strata, and, while we infer that the conditions were 
similar in each deposit, the interval required for the deposit of the lower 
coal bed was almost double as long. 

Again it is not necessary to suppose that the ocean was at this period 
of great depth. As bearing on this point it is interesting to note that 
John Murray^ states : "I am inclined to the view that in Paleozoic times 
the ocean basins were not so deep as they are now, that the ocean then 
had throughout a nearly uniform high temperature, and that life was 
either absent or represented only by bacteria and other low forms at 
great depths, as is now the case in the Black Sea, where life is practically 
absent beyond 100 fathoms^ and where the deeper waters, are saturated 
with sulphuretted hydrogen." 

Even if we assume a depth of 100 fathoms during the deposition of 
these carboniferous clays we should require a movement of over 600 
feet downward after the formation of the No. 6 coal seam and that in 
comparatively short time which was again followed by an almost equal 
elevation in order to elevate that 100 fathom clay where glauconite was 
being deposited to near the sea level in order that coal plants could again 
develop profusely. 

It seems, therefore, much more plausible to assume that the foramini- 
fera were living like the Textularise of today near sea bottom at very 
shallow depths and that the fine silt-like sediments washed in near shore 
a number of the Endothyra types, where they were rapidly buried in 
the clay strata close to the margin of the sea shore. 

Under this theory a slight increase in submergence immediately prior 
to each coal formation is possible, and this would be followed by a some- 
what longer period of stationary sea border adjacent to a base-level conti- 
nent over which an epicontinental sea was very slowly encroaching. 

Summary. 

The conclusions we reach, therefore, regarding the formation and dep- 
osition of the glauconite-like material is as follows : 

1. Foraminifera of Subcarboniferous (Mississippian) types continued 
their existence in Upper Carboniferous time. 

2. These genera existed in shallow waters and were preeminently 
bottom types of subarenaceous species which lived near the margin of 
sea-coasts in only a few fathoms of depth. 

3. Their shells were deposited contemporaneously with the clay strata 
in very quiet water below tidal action bordering a base-leveled region. 

4. The marcastic and ferrous sulphate infiltration in the tests of the 
foraminifera was subsequent to their deposition in the clays and the 
process was both gradual and the infilling complete within the shell 
cavity. 

5. . Subsequent removal of the external shell either by solution from 
the percolating waters or a partial replacement of the shell substance 
which was largely of the arenaceous foraminifera type. 



1 Scottish Geographical Mag. Vol. xv. p. 514. 



BAGG.] • CAEBONIFEROUS FORAMINIFERA. 271 

6. Immediate elevation of the land above sea level as evidenced by 
the sharp demarkation of the coal strata overlying these clays and which 
elevation was of sufficient time length to allow in the -lower seam 5 feet 
6 inches of coal to form and in the npper la^^er 3 feet 10 inches of coal 
to originate. 

7. Eetnrn of submergence conditions after deposition of some 100 
feet of thin-bedded shale between the two coal seams. 

8. A gradual deepening of the sea followed by a redeposition of for- 
aminiferal forms which had again migrated to near the border of the 
sea shore after a time interval represented by from 90 to 100 feet of 
sedimentation. 

These conclusions are only suggestive from a general survey of the 
above outlined data and it is thought that further study upon additional 
material from other localities may throw additional light upon the distri- 
bution of the foraminiferal life in Illinois during the Carboniferous 
period and perhaps upon the formation of glauconite. With the freshen- 
ing of Carboniferous waters during the coal bed formation it is likely 
that a withdrawal took place of the Foraminiferal types into deeper 
waters which would more nearly resemble those of existing oceans. Still 
we must not forget that the Endothyra and other Eotaline types in the 
Paleozoic epochs were more usually arenaceous^ the calcareous porcel- 
laneous and perforate calcareous types developing more fully in Mesozoic 
oceans. 



272 YEAK-BOOK FOR 1908. [BULL. NO. 14 



NATURAL GAS IN THE GLACIAL DRIFT OF 
CHAMPAIGN COUNTY. 

- (By Carl F. Knirk.^) 



In Champaign county ;, as elsewhere in the State, the occnrrence of 
gas in comparatively shallow wells is reported so frequently as to arouse 
much curiosity. The State Geological Survey is continually receiving 
queries as to the sources, extent, distribution and value of the gas. With 
a view to answering these questions this work was undertaken by the 
writer and considerable information was collected during the summer 
of 1908. The city of Champaign is in Champaign county, in the east 
central part of the State, about 128 miles south of Chicago. All points 
visited in this work are within fifteen miles of Champaign, and nearly 
all of them are south of an east-Avest line drawn through the city. 

The most striking feature of the topogTaphy of the region is its level- 
ness, as may be seen from the Uirbana and Mahomet contour maps. The 
extreme relief is less than 200 feet, and the average elevation above. sea- 
level is about 700 feet. The absolute monotony of the topography is 
broken by the small glacial moraine which extends from northw:est to 
southeast across the area. This moraine can be seen to the northwest 
of Champaign where it is known as the Yankee range. It passes to the 
east of Champaign as a narrow belt of irregTilar hills, thence to the south- 
east and south of the city, where it bends abruptly to the east. Just 
south of the city the University farm and Urbana cemetery are located 
on it. From the cemetery it takes a direction a little tO' the east of 
south and leaves the Urbana quadrangle at Philo, where it is again known 
as Yankee Eidge. To the east of Urbana a medial moraine or spur 
was developed, which extends toward" the east of north through the gravel 
beds north of Urbana, thence some 21/2 miles east of Leverett, and on 
past Thomasboro, some two miles east of town. Aside from the moraines 
mentioned the land is so level that it has to be artificially drained be- 
fore it can be used for agricultural purposes. 

A large number of wells that yield more or less gas are located on the 
southern slope of the moraine or on the outwash area beyond it. The 
well on Senator Henry M. Dunlap'^s farm, the best known and most 
important well in the area, is located on the outwash plain. Mr. Walter 
Hall has a well thus located on his farm 2 miles north and three-quarters 
of a mile west of Savoy. In Sommers township a well, with a reported 
gas pressure of fourteen pounds, is located near the medial moraine. 



J- The University of Illinois; Department of Geology. 



KNIRK.] OCCURRENCE OF GAS IN DRIFT. 278 

Other wells, similar!}^ located ,are as follows : One three miles southeast 
of Mahomet on the W. Eayborn farm, where gas was found at a depth 
of 150 feet;^ one five miles northw^est of Champaign, where gas was 
found at a depth of 135 feet ;^ and ,one two miles south of Boonville on 
the N'orton farm, which struck gas 100 feet below the surface. • Other 
Avells occur, some of them on or near the moraine, while other seem to 
bear no- relation to surface topography. One well, located away from 
the moraine, 2 miles east and li/o miles south of Sidney, has yielded a 
little gas for a number of years. Strange to say, this is the only well 
in this neighborhood that has ever given out any gas, although many 
others are equally deep. It is not probable that the gas occurrences 
bear any direct relation to the surface features, although many of the 
wells are so- situated as to^ suggest an indirect relation. 

The gas is encountered in many wells drilled (or dug) for water, but 
there is no' certainty that either gas or water will be found at a given 
depth or indeed at any moderate depth. Both alike depend upon the 
irregular arrangement of the glacial deposits of this area, and both are 
confined to certain porous channels. The water wells vary from 15 
to 297 feet, but are commonly between 80 to 160 feet deep. In many 
instances a well, 50 or 60 feet deep, supplies an abundance of water, 
wdiile another well, only a few feet or rods from it, has tO' be put down 
to a depth of 150 or more feet before any water is encountered. Indeed, 
the testimony of every well driller in lx.j_s region is, that he can tell noth- 
ing about the probable depth at which he will find water in a given place 
by knowing the depth of the wells in the immediate neighborhood. 

The gas is reported to occur in or near beds of black, mouldy soil con- 
taining remains of plant life. Evidences of forest beds is common. 
In the coal shaft, which was at one time sunk in TJrbana, a stick four 
inches in diameter was found. A piece nine feet long was cut off from 
the stick and divided among several of the men who saw it removed. 
The writer has a piece of this timber, about four inches long, which has 
been identified as a close relative of Picea alba. Mr. P.) Vance, of 
L rbana, says, ^Tt is quite common for us to find wood at a depth of from 
90 to 120 feet, and we always find a black soil associated with the gas." 
Mr. W. E. Nightingale, of Champaign, says, "Gras is often found at a 
depth of 100 feet in a green sand, or a black mud, and in one instance, 
on the Fry farm west of Champaign, a piece of wood, three feet long, 
was removed from a well 140 feet deep. He also' states that he has 
found wood in no less than 30 or 40 wells. At the Cunningham farm, 
an eight inch stick of wood was encountered in an open well at a depth 
of 42 feet. In another instance gas forced out ^^pieces of dry, rotten 
wood, which looked like cork." Since the material below and above the 
veget'^l)le remains is of glacial origin, and since the vegetation is common 
at certain levels, it seems that the glacial occupation was interrupted 
l)y one or more periods of mild climate during which vegetation fiour- 
ished and accumulated in favorable situations. Witli the re-advance of 



^ Reported by Mr. W. R. Nightingale, Champaign 

—18 G 



274 



YEAE BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



the ice the vegetation was buried beneath a mass of clay, sand, gravel, 
bowlders and ice. There may have been only one or two, or there may 
have been several such oscillations. 

During the retreat of the ice and in the interglacial period, the waters 
from the ice and subsequent rains must have formed into streams in 
many places. These flowing waters must have developed river systems; 
the perfection of which depended on the amount of rainfall, the period 
of time before the glacier advanced over the region again and other 
factors. Since the indications are strong that vegetation had time to 
spread over the area and develop forest remains, it is reasonable to 
suppose that some of the interglacial periods were comparatively long. 
During these periods, well defined river channels were, no doubt, devel- 
oped. With the re-advance of the ice, it is quite possible that these chan- 
nels were filled with sand and gravel by the over loaded streams from the 
ice. If these channels were thus filled, and if the advancing ice was 
depositing its load, rather than eroding, underground sand and gravel 
veins would be formed. Whether this is the true explanation or not, the 
fact nevertheless remains, that there are well defined underground veins 
of sand and gravel in which most of the water and gas of this region 
is found. Wherever these veins yield gas they are overlain by a very 
hard clay, or "hard pan," which serves as an impervious cover for the 
pressure of the accumulating gas. Such gas as may possibly occur in 
porous veins or pockets which are at a distance from forest beds prob- 
ably represent leakage from such beds. 




I I 'i ^r. -T- r - r i ' i ' i ' i ' i ' i ' i i ' i ' i ' r -^-^ 



rzL 



II 



III 



Fig. 5.— Diagramatic section showing relations of wells which penetrate: a, late drift; d, sand 
pockets; c, old soil; d, early drift; e, bed rock. 



The accompanying theoretical cross-section, Figure 6, shows more 
or less well defined veins of sand and gravel in a bed of bowlder clay. 
It will be seen that th.e depth of a well depends on its location with re- 
gard to the underground sand and gravel vein. If such a well happens 
to strike a vein which is favorably located for the production and pres- 
ervation of gas, it may produce gas. Some of these sand-filled under- 
ground channels may connect with large areas in which considerable 
organic material is decomposing and hence may produce gas for a long 
period of years. 

It seems that the gas must originate from the decomposition of or- 
ganic material in the glacial drift, for the following reasons : 

1. In practically every case where gas has been found, it is reported 
that rotten wood and other organic remains have been found in the 
gas sand. 



KNIRK.] OCCUEKENOE OF GAS IN DRIFT. 275 

2. It is found chiefly in the sand channels which are overlain by clay. 

3. The gas frequently dies down in a short time^ which indicates a 
limited supply and prohably a local source. 

4. There is no evidence that the gas comes from deep seated reser- 
voirs. It may be found in a certain vein of sand and a well pushed 
through this level to a lower sand may fail to find gas. In at least two 
places, deep bores have been made in[ testing for gas. Mr. George 
Douglas, who lives some four miles south of Urbana, drilled to a depth 
of 1,000 feet and failed to find gas in the underlying rock. A second 
boring, without results, was made to a depth of 580 feet, near the 
present Green Street Subway in Champaign. 

5. The gas wells frequently coincide with surface features, but bear 
a more direct relation to underground gravel veins, probably of inter- 
glacial origin. 

6. Peat bogs give ofi gas at the present day, and instances are fre- 
quent elsewhere of gas occurrence in old buried beds of forest re- 
mains. 

Because of the small supply and the light pressure the gas never has 
been and, undoubtedly, never will be of much economic value. Lo- 
cally, it is being used successfully by Senator Dunlap and Mr. Walter 
Hall in their country homes for heating and lighting purposes. In 
several other instances it has been used for a time, but the wells re- 
quired so much attention that the owners soon abondoned them. Else- 
where in the State similar wells have been adequate for home supply 
for a few years. 



276 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 



ARTIFICIAL SILICATES WITH REFERENCE TO 
AMORPHOUS SILICA. 



(By W.S.Williams.) 



CONTENTS. 



-fage. 

Introduction 277 

General 277 

Acknowledgments 278 

Scope of this work ; 278 

Development of the sand— lime brick process 278 

Sand-brick with exclusive carbonate filler 279 

Sand-brick with carbonate and silicate filler 279 

Sand-brick with hydrosilicate filler 279 

Wet slaking process 280 

The dry slaking process 280 

The acid slaking prccss 280 

The quick lime process _. 281 

Description 281. 

Mixing 281 

Pressing and hardening 281 

Experimental work 282 

Conditions of the experiments 282 

The proper ratio of lime to silica to form the strongest bond 282 

Effect of adding fibrous materials '. 284 

Effect of sharp sand , 286 

Superheated steam 287 

Fire tests 287 

Carbonate filler versus silicate bond 289 

The effect of using dolomite as a substitute for lime 290 

Silica and orthoclase 290 

A substitute for clay-products 291 

Conclusions 291 

Bibliography , 292 



WILLIAMS.] 



EXPEEIMENTS WITH SILICA. 



277 



INTRODUCTION. 



GENERAL. 

In southern Illinois there are large de230sits of amorphous silica which 
ha,ve been worked but little. This fine grained^ white, substance is used 
as a filler for wood, for paints, for scouring soaps, toilet powders, porce- 
lain bodies and glazes. These deposits are being worked by several firms 
at present, practically all of the mining being done by hand. The prep- 
aration consists of fine crushing and of careful sizing of the material. 
The supply far exceeds the demand and the effect of opening these 
recently discovered deposits has been to overstock the market and lower 
the price of amorphus silica. 

The geology of this region is not very well known. Mr. F. W. 
DeWolf visited this territory in 1906 in the interests of the State Geo- 
logical Survey and made preliminary observations on the geological 
formation and also collected samples. He states that the material occurs 
as bedded deposits, varying in thickness from a few feet to six or eight 
feet. A preliminary report is found in Bulletin No. 4 of the Illinois 
State Greological Survey. The following table shows the chemical an- 
alyses of the samples collected, as reported in the above- mentioned bul- 
letin : 

Table No. 1. 



Number. 


Si02. 


Per cent 
Fe-sOg AI2O5 


Loss on 
Ignition . 


203 


87.90 
82.26 
95.14 
90.24 
95.18 
90.04 
73.78 
97.20 
95.78 
77.82 


3.72 
6.04 
2.38 
5.88 
1.04 
2.36 

14.56 
1.28 
1.80 

10.26 


2.84 
1.76 


204 . . 


205 


206 




207 




208 




2092 


5.43 


210 


211 




2122 









1 Presented as a thesis to the faculty of the University of IlKnois for the degree of B. S. in chemistry. 
The work was done under the direction of Prof. S. W. Parr, on whose suggestion it is included in 
this Year Book. 

^NoTE — Iron and alumina were separated in 209 and 121 . 



278 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [BULL. no. 14 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

Acknowledgment is due to Mr. C. F. Hagedorn, a graduate, of the 
University of Illinois in 1905, who in the fall of that year began a line 
of research in an attempt to make siliceoiis bricks; and to Mr. C. H. 
McClure, who subsequently took up the work and made a few determina- 
tions of lime and silica. Neither of these men carried this particular 
work further. Mr. H. B. Fox, in tests on sand-lime brick, used the 
samples made by the above men. The next person to take up this in- 
teresting work, was Mr. T. E. Ernest, working under the direction of 
Prof. S. W. Parr, in the laboratory of Applied Chemistr}^, of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. He had three objects in view in his investigation, viz. : 

1. To study the sand-lime brick process, including a review of the 
literature and experiments. 

2. To study the compound formed by the action of high pressure 
steam on mixtures of lime and silica, from both the chemical and physi- 
cal standpoint. 

3. To find uses for Illinois silica. 

In this thesis, Mr. Ernest shows that the chemical compound formed 
by the action of high pressure steam on intimate mixtures of lime, and 
silica is probably the mono-hydro' calcium silicate which may be consid- 
ered analogous to the meta silicate WoUastanite' (Ca 0, Si O2), with one 
molecule of II2O of hydration. He also states that the best proportions 
in mixing are equal parts of lime and silica. In running fire tests on 
this mixture he did not measure the temperatures but found that the mix- 
ture cracked badly in a suddenly heated muffle furnace. 

SCOPE OF THIS V^^ORK. 

The object of these investigations is to determine by means of the 
tensile strength: 

1. The proper ratio of lime to silica to form the strongest bond. 

2. To' improve the texture of the mixture by suction, boiling and 
using plaster of Paris molds. 

3'. To increase the strength of the mixture by adding fibrous mate- 
rials thereto. 

4. To determine whether the material can be molded into shapes 
which would be useful for architectural decoration. 

5. To determine the effect of fire on this material. 

6. To determine whether steam pressure is necessary and, if so, what 
pressure is most suitable to give the strongest bond. 

Development of the Sand-Lime Brick Process. 

It is a well established fact that a. moist mixture of sand and slaked 
lime becomes hard on being exposed to the air, a process which depends 
upon the absorption of carbon dioxide. For many years "mortar-brick^^ 
have been made, dependent on this reaction. It forms calcium car- 
bonate, which acts as the cementing material. The making of sand- 
lime briel<: witli calcium silicate as a filler does not date back more than 
thirty years. In this a ehemdcal combination takes place between 
the two constituents, slaked lime and sand, which binds the two together 
in a manner similar to vitrification. 



williams.] experiments with silica. 279 

sajs'd-brice: with exclusive carbon"ate filler. 

It is readily understood that a stone with calcium carbonate as a filler 
is not as strong as one with a calcium silicate union.^ Twenty to- 40 per 
cent of completely slaked lime is added to sand and thoroughly mixed 
with sufficient water to allow easy molding. This is then hardened by 
one of three methods: 

1. The brick is exposed to the atmosphere for a long time,^ the 
caustic lime thus slowly acquiring the needed carbon dioxide Ca(0B[)2-j- 
C02=Ca CO3+H2O. The necessity for complete slaking is quite evi- 
dent since any unslaked lime would slake later and nipture the brick. 
The time required before use is five or six months^ and a maximum 
strength is attained in one or two years. The hardening is similar 
to that of mortar and is only superficial. Zurick says that only 
30 per cent of the lime in very old mortars has been converted into the 
carbonate. 

2. Hardening in an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide without press- 
ure. This gives the same results as the first process but in much shorter 
time. 

3. Hardening with carbon dioxide under pressure. "For this process 
the advantage is claimed that nearly all of the Ca(0H)2 is converted 
into carbonate. However^ Prof. Einne of Hanover does not believe that 
this is satisfactorily proven and he is of the opinion that the carbon 
dioxide will form a carbonate on the surface, closing the pores of the 
brick;, and thus preventing the entrance of enough carbon dioxide into 
the bod}^ of the brick to make the conversion to the carbonate complete. 

SAND-BRICK WITH CARBONATE AND SILICATE FILLER. 

In this process the treatment up to the hardening point is the same 
as that just described but the hardening is effected in a warm m.oist 
atmosphere, saturated with CO2. A combination of these methods pro- 
vides for the introduction of CO2 into kettles or closed iron cylinders 
used for steam hardening. Under the conditions first cited, the product 
has as a binding material for the most part CaCOs, but some hydrated 
calcium silicate is probably formed, thus strengthening the bond. In 
the latter the binding material is mainly calcium hydrosilicate and the 
amount of carl^onate is much less than in the former.^ 

SAND-BRICK WITH HYDROSILICATE FILLER. 

This brings us to the third class, the only one which will ever be of 
any importance in the commercial world. The same raw materials are 
used as in the other proces, viz. : sand and lime. The subsequent para- 
graphs will be devoted to a review of the literature on this subject. 

In present practice^ one of four methods prior to hardening are em- 
ployed, the different features being the method of preparing the lime : 

1. Wet slaking process. 

2. Dt}^ slaking process. 

3. Acid slaking process. 

4. Quick lime process. 

^ See bibliography, 16. ^ See bibliography, 1. ^ See bibliography, 13. * See bibliography, 8. 



280 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

THE WET SLAKING PROCESS. 

This process consists in slaking the lime to a fat putty and then mix- 
ing in the desired proportion of sand and water.^ From this it is carried 
to bins over the press and allowed to stand a short time and then pressed. 

With properly burnt high calcium lime^ the addition of the proper 
amount of water can be made with enough labor. The heat given up 
by the union of caustic lime and water is sufficient to generate steam in 
the minute pores of the amorphous oxide and thus break it up into the 
smallest possible particles^ constantly and rapidly exposing new surfaces 
to the hot water. Calcium oxide on hydration gives up 246 calories of 
heat per gram. Under these conditions the CaO seems to form a hydrate, 
carrying more than one , molecule of water. The excess is locked so 
loosely that a little excess of heat, as would be the case with too little 
water, would prevent its formation. If there is insufficient water, the 
lime will become too hot, or be too dense, for the best results. The 
product of correct slaking is an extremely tough and plastic mass. 

Walters found that the best slaking of high calcium lime gave an 
increase of 3.5 times the original volume, while air slaking gave 2.5 
times, and slaking with a large quantity of water 1.7 times the volume. 
The increase in volume gives better spreading or enveloping power. 

With the dolomites,^ more time is required for proper slaking for the 
two following reasons : 

1. The magnesium oxide is overburned at the temperature of com- 
plete expulsion of carbon dioxide from limestone and is hence above its 
point of maximum porosity. 

2. The heat evolved by magnesium oxide on hydration is much less 
than that for the hydration of CaO. The presence of both acts -in the 
direction of retardation. Pure dolomite lime yields 130 calories of heat 
per gram. 

If this process is used it will be found advantageous to mix the lime 
into a cream which will favor its even distribution over the sand grains. 

THE DRY-SLAKING PROCESS. 

This differs from the preceding only in the fact that the lime is slaked 
with just enough water so that the heat of chemical reaction will dry 
the finished hydrate.^ The hydration is incomplete in most cases. For 
sand-lime brick a steam-slaked lime is always safe, since the lime has 
reached the limit of expansion under the action of steam. Where mag- 
nesium lime is used this is the method which should be used because the 
dolomitic limes slake too slowly for any other process. 

The fine state of division in which the lime hydrate is left after dr}'- 
slaking gives it the best possible physical condition for uniform distribu- 
tion and chemical reaction. The dry hydrate can be rapidly and also 
completely incorporated into the sand and when water is later added 
there is but slight tendency to ball up. 

THE ACID-SLAKING PROCESS. 

In this process 5 to 10 per cent of a solution of hydrochloric acid. 19^ 
Baume, is added to tlic lime after slaking has begun.^ This is the basis 
of a German patent issued to P. Kleber. In the preliminary slaking the 

J See bibliography, 27. ^^^^.p |,i)3iiography, 28. "^See bibliography, T), 27. 'See bibhography, 8. 



WILLIAMS.] EXPERIMENTS WITH SILICA. 281 

hydration is carried only from one-third to one-fiftli of completion, so 
that only one-third or one-fifth of the lime is changed into calcium 
chloride. 

This compound, as is well known, has a great affinity for water and is 
also very active in attacking silicates as is illustrated by its action in the 
nascent condition made use of in the J. Lawrence Smith method for the 
determination of the alkakies. 

The introduction of calcium chloride would be objectionable since, if 
the chloride remains as such, it would later appear as an efflorescence 
because of its solubility. If it is decomposed, and calcium silicate 
formed, the acid liberated in the atmosphere of steam must surely attack 
the metal cylinders unless they are glazed or lined with lead. The 
reaction involved is : 

Ca Ch + Si 0. -f H.O = Ca SiOa -f 2H CI. 

THE QUIOK-LIME PROCESS. 

Description. — In this the dry calcium oxide is mixed with the sand 
and just enough water added to slake the lime.^ The water is generally 
added in two portions, wdth a. short interval between additions to give 
the lime time to absorb all the water possible. The production then goes 
to the press, but should not reach it until at least twenty minutes have 
elapsed, in order to give the lime time to slake. This appears to be the 
most rational and rapid method where the materials are available . There 
is no rehandling of any of the materials. The sand and lime start in 
together at one end of the plant and come out at the other a finished 
product without intermediate delay. This method is not adapted to the 
use of all kinds of limes, for it requires a sensitive, quick-slaking lime 
and one which therefore has not been overburned nor stored for any length 
of time. A sand containing considerable moisture can be used without 
disadvantage, since the absorption of water by the quick-lime will remove 
considerable moisture from the sand and the heat generated by slaking 
will aid evaporation. If the plant is properly arranged, the mixture 
will go through the press while still warm and into the hardening cylin- 
der before cold. In this manner some steam is saved in the hardening 
process, since not quite so much steam is condensed in raising the tem- 
perature of the brick up to the temperature of the steam. The amount 
of steam condensed will, of course, be proportionately less, the higher 
the initial temperature of the brick. 

Mixing. — The key to the success of the process lies in the thorougji 
mixing of the constituents, and for this purpose nearly every known 
mixing device has been used.^ The ones most extensively used today are : 
the Schwarz mixer, the pug mill, and the tube mill. 

Pressing and Hardening. — In view of the nonplastic nature of the 
mixtures they do not flow evenly through a, die, hence they cannot be 
used with a clay-brick machine. On the other hand, a dry-press for clay- 
brick must be greatly strengthened, in order to stand high pressures. 
After trials of all the various kinds of presses, the rotating table press 
predominates in Europe, while in America the preference is divided 
between the table-press and the upright dry-press. 

^See bibliography, 13. '^See bibliography, 14. 



282 YEAH BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 1.4 

The hardening is accomplished by one or two methods, either by low 
pressure steam and long exposure, or high pressure steam and short expo- 
sure. In the former case about two atmospheres are nsed for seventy- 
two hours, giving a temperature of 125 °C, and in the latter from seven 
to ten atmospheres for six to ten hours are used, giving a temperature 
of 170 to 185 °C'. This last is now universally used in the industry. 

Experimental Wore:. 

conditions oe the experiments. 

Test briquets were made in a standard cement briquet mold, 
using amorphous silica from southern Illinois and lime of a good com- 
mercial quality^ which was slalved in the steam autoclave before adding 
to the silica. The batches were weighed on a scale sensitive to one-tenth 
of a gram. Then the ingredients of a batch were put into a dry ball 
mill and ground for at least two hours to insure perfect blending and 
homogeneity. After removal from the mill, the mixture was screened 
through a fifty-mesh sieve, -mixed with water and then immediately 
molded into briquets. The amount of water used was sufficient to 
make the mixtures work well. The mixture of lime and silica was found 
to be nearly as plastic as Georgia kaolin. The amount of water neces- 
sary to gain this plastic state was found to be 250 cubic centimeters 
added to 500 grams of the mixture. By volume, this would be two parts 
mixture to one part of water. This amount was used throughout the 
experiments. 

If the briquets were allowed to dry too rapidly, they checked badly 
on the 'drying surface. This was overcome by placing damp cloths over 
them. By this procedure the capillary system: of the drying surface is 
kept open until the interstitical water of the interior of the briquet 
has dried out. Then the cloths were removed and the capillaries of the 
surface allowed to dry and close up. It was also discovered that if the 
briquets w^ere too wet when steamed they would crack open and fall 
apart. This is due to the water of capillarity being converted into steam 
which, having no ready egress, bursts the form. Taking the above 
mentioned facts into consideration, it was determined to let the bri- 
quets dry for at least thirty-six hours before steaming them. This was 
adhered to during the course of this work. However, it must be under- 
stood that, if the unsteamed briquets are exposed to the air for too 
long periods of time, the carbon-dioxide of the air will react with part of 
the calcium hydrate to form the carbonate and thus the ultimate strength 
will be reduced. 

After the briquets were steamed they were dried, and aged for a 
week. They were then tested for tensile strength on a standard Fair- 
bank's automatic machine, such as is used in testing cement. 

THE PROPER RATIO OP LIME TO SILICA TO FORM TPIE STRONGEST BOND. 

ISTaturally the first consideration is to determine the effect of various 
per cents of lime and silica on the tensile strength ; and, also, what pro- 
portion gives the highest tensile strength, or, in other words, the strong- 



WILLIAMS.] 



EXPEKIMENTS WITH SILICA. 



283 



est bond. Accordingly, briquets were made up of different percent- 
ages of lime and hardened in the autoclave. Table II below shows 
the relations of lime to silica used and the results : 



TABLE II. 
Data:— Steam pressure, 105 lbs. per square inch. Time exposed to steam, 10 hours. 



Per Cent Ca . 


Per Cent SiO^ 


Tensile strength 
in lbs. per sq. in. 


10 




90 

80 
70 
60 
50 


135 


20 


265 


30 . . . . 


202 


40 


189 


50 


150 









Table III illustrates the increase in tensile strength when a higher 
steam pressure is used: 

TABLE III. 
Data:— Steam pressure, 150 lbs per square inch. Time exposed, 10 hours. 



Per Cent CaO. 


Per Cent SiOj. 


Tensile strength 
in lbs. per sq. in. 


10.. 


90 
80 
70 
60 
50 


134 


20 ... . . 


278 


30. 


204 


40 


189 


50. 


148 










In Table lY is shown the decrease in tensile strength when a low 
steam pressure is applied : 

TABLE IV. 

Data: — Steam pressure, 50 lbs. per square inch. Time exposed, 10 hours. 



Per Cent Ca . 


PerCentSiOj. 


Tensile strength 
in lbs. per sq. in. 


10. 


90 
80 
70 
60 
50 


102 
182 


:o 


30 


116 
94 
71 


40 


50 





All of the above data are the averages of five or more tests. It is 
easily seen that the strength increases remarkably with the increase in 
the lime content, until twenty per cent of lime is reached, and then 



284 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

falls almost as rapidly as it increased, when morel than twenty per 
cent of lime is added. The tensile strength does not increase in the 
same proportion between 105 pounds pressure, as it does between 50 and 
105 pounds pressure. These results were all verified by running tests in 
which the lime content varied by only three per cent instead of ten as 
given in the tables, and when the maximum point was approached the 
ratio of lime to silica were varied by only one per cent. The texture 
of the broken briquets was an open structure with frequent air holes. 
Assuming that this open structure could be eliminated and a more com- 
pact body formed, tests were run b}^ the following methods : 

(1) By mixing the constituents with sufficient water to form a 
cream and then exhausting the air from it. The creamy mass was then 
carefully poured into the molds so that no air was occluded. 

(2) By boiling the air out of the creamy mass and proceeding as 
above mentioned. 

(3) By pouring the viscous mixture into molds made of plaster of 
Paris. 

Although many trials were made, the results were unsatisfactory. 
The averages of the trials made by the first method is only 213 
pounds per square inch as against 278 pounds found in Table III. The 
second method yielded even poorer results, being 204 pounds per square 
inch. But the third method gave the best results, the average reaching 
226 pounds per square inch. The failure of these methods to increase 
the tensile strength of the 20 per cent lime to 80 per cent silica mixture, 
hardened at 150 pounds per square inch, and exposed for 10 hours, is 
probably due to several causes. First, in none of the methods could 
pressure be applied while molding the briquet; second, in methods 1 and 
3, the silica having a higher specific gravity than the lirae, tended to 
settle out of the fluid while in the mold ; third, while what has just been 
said above applies equally well to method 2, it is also very probable that 
the heat tended to start the chemical reaction between the lime and 
silica, and that this reaction was stopped by the molding period and 
hence the bond was weaker. 

The texture of these briquets was very good with respect to the 
air bubbles contained and the compact nature of the body. 

EFFECT OF ADDING FIBROUS MATERIALS. 

Mineral wool, otherwise known as slag wool, was the first fibrous 
material added to the 20 per cent lime mixture. A series was run rang- 
ing from: 2 per cent to 10 per cent of wool added. This did not increase 
nor decrease the strength but seemed to act as an inert substance. 

The other substance investigated, having a fibrous stringy nature, which 
would be commercially feasible, was cheap asbestos threads. The increase 
in strength was quite marked and is illustrated in Table Y. 



WILLIAMS.] 



EXPERIMENTS WITH SILICA. 



285 



TABLE V. 
Data:— Steam pressure, 150 lbs. per square inch. Time exposed, 10 hours. 



Per Cent of Asbestos Added. 


Tensile 

strength in lbs 

per sq. in. 


Increase in 

strength in lbs. per 

sq. in. 


3 


285 
297 
300 
343 
377 
302 
242 
173 


„ 


4 


19 


5 


99 


10. . . 


65 


12 


100 


14 . 


24 


20 




40 









From this table it will be observed that the increase in tensile strength 
rises gradnally, nntil^ when twelve per cent of asbestos is reached 
it drops suddenly. This shows that after twelve ^^er cent is passed,- the 
mixture is overburdened, and the asbestos acts as a retarder to the 
chemical reaction between the ' lime and the silica. 

The effect of adding colloids was next determined by mixing into the 
30 per cent lime mixture, sodium silicate, (Na^O Si02), also called sol- 
uuie glass, and Portland cement. Both of these substances decreased 
the strength of the briquets in the direct proportion in which they 
were added. This fact is easily seen from Tables VI and YII. 

TABLE VI. 

Data:— steam pressure, 150 lbs. per square inch. Time expo5ed, 10 hours. 



Per Cent Na-aO SiO-, Added. 


Tensile 
strength. 


Decrease in 
strength. 


1 


189 
175 
114 

82 
50 


101 


2 


105 


4 . 


166 


5 


198 


10 


230 







TABLE VII. 
Data:— steam pressure, 1.50 lbs. per square inch. Time exposed, 10 hours. 



Per Cent Portland Cement Added. 


Tensile 
strength . 


Decrease in 
strength . 


9 


97 
93 
55 


183 


5 


187 


10 


125 







The resultant decrease shown in Table VI is probably due, in part, to 
the fact that the sodium silicate was broken up by some of the dis- 



286 



YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



solved calcium hydrate. However, in both cases the reduced strength 
may be explained by assuming that the grains of the mixture were kept 
apart by the colloidal substances. 



EFFECT OF SHARP SAND. 



The influence of inert substances as reviewed above suggested the use 
of materials which would not be of a colloidal nature. Sharp, ground^ 
quartz, sand was added. The results are tabulated in Table VII. 



TABLE VII. 



Parts sand added to 100 parts standard mixture. 


Tensile 
strength 


Decrease in 
strength. 


2, 


76 
50 
106 
119 
124 
160 
179 
205 
219 
243 
172 
116 




202 


5 


99« 


10. . . ... 


179 


20 


1W 


30... 


1=i4 


40... 




lis 


50 


98 


60 


73 


70 


S9 


80 


35 


90 


106 


100 


16? 







An inspection of the above table shows that the introduction of sharp 
sand decreases the total strength and, it may be added, results in a coarse 
porous body. For particular purposes, where such a body may be de- 
manded, it is readily seen that eighty parts of sand yields the best 
results. However, in the use of this body the increase in the ratio of 
voids over the silica body must be considered. This would, of course, 
be an advantage where heat conductivity was the primary qualification, 
but a disadvantage with respect to weathering.^ Slichter in discussing 
the origin and relations of pore-space in sands and sandstones, has 
shown that it depends upon the size of grains, their uniformity of size, 
and the manner in which they are packed.^ Therefore, by adding the 
fine amorphous silica to regular sand-lime brick mixture, the expensive 
grinding of a part of the quartz and sand as carried out by the majority 
of manufacturers could be avoided. This would very materially reduce 
the cost. On the: other hand, if a body could be used of eighty parts 
sand in place of the pure silica body, the cost of the product w^ould be 
greatly reduced because sand is not as expensive as the amorphous silica. 

' See bibUography, 29. 
2See bibUography, 30. 



WILLIAMS.] EXPERIMENTS WITH SILICA. 287 

SUPERHEATED STEAM. 

The question naturally arises as to whether the chemical combination 
is produced by the higher temperature of steam under pressure or by 
the united effect of pressure and temperature. In order to investigate 
this question, an apparatus was arranged, consisting of a covered iron 
container for the briquets into which super-heated steam was intro- 
duced but which had ready egress into the air. Thermometers were placed 
in the steam jet and in the container for reading the temperatures. No 
steam, pressure was used in the container. Although temperatures were 
used ranging from 175° centigrade up to 430° centigrade, and the time 
of exposure ranged from ten to forty-eight hours, no reaction could be 
obtained. 

For this experiment new briquets were introduced into the con- 
tainer for each test. This was done in order to avoid the possible build- 
ing up and destruction of the chemical bond, which might form. Ee- 
peated attempts to chemically combine the silica and lime by this means 
ended in failure. Hence, it would seem to be conclusively shown that, 
steam under pressure is absolutely essential to the successful bonding of 
lime and silica. 

FIRE TESTS. 

One of the main considerations taken into account when a building 
material is being examined is its action under fire. Accordingly fire 
tests were made on briquets of 20 per cent lime to 80 per cent silica 
in composition. These tests were made in a muffle furnace and also 
in a test kiln in direct contact with the fire gases. It was found that 
if the briquets were heated suddenly to a temperature of 800° C, 
which is a red heat, they cracked and l3urst open, at times with sufficient 
force to scatter the pieces a foot or so away. In these cases 800° C. 
was reached in twenty or thirty minutes. On the other hand, if 800° 
temperature was gained in from forty-five to sixty minutes, the bri- 
quets were sound and no evidence of cracking could be observed. The 
fact that the suddenly heated trials burst the briquets is probably 
due to the fact that the outer surface of the briquets were fritted 
before the water in the interior had time to volatilize. This explana- 
tion is more readily understood when it is considered that the chemical 
formula of this silicate has been shown^ to be CaO, SiO^, H2O. The 
water, as has been said before, is chemically combined and hence does 
not readily break away from the other constituents, but it does detach, 
itself at the higher temperatures. If these are quickly reached, the sur- 
face is slagged over and the water is converted to steam, which, having 
no ready egress,_ will burst the briquet. In order to determine the 
effect of heat on the chemical bond, trial pieces were placed in the fur- 
nace and drawn at regular temperature intervals. The heating was 
done over a comparatively long period of time, three hours, so that 
the dan2:er from sudden heating mis^ht be avoided. The results are set 
forth in Table VIII. 



^See bibliography, 33. 



288 



YEAE BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



TABLE VIII. 



Test No. 


Drawn at 

temperature 

degrees C. 


Tensile 
strength. 


^ 


300 
400 
500 
600 
rnn 


45 


^ 


\0 


3 


101 


4 


131 


5. 


124 


6 


1 § i g 


27 




71 


8 


186 


9 


260 


10 


1390 


263 







The results here recorded reveal some startling effects, for instance, 
at 400° C, the tensile strength drops to zero, then at 600° C. there is 
shown a maximum point after which there is again a sharp fall to a 
tensile strength of 27 pounds at 750° C. After this temperature is 
past, the bond is strengthened rather gradually until 1190° is reached, 
when it is practically at its maximum strength, for at 1390° the strength 
was only three pounds more. Higher temperatures than this were not 
attained. These results are very puzzling and although they were 
checked by two other similar tests, more work along this line should be 
done before any definite statements can be made. The peculiar action 
of this bond under fire might be explained by analogy. For example, 
in the burning of clay wares the greater percentage of mechanical water 
is expelled by the time 400° C. is reached, leaving the body weak and 
friable. At 750° the clay body begins to increase in strength until it 
reaches the maximum. When 750° is attained practically all of the 
chemically combined water is eliminated. This is also probably the case 
here. But just why the loss of mechanical water should allow an in- 
crease in strength while dehydration takes place is perplexing. 

This analogy is, of course, faulty because clay generally contains some 
carbonates, sulphates, and sulphides; whereas, this lime-silica body does 
not, or, if it does, they are present in mere traces. The opportunity for 
absorption of CO^ in the process of manufacture should be borne in 
/nind. It is possible that the drop in the curve from 600° to 750° is 
'due to the expulsion of the small amount of CO2 from the carbonate 
which is certain to be formed in the manufacture of the briquets. 
This explanation is substantiated by the work of ISTauss, as reported by 
Bleininger,^ whose conclusions are : "That, in regard to the decomposi- 
tion of calcium carbonate, it is clearly shown that it begins to break up 
between 610° and 650° C, and before 700° is reached the evolution of 
carl)on dioxide is going on quite rapidly." It is very probable that the 
CO2 is completely expelled from the lime-silica body by the time 750° 0' 
is reached, and tliat from tliis temperature to highor ones, the bond is 
free to strengtlien without other interruptions. 

'See biblio,::?raphy, 31. 



WILLIAMS] 



EXPERIMENTS WITH SILICA. 



289 



It is readily perceived that there are apparently two silicates formed, 
one between the temperatures 500° and 600° C, and the other forming 
at 850°, which continues up to 1,490° C. It is also seen that the com- 
pound does not entirely lose its chemical bond after 400° C is past. 
These apparent facts suggest the possibility that the first silicate could 
be formed at 600° and, without burning to higher temperatures, used 
as a fireproof material. This hypothesis is advanced from the fact that 
after 400° C is past, this material does not completely lose its combining 
bond. Therefore this first silicate, upon being subjected to more heat, 
will strengthen itself indefinitely without bloating, fusing, or cracking, 
to which troubles the burnt clay wares used as fireproofing are subject. 
Doubtless the objection to the above will be advanced by some, that the 
w^ell-known volume changes of silica at 800° will occur here, causing 
swelling and rupture of the material.^ This is not the case, however, 
since the silica is in chemical combination with the lime and it has been 
proven that combined silica does not undergo volume changes when 
heated.^ 

Some briquets composed of 20 per cent CaO, 80 per cent SiO^, to 
which was added 12 per cent of asbestos were fired in a test kiln to 
1390° C. The effect of heat on this body was to decrease the tensile 
strength by eighty pounds per square inch. The broken briquets 
showed that the asbestos had fused, leaving the rest of the body intact. 
This will account for the decrease in some measure. 



CAKBONATE FILLER VEESUS SILICATE BOND. 

To illustrate the difference in the strength of the carbonate filler and 
the silicate bond, briquets were made and, without hardening by steam, 
were allowed to age in the air for seven months. Table IX is a table 
oi comparative results : 

TABLE IX. 



Per Cent CaO. 


Per Cent SiOa 


Tensile 

strength 

after 

hardening in 

steam. 


Tensile 

strength 

after 

hardening in 

air. 


10 


90 
80 
70 
60 
50 


134 

278 
204 
189 

148 


97 


20. 


189 


30 


155 


40 


121 


50 


101 



It is to be noticed from the above that the strength is not nearly so 
great in the case of the carbonate filler as it is with the silicate bond. 
However, by aging a longer period of time it is probable that the air 
hardened samples would become much stronger reaching the maximum 
in one and a half years. 

1 See bibliography, 32. ' 

—19 G 



290 



YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. 



[BULL. NO. 14 



THE EFFECT OF USING DOLOMITE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR LIME. 

To test the relative value of the silicate reaction^ briquets were made 
of silica and dolomitic lime. The dolomitic lime was made by inti- 
mately mixing lime^ CaO, and magnesia^ MgO, in the ratio of one to 

one, which follows the mineralogical formula iv/r-p-Q f — 2CO2. The re- 
sults are recorded in Table X. 



TABLE X. 



Per Cent Dolomite. 


Per Cent 
SiO,. 


Tensile 
strength. 


10 


90 
80 
70 
60 


116 


20 


232 


30 


168 


40 


158 







In addition to the above tests, experiments were run on the effect of 
magnesia, MgO, and silica. See Table XL 



TABLE XL 



Per Cent MgO,. 


Per cent 
SiOg. 


Tensile 
strength. 


10 


90 

85 
80 
75 
70 


92 


20 


186 


30 


132 


40 


124 


45 


IT? 







It is readily seen from a study of these two tables that the magnesia 
reduces the tensile strength in a very marked manner. The reason for 
this is not clear, since MgO is almost as active as CaO in attacking Si02 ; 
so it can be inferred that the magnesium silicate formed is a much 
weaker bond than the calcium silicate. 



SILICA AND ORTHOCLASE. 

The suggestion was given that an attempt be made to chemically com- 
bine silica and feldspar by steam pressure. A series of tests was conducted 
in which the feldspar composed from 5 per cent up to 25 per cent of the 
total mixture. Another series was also run in which the silica formed 
from 5 per cent to 25 per cent of the composition. The steam pressure 
used was only a hundred pounds per square inch, which was all that 
could be obtained at that time. The tests were exposed for sixty hours 
to this pressure. Before putting into the autoclave, the briquets, 
although well dried, were apt to fall to pieces in handling. After expos- 
ure to the steam pressure they were equally fragile, showing that there 
had been no chemical reaction and that no bond had formed. 



WILLIAMS] EXPEEIMENTS WITH SILICA. 291 

A SUBSTITUTE FOR CLAY-PEODUOTS. 

In order to test the 20 per cent lime to 80 per cent silica mixture as a 
substitute for some of the clay products it was hand-pressed into a vase 
mold of plaster Paris. The vase dried safely and was hard enough when 
dried to handle and finish the joints. When hardened by steam it had, 
when struck with a pencil^ the true hard ring of a vitrified clay biscuit. 
The material easily assumed and retained the shapes of the mold^ hence 
it could be used as a terra cotta and also a stoneware body. It is not 
certain, at present, whether it could be cast thin enough for some of the 
thinner clay wares or not. Small trials were also made by jiggering, 
which were very successful. 

A great difficulty of the terra cotta and stoneware industries, which 
must be overcome, is the fact that, locally, the clay used, burns either red 
or buff. In order to glaze this with a pleasing effect, a pure white opaque 
enamel or ^^slip" is interposed between the glaze and the body. N'eedless 
to say this is a very expensive procedure, especially where tin-oxide is 
used as an opacifing agent. The pure white, fine-grained character of 
the lime-silica body will eliminate this great trouble of all the enameled 
clay industries. Another great point in its favor is the fact that it does 
not have to be burned. Stoneware is generally fired at cone 6, 1200° C, 
and terra cotta at cone 05, 1070° C. This, of course, represents a great 
expense for coal and also for kilns. Lime-silica is steamed at 150 pounds 
per square inch, and after the first cost of installation would require but 
little expense for maintenance of the hardening cylinder. 

The material is strong enough and also sufficiently fire-resistant to be 
made into terra cotta, stoneware or enameled brick. The question as 
to whether it can be glazed or not was the next step in this investigation. 
There is no doubt^ that it can be accomplished, since Dr. W. J. Michaelis 
Jr. has compounded a glaze for the regular sand-lime brick. This sub- 
ject would constitute a great work by itself. It was suggested that NaaO 
SiOs be applied as a glaze. This was done. The "water glass^^ when 
dried and hardened gave a good clear glaze but, as should be expected, 
was soluble in water, thus throwing it out of the field of commercial 
success. 

CON"CLUSIONS. 

From the above work it is to be concluded that: 

(1) The best proportions of lime and silica to gain the highest 
tensile strength are 20 per cent of hydrated lime to 80 per cent of amor- 
phous silica. 

(2) The best method tried, to improve the texture of the above com- 
position is by means of molds made of plaster of Paris. 

(3) The tensile strength is greatly increased by the addition of min- 
eral fibers, which have cohesion in themselves, like asbestos fiber. 

(4) The material is fire-proof^ and can perhaps be used as a fire- 
proofing material.^ 

(5) The effect is to decrease the tensile strength, when colloidal 
materials are introduced, like cement, cla}?-, etc. 

-^Editor's note: Ceramists state that no satisfactory glaze has yet been discovered for such purposes. 
2See bibliography, 18. 
^^See bibliogrophy, 9. 



292 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [BULL. no. 14 

(6) Steam pressure is absolutely essential. 

(7) The effect of using magnesia^ MgO, either b}^ itself or as dolo- 
mite, decreases the strength about one-third. 

(8) Silica and feldspar will not chemically combine at 100 pounds 
steam pressure. 

(9) The lime-silica mixture can be molded into shapes suitable for 
architectural decoration and also as substitutes for clay products, such 
as stoneware, enameled brick, and terra cotta.^ 

Bibliography. 

The following list includes references indicated by number in foot- 
notes of preceding pages. 

(1). Silica brici^making". The industry in various countries. — Brick, Octo- 
ber, 1903. 

(2). Sand-lime brick tests.— Technograph, No. 19, 1904 and 1905. 

(3). Sand-lime brick from brickmakers point of view. — Amer. Architect, 
April 16, 1904. 

(4). Sand-lime brick, Gerard-Meurer process. — Amer. Architect, August 1, 
1903. 

(5). The Industry of Sand-stone bricks. — Revue Technique, Feb. 25, 1901. 

(6). Tests of Sand-lime and Concrete Building Blocks. — Eng. News, 
April 21, 1904. 

(7). Sand-lime bricks. — Jour. Chem. Met. and Mia. Soc. of S. Africa, 
November, 1904. 

(8). Manufacture and Properties of Artificial Sandstone. — Trans-Amer. 
Ceramic Soc, 1902. 

(9). Tests of Strength and Fireproofing Qualities. — Eng. News, June 14, 1906. 

(10). Sand-lime brick, tests they have undergone. — Sci. Amer. Sup., Aug- 
ust 25, 1906. 

(11). Sand-lime brick, manufacture and use. — Munic. Eng., Jan., 1907. 

(12). Sand-lime brick, petrographic work on. — Thon. Ind. Zeit. 25, p. 
575 also 1660. 

(13). Artificial Sandstones or Sand-lime Brick. — Trans. Amer. Ceramic 
Soc, 1903. 

(14). Production of Lime and Sand-lime Brick in the U. S. — Mineral 
Resources of the U. S., 1906. 

(15). Comparative Study of Sand-lime and Clay Brick. — Clay worker, 
January, 1905. 

(16). The Chemistry of Sand-lime Brick.— Rock Products 7, 49. 

(17). Thonindustrie Zeitung, 1903, November 16, p. 193. 

(18). Thonindustrie Zeitung, Vol. 24, p. 1822. 

(19). Thonindustrie Zeitung, November 31, 1903. 

(20). Bulletin of the Wisconsin Survey, No. Ill, p. 399. 

(21). Thonindustrie Zeitung, Vol. 26, No. 104. 

(22). Thonindustrie Zeitung 32, (63), (77) also (80). 

(23). Bull. Soc Encouragement, 1907, 1179-1201. 

(24). Thonindustrie Zeitung, 32, 1421, 1800. 

(25). Thonindustrie Zeitung, 32, 48, 573. 

(26). Thonindustrie Zeitung, 32, 54, 728. 

(27). Chem. Ftg. 32, 258. 

(28). Rock Products, 7, 47. 

(29). Bulletin No. 6, University of Illinois. Dept. of Ceramics. 

(30). U. S. Geol. Survey, 19th Ann. Report. 

(31). Ohio Geol. Survey Bull. No. 3, p. 175. 

(32). Journal of the American Chemical Soc, Feb., 1906, Shephard & Day. 

(33). Studies in the Formation of Silicates at Steam Temperatures. — 
T. R. Ernest, Thesis Univ. of 111., 1908. 



■Editor's note: See note regarding glaze, p. 291. Silica is expensive. 



WHITE] PALEOBOTANICAL STUDIES. 293 



PALEOBOTANICAL WORK IN ILLINOIS IN 1908, 

(By David White.i) 



The following report is a preliminary statement of my paleobotanical 
work in the coal field of Illinois during the season of 1908. It is based 
on observations made in the field and on a preliminary examination of 
the fossil plant collections. 

Six weeks of field work in Illinois were occupied chiefly with the 
study of the lower portion of the Coal Measures in the southern part of 
the State and with the task of making fossil plant collections from the 
main coal horizons of that region and along the northern margin of the 
field. As in the preceding season paleobotanical material was found to 
be discouragingly rare except at certain localities and very restricted 
horizons. 

The work of the past season shows the Cheltenham fire clay^ which 
previous tracing from Eock Island to St. Louis had located near to or 
directly upon the Lower Carboniferous floor in the northern part of the 
field, to lie at a high level in the region of early invasion of the Pennsyl- 
vanian sea in southern Illinois. In passing southward along the western 
margin of the coal field it appears that the edge of the deeper basin in 
which the earlier sediments were laid down is first met in the neighbor- 
hood of Sparta or not far south of that locality. 

The continuation of the work summarized in the last year book shows 
the Potts ville (the lower main division of the Pennsylvanian) to extend 
as far north at least as Hudgins Station on the C. & E. I. E. E., though 
lack of exposures renders it impracticable to secure paleontological data 
from horizons immediately successive to the sandstone overlying the 
coals mined for local use at a short distance south of this point. Similarly 
the Pottsville is found to dip into the valley north of Bosky Dell on the 
main line of the Illinois Central E. E., the coals worked by Wood and 
others in the knob about four miles east by north of that station being 
probably at, or near, the base of the Allegheny formation. They may 
tentatively be regarded as representing the two benches of coal No. 2 at ■ 
Murphysboro. 

. The fossil plants collected from the mines at Murphysboro, Colchester, 
and Minonk^ and from above the "Third Vein'^ near LaSalle, appear, on 
preliminary examination, to accord so Avell with the flora overlying the 
Wilmington coal at Morris and Braidwood as essentially to confirm the 
generally accepted reference of these coals to the same horizon, i. e. to " 
coal No. 2. Small collections obtained from the old mine near Bryden, 
in southern Illinois, from Augusta on the west, from the upper or open- 
air portion of the clay pit northwest of Viola, and from the lower coal 
at Streator, appear to belong to the flora, though the rnaterial in the in- 

1 Mr. White has spent several seasons on studies of the Illinois coal fields, being courteously detailed 
to the work by the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey. 



294 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

dividual lots from all but the locality first named is too scanty to permit 
of independent correlation. As stated last year coal No. 2 is, in my 
judgment, to be regarded as lying very near the boundary line between 
the Potts ville and the Allegheny, though distinctly Allegheny in age. 

Coal No. 1, as developed in the northwestern portion of the field is 
clearly of Pottsville age, as also is the coal mined in the deep shaft at 
Litchfield. The division between the two formations should, perhaps, 
be drawn at the horizon of the limestone which is usually found between 
coal No. 2, and the underlying fire clay series. The latter is apt to be 
surmounted by a coal ordinarily designated "No. 1,^' though it appears 
that when a thicker coal is locally developed in the midst of, or even 
below the clay series, this also bears the same number. In the southern 
part of the State this number has formerly been given to one or more 
coals several hundred feet below the horizon of the Cheltenham fire clays, 
there being several other coals in the intervening strata. The brecciated 
or congloanerate structure seen in the limestone at a. number of points is, 
I believe, to be interpreted as indicating local exposures of the calcar- 
eous sediments at off-shore points, by warping, though no important 
change of level, or erosion, may have been experienced in this region 
at the time of its formation. Eelative stability of level at or near the 
water surface for a considerable length of time may account for the 
comparatively narrow stratigraphic interyal between coal No. 2 and the 
paleobotanically distinctly older sewerpipe clays with their accompany- 
ing "coal No. 1/' 

In this connection it may be interesting to note that the clays worked 
at iTtica on the northern rim of the basin belong to the Cheltenham 
horizon and that their stratigraphic relations to coal No. 2 are nearly 
identical with those exhibited at East Alton, or Cantine, near St. Louis, 
though at Utica the fire clays repose directly either upon the St. Peter's 
sandstone or on residual bossses of a limestone for which a comparison 
with the Platteville limestone has been suggested. To the same horizon 
belong also the high grade sewerpipe clays used near Yeeders- 
burg, in Fountain county, and at Brazil, in Clay county, Indiana. 
It is thus paleobotanically shown that the most valuable sewerpipe clays 
worked at various points near the border of the Eastern Interior (Illi- 
nois-Indiana) coal field, extending from the Cheltenham district of St. 
Louis around by the north to the Brazil district of Indiana, lie practi- 
cally at the same horizon and are, in part at least, contemporaneous, 
'though the conditions of deposition appear to have been slightly differ- 
ent on the eastern side of the basin. Also it appears that on the Indiana 
side of the basin, in the vicinity of Covington, the coal described as 
"No. YI'' in Ashley's Indiana state report for 1896, is probably equiv- 
alent to coal No. 2 of Illinois — that is to the Morris, or Wilmington, 
coal to which reference has already been made. 

The roofs of coals Nos. 4 and 5, of the Illinois field, appear to be 
nearly destitute of fossil plants, particularly as to ferns preserved in 
such a condition as to admit of identification, marine invertebrates being 
nearly always present in the dark shales immediately overlying the coals. 
In fact it should -be noted that at nearly all of the mines visited by me 
marine shells are found in the shales overlying the coals. This is true of 



WHITE] PALEOBOTANICAL STUDIES. 295 

coal No. 2, as well as of the higher beds worked. The close proximity 
of the surface of coal formation to sea level, which is thus indicated, 
lias an important bearing in explanation of the great horizontal extent 
of the individual coals in the basin, on the one hand, and, on the other, 
to the high percentage of sulphur in the coals of this field. At the pres- 
ent day, th~ose peat bogs which have been affected by or have been sub- 
jected to salt or brackish water invasions are characterized by relatively 
high sulphur percentages, a feature that seems to correlate with the 
peculiar kind of putrefactive (bacterial) action attending such con- 
ditions of deposition. 

In the region of Duquoin, Christopher, and Herrin, there would seem 
to have been, at the time of deposition of coal IsTo. 6, nearby land sur- 
faces — perhaps small irregular exposed areas — occupied by the coal 
forming types of vegetation. The mines inj this district, which lie 
nearly midway across the basin, frequently show abundant fragments of 
fossil ferns and other delicate plant types in a condition of preserva- 
tion which absolutely precludes far transportation or long suspense in 
water. It is probable that the old soil areas which supported this vegeta- 
tion at the time of the marine submergence of the bog swamps were iden- 
tical with some of the hummocks, or barren rises,, which interrupt the 
continuity of coal No. 6 in this region. 

The plants in the roof of coal No. 6 do not on closer examination 
appear to disclose any paleobotanical obstacle to the reference of the bed 
to the Freeport group, in the upper part of the Allegheny formation, 
with which it appears to offer a satisfactory agreement. The flora of 
No'. 6, in southern Illinois, also agrees fairly well with that of the 
Grape Creek coal in the Danville region, which accordingly is, I believe, 
also to be referred to the same horizon. I therefore do not hesitate to 
refer these coals to the Allegheny formation. This reference conforms 
to the opinion expressed in the Danville folio, though the presence of one 
or two peculiar species seemed, at the time of their study, to favor a 
somewhat higher level. It is, in my judgment, not wholly improbable 
even that the Grape Creek coal may lie as low as the lower Freeport 
coal of the Appalachian trough. 

The roof of coal No. 7 or its supposed equivalent, the Danville coal, 
has not as yet afforded any fossil plants in Illinois, and I am therefore 
unable to offer any paleobotanical evidence bearing directly on its cor- 
relation. I may, however, venture the opinion that the Grape Creek 
coal may be old enough to permit the inclusion of the Danville coal also 
within the Freeport group, and I would suggest that it be so mapped. 
The relatively small interval between these coals suggests a tentative 
reference of the Danville to the horizon of the Dpper Freeport coal if the 
Grape Creek coal be provisionally correlated with the Lower Freeport 
coal as would seem to be permissible. It is interesting to note thai/ 
while the horizon of No. 2 coal in this basin is marked by TJlodendron, 
the higher group is accompanied by frequent representatives of the 
Rhytidolepis section of Sigillaria. 

In passing it may be remarked that the question of the validity of the 
distinction between coal No. 3 and coal No. 4, as presented in the 
earlier State reports would appear to merit critical inquiry. 



296 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ILLINOIS FUEL 
CONFERENCE. 

At the University of Illinois, Urban a, March 11, 12, 13, 1909. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page 

Minutes of meetings 297 

Thursday, March 11 297 

Afternoon session 7.. 297 

Formal opening of the U.S. Geological Survey Urbana Laboratory for mine rescue work. 297 

Evening session 301 

Government efforts to prevent explosions 301 

Friday, March 12 '. 302 

Morning session 302 

Explosives and mine explosions 302 

Afternoon session 304 

Smoke suppression 305 

Evening session 306 

Educational movements and conference on use of fuels 306 

Saturday, March 13 308 

Morning session 308 

Work of the Federal and State Geological Surveys and conference on coal analysis 308 

Addresses — 

Mining explosions; What the Government is doing to prevent them; by Dr. Joseph A. 

Holmes 310 

Coal Fields of the United States; by E. W. Parker 313 

The Work of the Foreign Mining Explosion Stations; by G. S . Rice 317 

Mine Explosions; by James Taylor 327 

Some Causes of Mine Explosions; by Joan Verner 331 

Smoke Prevention; by Dr. W. A. Evans 333 

Smoke Suppression; by A. Bement 338 

The College of Engineering and the Mining Interests of the State; by W. F. M. Goss 340 

The Engineering Experiment Station of the University of Illinois; by L. P. Breckenridge 342 

Economy in the Use of Fuel; by A. Bement 350 

Coals for Boiler Plants; b D. T. Randall 351 

Remarks on Mine Rescue Work; by Dr. J. A. Holmes 359 

Remarks on economy in the Use of Fuels; by E. H. Taylor 361 

Fuel Tests With House-Heating Boilers and Hot- Air Furnaces; Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion, University of Illinois; by J. M. Snodgrass 362 

The U. S. Geological Survey and the Fuel Resources of the Country; by George Otis Smith.. 365 

The Illinois State Geological Survey and the Fuel Interests of the State; by H. Foster Bain. . 370 

Coal Analysis; by Prof. N. W. Lord 373 

Registry of the Conference 380 



MINUTES OF FUEL CONFERENCE. 297 



MINUTES OF MEETINGS. 



Thursday^ March 11. 

afternoon session^ dr. w. f. m. goss^ presiding. 

Formal Opening of the United States Geological Survey's Laboratory 
For Mine Rescue Wo7^k. 

The first session of the Illinois Fuel Conference was called to order 
by Dean W. F. M. Gross^ in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory at 
2 :00 p. m. Owing to the illness of President Edmund J. James, of the 
University of Illinois, Dean Goss introduced to the conference Vice Pres- 
dent T. J. Burrill, who in welcoming the members of the conference 
spoke as follows: 

I am sorry to have to take President James' place in the performance 
of a function that he is better able to perform than I, and I especially 
regret that I am better able at this time physically than Dr. James. He 
is sick, and consequently unable to be with us. 

The University of Illinois does not claim to give instruction in every- 
thing to everybody, for although the University has a great many de- 
partments, such a claim would be too wide. However, it does concern it- 
self especially with many matters of real interest to the State, and so 
far as possible to the country at large. Since the early days there has 
been great growth. The time was when much attention was given to 
growth. The time has past when the University thinks mainly of growth. 
The time has arrived when the chief aim and ambition of the University 
is service. Service is the word which best describes its manifold activ- 
ities. 

The original construction of the I. C. Eailroad was from Freeport to 
Cairo. When the construction of the line to Chicago was discussed, 
doubt was expressed as to whether the Chicago branch would ever pay. 
No one realized the development possible through study and cooperation 
in the then water soaked prairies of Illinois. 

Some claim there is much ungodliness in trusts, or combinations; but 
there may be something not so ungodly in them. If G-od helps those 
who helps themselves, why may not the trusts come in for some assist- 
ance? Individuals operating alone cannot accomplish that which may 
be obtained by combined effort. Two can do more than one. 

Thus, this rescue station which we are dedicating will be more useful 
through the effect of this and similar conferences, where, by exchange of 



298 YEAR-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

views^ and by combination of effort, each may be aided by the experience 
and research of the other. On behalf of the University of Illinois we be- 
speak your cooperation, and extend to- yon a hearty welcome. 

In response to Dr. Bnrrill, Dr. J. A. Holmes, Chief of the Tech- 
nologic Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey, spoke as follows : 

We are always glad to come to the University of Illinois, for several 
reasons. First because the University is a good place to come to, as it is 
a thoroughly up-to-date institution in every way. In the second place 
the University is always a profitable place to come for help and inspira- 
tion. On the other hand we believe that at this time we can render some 
service to the University through that cooperation of which Dr. Burrill 
has just spoken. In the past,- the mining interests have been left lar- 
g^ely to shift for themselves. It is true that many schools of mining 
engineering have been established throughout the country, but these have 
concerned themselves primarily with metal mining, leaving out of con- 
sideration the great coal mining interest. It must be admitted that the 
present status of coal mining is bad. Lack of cooperation makes it im- 
possible for the coal operator to secure a fair price for his product; a 
price that will enable him to mine coal as it ought to be mined, with 
a fair degree of profit. Under present conditions in many places only 50 
per cent of the coal is taken from the mine, while under proper condi- 
tions 70 per cent or more ought to be removed. Coal should be mined 
more efficiently, and if need be, legislation should be modified to en- 
able this to be done. 

With the cooperation of the various interests of the State it is hoped 
that a school of mining, particularly of coal mining, may be established 
here at the University of Illinois, for the purpose of developing safer and 
more efficient methods of coal mining. Cooperation should not be limited 
to one state alone. The State of Illinois should meet with help and 
assistance from Indiana, Kentucky, Ohioi, Tennessee and other great 
mining states. The Eescue Station has been established here because of 
its favorable location, and the advantage of close connection with the 
Departments of Science and Engineering of the University. In the 
future it is hoped that other stations of like character will be established, 
and that the movement started here at the University of Illinois, may 
become a national one. 

In the absence of President A. J. Moorshead of the Illinois Coal Op- 
erators Association, a letter was read from him, by Dr. Bain, Director 
of the State Geological Survey, in which he expressed his hope that the 
coal operators of the State would take advantage of the opportunities 
offered by the establishment of the rescue station. 

Mr. G. W. Traer, Past President of the Illinois Coal Operators Asso- 
ciation, responded and addressed the Conference on Cooperation of Prac- 
tical and Scientific Men. 

It is a sincere pleasure to me to acknowledge, on behalf of the mine 
owners of Illinois, the obligations of humanity to the men whose efforts 
have made it possible that this great, civilized, Christian,. work shall be 
carried on here, and whose time and thoughts are being given to it. 



MINUTES OF FUEL CONFERENCE 299 

Illinois is to be congratulated upon the proprietorship of a University 
so situated that it is chosen by the federal government to participate 
in a work of this kind, and with a University organization qualified and 
eager tO' do so in the interests of humanity. 

Special danger of injury and death never can be entirely eliminated 
from coal mining and many other industrial occupations. But such 
danger is multiplied by ignorance, indifference and lack of foresight; 
or it may be vastly lessened by research and application, and unre- 
served cooperation on the part of those whose duty it is to think and 
appl}^, with those who think and experiment. Our modern civilization is 
equally distinguished by a wholesome regard for lives and happiness 
of all human beings and by its profound scientific achievements directed 
towards the same end. 

We are here today to witness the dedication of a work of scientific 
research to that end. And although we may well realize how miich re- 
mains to be done, we are justified in a feeling of confidence when we 
reflect upon the achievements of science in the past. Seventy-two years 
ago Macaulay wrote his great essay on Lord Bacon, who was the prophet 
and the apostle of the practical sciences, as we now know them. Bacon 
had been dead more than two hundred years when Macaulay wrote this 
brilliant eulogy on the practical results of what had once been called 
the ^'^new thought," and which, in advance of actual achievement, many 
people had considered to be merely theoretical, just as many people con- 
sider all new thoughts today. The record of the achievements of two 
hundred years was easily recognized by Macaulay to be without parallel 
in the past, when he wrote these words : ^^Ask a follower of Bacon what 
the new philosophy, as it was called in the time of Charles the Second, 
has effected for mankind, and his answer is ready; it has lengthened life; 
it has mitigated pain ; it has extinguished disease ; it has increased the 
fertilit}^ of the soil; it has furnished new arms to^ the soldier; it has 
given new securities to the mariner; it has spanned great rivers and 
estuaries with bridges of a form unknown to our fathers; it has guided 
the thunderbolt innocuously from heaven to earth; it has lighted up 
the night with splendor of day; it has extended the range of human 
vision ; it has multiplied the power of the human muscles ; it has accel- 
erated motion ; it has annihilated distance ; it has facilitated intercourse, 
correspondence, all friendly offices, all dispatch of business; it has en- 
abled man to descend into the depths oi the sea, to soar into the air, 
to penetrate securely into the noxious recesses of the earth, to traverse 
the land, in cars, whirled along without horses and the ocean in ships 
that run ten knots an hour against the wind. 

These are but a part of its fruits and of its first fruits. For it is a 
philosophy that never rests, which has never, attained, is never perfect. 
Its law is progress. A point which yesterday was invisible is its goal 
today and will be its starting point tomorrow." 

When these words were written no doubt there were many thinking 
people to whom this record seemed impossible of duplication, even if it 
did not to Macaulav- 



300 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [BULL. no. 14 

And yet at that time the first practical steam engine liad been used 
but little longer than the Bell telephone of today has been in practical 
use; the first steamboat was no older than electric lights now are; the 
Morse electric telegraph was as mnch a novelty as wireless telegraphy 
now is^ and travel by railroad was but a few years in advance of aerial 
navigation of today. 

Antiseptics and antitoxins were among Macaulay's invisible points 
and a demonstration of radio-activity would have been generally regarded 
as a manifestation of the evil one. 

[NTearly all great scientific discoveries have been made by men who 
dreamed and experimented^ rather than by those who were working solely 
for practical results^ but their practical application largely has been 
made by the latter class. Sir Humphrey Davy invented a safety lamp, 
but the lamp has to be carried by the man who works in the mine and 
who must be taught how to use it with safety. Safety helmets have been 
invented by men versed in scientific knowledge, but the helmets must 
be worn by the heroes who risk their lives for their fellowmen, and they 
must be trained in this use, for their own safety. The establishment 
of this relief station is a great humane work by men of science ; but the 
success will depend upon the men who are to be trained in it. Only by 
unreserved and ungrudging cooperation of the practical and the scientific 
can it be hoped to secure those results which we all desire and hope to see. 

■For the mine owners of Illinois, I welcome and accept the preferred 
assistance in the discharge of our duty to humanity, and dare to hope 
that it may mark the beginning and be one of the important elements 
of a new era in the conservation of human life and happiness in the coal 
mines of our great State. 

Mr. John H. Walker, Past President of the Ukited Mine Workers of 
America, in speaking before the sixth session on the general question of 
mine explosions and rescue stations expressed his gratification at the 
experimental work under Dr. Holmes at Pittsburg, and the establishment 
of a Eescue Station at the TJniversity of Illinois. Though Mr. Walker 
was unable to be present at the opening session, his response on behalf 
of the miners is included here. He said in part: 

The establishment of the experimental work of the IT. S. Geological 
Survey under Dr. Holmes at Pittsburg and the rescue work here pleases 
me greatly. No one realizes better than the miner the dangers of his 
calling. One of the most frequent causes of accidents has been the fact 
that the composition and characteristics of explosives used was uncertain 
or wholly unknown. The miner buys powder purporting to be made of 
certain ingredients and of a certain strength. Many times its composi- 
tion and characteristics are entirely different and accidents result. Our 
efforts up to the present time have enabled us to get the proper size of 
powder grain at least. Dr. Holmes' experiments at Pittsburg will give 
us definite knowledge about the explosives now in use. 

We are at present using too much powder per ton of coal mined and 
this causes an increase in the number of accidents. Coal should be 
mined more efficiently. That 50 per cent of the coal in the mines is 
utterly lost beyond recall, is a fact that should rest heavily on the con- 



MINUTES OF FUEL CONFERENCE. 301 

science of an}^ one who lias any regard for future generations. x\t present 
it is not a question of the future with miners and. operators ; it is merely 
a question of dollars and cents now, and matters are settled on no other 
basis. 

The Eescue Station here receives our hearty approval and support, for 
we welcome any step which leads to the prevention of accidents or relief 
of suffering. 

At the close of the responses, letters of regret on account of unavoid- 
able absence and of appreciation of the opportunities offered by the 
Eescue Station were read from T. L. Lewis, President of the United Mine 
Workers of America; William Green, President of the United Mine 
Workers of Ohio ; Walton Eutledge, of the Illinois Mine Inspection Ser- 
vice ; C. J. Xorwood, State Geologist and Mine Inspector of Kentucky; 
W. J. Siefert, general manager of the Southern Indiana Coal Company; 
W. W. Williams, State Mine Inspector of Illinois ; David Eoss, Secretary 
of the State Bureau of Labor Statistics, and A. C. Lane, State Geologist 
of Michigan. 

Dean Goss then explained briefly the objects of the Eescue Station and 
stated that its services would be rendered free of charge to miners and' 
coal operators of this and other States, in cooperation with the State 
Geological Survey and the College of Engineering of the University of 
Illinois. In concluding he introduced E. Y. Williams, Mining Engineer 
of the U. S. Geological Survey, in charge of the rescue station work, who 
outlined the work of the station more in detail and exhibited and 
explained the working of the Draeger oxygen helmet. The meeting then 
adjourned to the Eescue Station and witnessed a practical demonstration 
of the use of the helmet in rescue work. 

EVENING SESSION, MR. G. W. TRAER, PRESIDING. 

The meeting was called to order at 8 :00 o'clock. Mr. Traer intro- 
duced Dr. J. A. Holmes, Chief of the Technologic Branch, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, who spoke on The Efforts of the Government to Prevent 
Mine Explosions. Extracts from this address will be found on page 310. 

At the close of the formal address Dr. Holmes showed a few slides 
illustrative of the rescue station and general mining work. 

Mr. Traer then introduced E. W. Parker, Statistician of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, who gave interesting extracts from a paper given in 
full on page 313; on the Coal Fields of the United States. 

The last speaker of the evening was Mr. G. S. Eice, Mining Engineer, 
U. S. Geological Survey. His paper, entitled Work of Foreign Mining 
Explosion Stations, is presented on pages 317 to 326. The speaker 
showed various slides of the rescue stations situated in European 
countries which he and -Dr. Holmes had visited. The same line of work 
will be carried on at the Urbana Eescue Station, and at other stations 
established in this country. 

At the close of Mr. Eice's address the meeting adjourned for an infor- 
mal reception held in the offices of the M. E. Department. 



302 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Friday, March 12th. 

morning session, mr. richard newsam, presiding. 

The third meeting O'f the conference was called to order in the chem- 
istry building at 9 :30 a. m. by Dr. H. Foster Bain, Director of the State 
Geological Survey. Prof. W. S. Bayley/of the Geological Department 
at the University, was introduced to present an illustrated lecture on 
"The Origin of Coal.^^ 

Dr. Bayley discussed the evidence presented by our coals; their geo- 
graphic relations; composition, and fossil content. The plant remains 
especially indicate that the coal has been produced by bacterial decay 
and accompanying changes operating on buried forest beds. These lay 
in comparatively stagnant water at or near sea level. It is believed that 
certain coals, such as cannel, were formed by decay of simple one-celled 
plants of the Alga type ; while others were derived from tree-like plants. 
The progressive change by loss of volatile matter from wood to peat, and 
to lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal was described in detail. 

Dr. C. W. Balke was the next speaker to be introduced. The subject 
of his address was "The Chemistry of Explosives.^^ 

An explosive is a compound or mixture which is capable of rapid 
decomposition or combination attended by an evolution of a large quan- 
tity of gas in a more or less highly heated condition. After illustrating 
the nature of a compound and a mixture through the decomposition of 
mercuric oxide and the combination of sulphur and iron, Dr. Balke took 
up explosives in the order: gases, liquids, and solids. The explosion of 
gas mixtures was illustrated by the combination of hydrogen with 
oxygen, and the effect of the concentration of the oxygen on the violence 
of. the explosion was illustrated by the explosion of hydrogen with air 
and with pure oxygen. Nitro glycerin was mentioned as the only liquid 
explosive of commercial importance. Solid explosives are either com- 
pounds or mixtures, gun cotton being an example of the former, and 
gun poM^der of the latter. The action of gun powder was illustrated by 
exploding various mixtures containing potassium chlorate. The explo- 
sion is explained by the fact that the potassium chlorate easily furnishes 
a large quantity of oxygen for the combustion of the other components 
of the mixture. Nitrogen iodide was used to illustrate explosions due 
to decomposition in the case of solids. 

Following Dr. Balke's address. Dr. Bain introduced Mr. Richard 
Newsam, regular chairman of the third session of the conference. Mr. 
Newsam replied as follows: 

Gentlemen — I have enjoyed Dr. Balke's address on explosives because 
it is a subject in which all are interested. I am pleased to be present at 
this conference because its purpose and the interest of the miners and 
operators are both for human good. It is a special pleasure to see Dr. 
Holmes and to note the beginning of the cooperation between the Gov- 
ernment and the States. I am glad, too, that the Eescue Station in 
the middle west has been established at the University of Illinois and 
that the efforts of the faculty of the College of Engineering has been 
enlisted in its interest. It is well that we have with us Mr. Stoek of 
"Mines and Minerals," because of his work and travel over the whole 



MINUTES OF FUEL CONFEEENCE. 803 

world in behalf of the Scranton Correspondence School of Mines. Gen- 
eral cooperation of the public^ the technical press^ the scientists, the min- 
ers, the operators, the state and the government is necessary for success of 
this great mo'vement. All acting together shonld so shape legislation that 
the best results from this work may be obtained. AVhile much valnable 
information can be obtained in connection with mine explosives, their 
canses and prevention, from laboratory stndy and experiment, one must 
not forget that the laboratory and the mine are different and all the 
conditions prevailing in the latter cannot be reproduced in the former. 
I therefore most heartily approve of Dr. Holmes' intention to establish 
a small actual mine for experimental purposes where explosions can be 
studied first hand. It is desirable to extend the work of the Geological 
Survey in the mines and to begin at the face and strike at the real roots 
of the trouble, for I regret that more explosives per ton of coal are used 
in Illinois than elsewhere. Even under the better prevailing conditions 
in Illinois as to character of roof, amount of gases and the good ventila- 
tion, this practice shows its deplorable results in an increased number 
of fatalities in the mines. Increased use of explosives cannot be indulged' 
in without increase of explosions and accidents. I firmly believe there 
is b( nefit to be derived from the rescue movement and hope to live to 
see the practical results of the present meeting. 

Mr. N'ewsam then introduced Mr. James Taylor, State Mine Inspec- 
tor of Illinois, who spoke on "Explosions." This interesting paper 
appears on pages 327 to 330. 

The chairman next introduced Mr. James Epperson, Chief Mine 
Inspector of Indiana, whose remarks follow; 

In Indiana, coal mine explosions arise from three causes : First, 
Fire-Damp; second, Explosives; third. Lack of Discipline. The third 
cause, of course, is closely related to the first and second. Contributory 
causes are: The use of fuse in shot-firing; larafe drill holes; inflamma- 
ble tamping material; overcharged shots; and the firing of shots in too 
rapid succession. 

We are all familiar with instances in which some miners are indiffer- 
ent to the results of their actions, either to themselves or others. We 
have frequently seen disastrous results. On the other hand, the occa- 
sional mine in which laudable conditions prevail in handling explosives 
assures us that such conditions are nowhere beyond attainment. 

The laws governing the size of drill holes, the amount of powder per 
charge, the use of fuse, of proper material with which to tamp, and the 
proper regulation of the firing are not and can not be entirely effective. 
However, such laws accomplish some good and are in the right direction. 
Indiana is glad of its laws limiting the size of drill holes to 21/0 inches, 
and the maximum charge of powder to six pounds per hole, though even 
a smaller charge is desirable. Also, we have a law prohibiting the open- 
ing of powder cans with picks. 

Following Mr. Epperson, Mr. Joan Verner, State Mine Inspector of 
Iowa, Avas introduced, and contributed to the discussion of explosions. 
His paper is- found on pages 331 and 332. 

At the close of Mr. Verner's paper, the conference adjourned to take 
up further discussion of the subject at the next session. 



804 YEAK BOOK FOE 1908. [BULL. KO. 14 

AFTERNOON SESSION, PROF. L. P. BRBCKENRIDGEi, PRESIDING. 

On account of the lateness of the hour the morning session had 
adjoiirned without finishing the discussion of mine explosions. It was 
therefore decided to continue this discussion and delay the consideration 
of smoke prevention for a short time. 

Prof. Breckenridge introiluced Carl Scholz, of the Coal Valley Mining 
Company. 

Mr. Scho'lz — After all of the discussion that has gone before there 
does not seem to be much ammunition left for me. However, there are 
a few things which have occurred to me that I should like to say. 

Mr. T'aylor in his address this morning stated that there was practi- 
cally no spraying in the mines in this country today. I may say that 
the Coal Valley Mining Company is devoted to this practice and further 
that we are having no explosions or accidents. 

There are three things that cause explosions : gas and dust, or both, 
and careless use of explosives. There are a number of conditions that 
must be watched, and among the most im^Dortant is the humidity of the 
air. I know that spraying has prevented explosions in the Oklahoma 
mines, but what is good for Oklahoma may not be so good for Illinois. 
Moisture or sweat may not always prevent explosions, but it often does. 

With reference to the systems of ventilation I am very much in favor 
of the suction fans instead of the force fans. 

The manufacturers must supply a better and more uniform grade of 
powder, and in this connection more careful inspection must be insisted 
upon. 

It must be recognized by this time that the mine run basis of mining 
coal must be done away with. This means a conflict with the miners* 
organization, but it must come sooner or later. A great many disasters 
are brought about by the abuse of this system. 

Mr. Newsam — Force fans are better than exhaust fans because of the 
forced air currents. 

Mr. Parker — ^Has Mr. Taylor any data on the fatalities due to the 
different methods of shooting coal? 

Mr. Taylor — Coal reports give data on fatalities with different methods 
of shooting. Mines and Minerals, during the course of the year 190Q 
gave very complete data on this subject. 

Mr. Schoh — Did Mr. Verner take readings to determine the hygro- 
metric condition of the atmosphere or air currents in connection with 
the data which he reported this morning? 

Mr. Yerner — It was not considered of importance that these readings 
be taken, as the moisture determinations in my opinion are extraneous. 

Mr. Sioek — ^During the visit of Herr Meisner to this country in his 
numerous addresses he dwelt repeatedly upon the importance of sprink- 
ling and the care of explosives as tending toward the prevention of 
explosions and accidents. 

Mr. 8choh — It is my opinion that it is the alternate changes from wet 
to dry and vice versa that cause the damage to mine roofs. 



MINUTES OF FUEL CONFERENCE 305 

Mr. Bice — My observation in Germany in two mines that I was per- 
mitted to visit was' that there is a great deal of spraying being done. A 
standard temperature of 55° Fahrenheit is generally approved and this 
temperature has been adopted in our tests at Pittsburg as the standard 
mine temperature. We have made a great many careful experiments 
at Pittsburg bearing upon the importance of determining the hygro- 
metric condition of the air currents and many interesting results have 
been obtained. However^ we are not yet ready to say. that our opinions 
are conclusive or final. We use a Schutte & Koerting aspirator for con- 
trolling our air supply. Experiments have been made in our test plant 
with and without coal dust and with varying degrees of moisture. It is 
determined beyond a doubt that the presence of moisture depresses the 
flame and the intensity of the explosion. With twenty pounds of dust 
distributed along the passageway we have noted a flame of from 40 to 60 
feet in length following the explosion. There is a great deal of good 
to be gained from the careful study of the moisture conditions of the 
air currents. The effect of the moisture is clear in that the explosion 
must give up its heat to evaporate the moisture in the air. 

Mr. New'sam — I am opposed to sprinkling a shale roof. It is impos- 
sible to maintain a constant condition of humidity. 

Prof. Breckenridge — I shall ask the audience to support me in pass- 
ing to the next section of our afternoon's program. 

Mr. Traer opposed this move on the ground that there was great good 
to be gained from the discussion and that the subject should not be left 
half done. "Better do one thing well than two unsatisfactorily.^' 

After some little discussion it was agreed by the vote of those present 
to pass to the next subject. 

Smo'ke Suppression. 

After remarks bearing upon the work of the Universit}^ Experiment 
Station tests Prof. Breckenridge introduced Dr. W. A. Evans, commis- 
sioner of health of Chicago, who presented a very interesting paper on 
the subject from the physicians' point of view. The address is printed 
on pages 333 to 337. 

At the close of Commissioner Evans' paper, Mr. Paul J. Bird, Chief 
Smoke Inspector of Chicago, gave a brief address, bearing upon the situa- 
tion in the city of Chicago. He said, "in part: "I should like to make 
a plea on behalf of the small steam plant. It is here that we must look 
for trouble in the matter of smoke suppression. There is no great 
trouble in the large plant, as means of solving the problem is at hand in 
most cases. 

Illinois is a great industrial State. In 1907 the value of her manu- 
factured product was 1,600 million dollars, more than three times the 
value of the agricultural products. Most of this great amount of manu- 
factured product is made in factories and shops operated from a small 
steam, plant of about 100 horsepower. Eighty-five per cent of the power 
installed in the city of Chicago where 900 of the 1,600 million dollars 
worth of products is manufactured is in small plants, of less than 200 
boiler horse-power capacity. 
-20 G 



306 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

In the small jjlants the problem of proper setting of boilers cannot 
be expected to receive the same consideration as in a large plant. The 
boilers are set just the same in Chicago for bnrning soft coal as in the 
east where hard coal is burned almost exclnsively. 

We are very glad to report that great strides have been made in Chi- 
cago, and for this we are indebted to Dr. Evans and a few others who 
have been onr loyal supporter s.'^ 

Prof. Breckenridge — The University stands ready and anxious to help 
in this work but we are handicapped by a lack of money. The manu- 
facturing interests and the miners must help to impress the great import- 
ance of the subject upon the minds of the people. 

I now have the pleasure of presenting Mr. Bement., who knows a. lot 
more about this subject than most of us. Mr. Bement^s remarks are 
printed on page 338. 

On account of the nearness to the time when many of the delegates 
found it necessary to leave, Mr. Traer begged permission to submit this 
resolution for the consideration of the meeting : 

Resolved, that it is the sense of this conference that another and similar 
conference be held, and that to that end the Illinois Coal Operators Associa- 
tion and the United Mine Workers of Illinois and the Illinois State Mine In- 
spectors be requested to each appoint one representative to act on a com- 
mittee with a representative of the University and with Inspector Epperson 
of Indiana and Inspector Verner of Iowa, which committee shall arrange the 
time and place of the next conference. 

The resolution carried. 

Prof. Breckenridge presented Mr. E. H. Ivuss, the Assistant Smoke 
Inspector of Chicago, who presented his paper on measures and methods 
for the suppression of smoke. He said, in part : 

^^The city of Chicago will never drive out Illinois coals from its limits 
by its smoke ordinances. On the other hand it will improve the market 
by making screenings and washing necessary for its use in Chicago 
power plants. The progress that has already been made in the efforts 
at smoke prevention has resulted in much greater care being exercised 
in the installation of new plants. The agitation has resulted in the dis- 
appearance of many fakes who hitherto frequented the market of power 
plant appliances. Economy in plant operation has been brought about 
by the scientific treatment of boiler room problems; cheaper coals have 
become of very general use. The problem has become so important that 
the field had attracted men of great engineering skill, and, as has been 
said before, there has been a remarkable development along the line of 
power plant accessories.^^ 

After these remarks the meeting adjourned. 

EVENING SESSION, PROFESSOR S. IV. PARR, PRESIDING. 

Professor Parr introduced the first speaker of the evening, Mr. H. H. 
Stock, Editor ot Mines and Minerals, whose subject was "First Aid Work 
in the Anthracite Mines." This interesting address was accompanied by 
many excellent lantern slides, and unfortunately cannot be creditably 
printed without illustrations. 



MINUTES OF FUEL CONFERENCE. 807 

At the conclusion of Mr. Stoek's address tlie chairman introduced 
W. F. M. Goss^ Dean of tlie College of Engineering, whose address on 
the '^College of Engineering and the Mining Interests of the State of 
Illinois'^ is given on page 340. 

At the close of Dean Goss' address. Professor Parr announced that 
as the time was growing late and as there were a number of speakers yet 
to be heard he would be glad if each speaker would confine himself as 
closely as consistent to the time limits of five minutes. In compliance 
with this request Mr. L. P. Breckenridge, Director of the Engineering 
Experiment Station, outlined very briefly the salient points of his ad- 
dress "The Work of the University of Illinois Engineering Experiment 
Station/^ stating in conclusion that he would submit to the secretary 
of the meeting a copy of his paper. The paper follows on page 342. 

Mr. A. Bement, Consulting Engineer of Chicago, was introduced and 
spoke on "Smoke Suppression," as printed on page 338. 

Mr. D. T. Randall, Engineer, Technologic Branch of the U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey presented a. useful paper on "Coals for Boiler Plants." It 
is printed on page 351. 

Mr. R. H. Kuss, Smoke Inspector of Chicago, the next speaker intro- 
duced gave a very interesting talk the gist of which was concerned with 
the fact that if the consumers of coal would give more thought to coal 
as a means of generating steam it would afford a place for a larger per 
cent of saving than in any other field of activity. He was sure that 
many- even large consumers of coal, thought nothing of its importance; 
their whole attention being given to the output of the plant, be it shoes 
or dry goods or laundry. Such manufacturers were careful and eager 
to effect economy wherever possible except in their manner of burning 
coal, where leaks in cost, like T'ennyson^s brook, ran on forever. In 
(short, he said the consumers, both large and small, should think of 
burning as a means of producing steam and not as a means of producing 
boots and shoes. 

In the absence of two of the speakers of the evening Dr. Holmes re- 
quested permission to add a few words in connection with the rescue 
work as it would be necessary for him to leave the city immediately after 
the close of the session and that he would not be able to attend the sixth 
and final session. Dr. Holmes remarks are printed on page 359. 

Following Mr. Holmes, Mr. E. H. Taylor of Chicago gave a short talk 
on the econmic burning of fuel in small plants. It is printed on page 
361. 

Mr. Carl Scholz addressing the chairman said that the suggestion of 
Mr. Holmes in regard to the establishment of a Department of Mines in 
the University of Illinois seemed to be good and in accordance with it 
he wished to place the following motion : The Fuel Conference now in 
session at the University of Illinois realizes the necessity of the estab- 
lishment of a mining department in connection with the University and 
it is hereby resolved that a committee of nine be appointed to call upon 
the Legislature now in session to urge the prompt establishment of this 
department and the provision of the necessary funds for its operation. 



308 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. NO. 1^ 

That the nine committeemen be composed of three coal operators repre- 
senting the Illinois Coal Operators' Association, three miners to repre- 
sent the United Mine Workers' ot America and three mine inspectors 
of Illinois. 

Mr. Scholz's motion was seconded by Mr. Gordon Buchanan and the 
motion was nnanimously adopted. Dr. Holmes moved that the selection 
of the committee called for by the previous motion be left to maker and 
seconder of the resolution. This motion was also seconded and nnani- 
monsly carried. 

Mr. A. Bement of Chicago moved to amend the original motion as 
follows: That the committee be composed of twelve members including 
the members above and three mannfactnrers to represent the Illinois 
Mannfactnrers' Association. This m.otion was also seconded and car- 
ried. 

The meeting concluded by a short address by Mr. J. M. Snodgrass on, 
"House Heating Furnaces.'' Mr. Snodgrass said briefl}^ that the idea 
proposed by Mr. Taylor was the idea • that gave the basis for his 
paper and the work that he and his assistants were doing in the Engin- 
eering Experiment Station. An outline of the paper follows on page 362. 

SATURDAY, MARCH 13, MORNIIsTG SESSIOI^^ DR. U. S. GRANT, PRESIDING. 

The sixth and last session of the Conference was called to order at 
9 :30. The Chairman introduced Dr. George Otis Smith, Director of the 
U. S. Geological Survey, who spoke on the U. S. Geological Survey, 
and the Fuel Eesources of the Country. The paper will be found on 
pages 365 to 369. 

The second speaker was Dr. H. Foster Bain who spoke on the State 
Geological Survey and the Fuel Interests of the State. Dr. Bain's ad- 
dress is printed on pages 370 to 372. 

The last address of the Conference was presented by Dr. N. W. Lord, 
Director of the School of Mines, Ohio State University. Dr. Lord spoke- 
on Coal Analysis. His able presentation of the subject is printed on 
pages 373 to 379. 

At the close of Dr. Lord's address, Professor Parr made the following 
remarks : 

I have sat too long at the feet of Professor Lord as an authority in 
matters pertaining to coal analysis to presume to criticize the paper. 
Indeed, the various points have been covered in such an excellent manner 
that I trust the address will be made available for reference by publica- 
tion. 

I wish to call attention to one point which the author has referred to 
but briefly, and it seems to me too modestly. This point, I think, should 
receive somewhat more extended remark ; and that is, the matter of the 
constant character of the actual coal substance. It should be noted in 
this connection that the first reference to this fact was made by Professor 
Lord and Mr. Haas as a result of work done by them in 1897, and pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the American Institute of Mining En- 
gineers for 1R08. From the data as obtained by them up to that time 



MINUTES OF FUEL CONFERENCE. 809 

they seemed to be warranted in formulating tlie statement tliat for a 
^iven mine or a given locality tlie fuel value for the actual coal substance 
was a constant. This is a matter which is coming to have more and 
more significance as the matter -of coal specifications and the scientific 
study of coal problems proceeds. 

It may be worth mentioning in this connection that this conference is 
somewhat unique in that Ave have present practically all the investigators 
upon this special topic of the properties and heat values of the actual 
or pure coal substance. I may call attention to the fact that Professor 
Noyes^ Director of this Laboratory^ carried on investigations contemp- 
oraneously w^ith that of Lord and Haas and arrived at substantially the 
same conclusions. The results of his work were published a few months 
later than those of Lord and Haas. The facts thus brought out re- 
ceived but little attention^ and practically lay dormant until taken up 
by Mr. Bement^ who is also present, and it is largely due to his insistence 
as to the value of this fact that the matter has received more practical 
consideration in recent years. It should also be said that Mr. E. H. 
Taylor of the Fuel Engineering Company of Chicago has worked along 
this same line from the coal inspection standpoint, and has added to its 
value by the data which he has assembled as well as verified in the daily 
routine of coal inspection. In our own investigations in this laboratory, 
we have also been working along the same line, and the results which 
we have obtained will shortly appear as a bulletin of the Engineering 
-Experiment Station under the title of "Unit Coal and the Composition 
of Coal Ash.^^ One more feature concerning the men assembled should 
not pass without mention, and that is the fact that a very large contribu- 
tion to the data and conclusions brought to crystallization is due to the 
high grade of work of Mr. Summermeir of Professor Lord^s Laborator)^, 
and Mr. W. P. Wheeler in my own laboratory, who are both also present 
in this conference. I think these facts are worth mentioning, not only as a 
unique feature of this meeting, but as an historical element in the de- 
velopment of this point which I believe we only partially appreciate at 
the present time. 



310 YEAR BOOK .FOR 1908. [BULL. NO. 14 



ADDRESSES BEFORE THE CONFERENCE. 

Mining Explosions — What the Government is Doing to Prevent 

Them. 

(By Dr. Joseph A. Holmes, Chief of the Technologic Branch, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C.) 



G-ENTLEMEN^ — "The statement made this afternoon that cooperation 
is the only means of accomplishing resnlts shonld be emphasized. By 
cooperation is meant not only that between individuals and corpora- 
tions but that between governments and different branches and depart- 
ments of the same government. In the past, governments were chiefly 
interested in the narrow interpretation of their duties laid down for 
them briefly in the statement that they were to protect the life and 
happiness of their sabjects. Only within recent years have they consid- 
ered it a part of their duty to protect the lives of miners against ac- 
cident. Carrying out the idea of the broader function of the government 
different bureaus have been established and the work subdivided among 
different departments. Among these the comparatively new department 
of agriculture has set a pace beyond the capacity of the other depart- 
ments to follow. It carries at the present time an appropriation of thir- 
teen millions of dollars and has 48 experiment stations located in as 
many different states. 

Fifty years ago the U. S. Geological Survey started the work which 
bears directly upon the mining interests, but only recently, that is within 
the last year, has it taken up the line of work bearing on the protection 
of miners^ lives. The great conservation movement of President Eoose- 
velt^s administration includes not only the conservation of resources and 
property but life as well. When we consider that 75,000 persons were 
killed by accident last year the necessity of safeguarding human life in 
the rush and turmoil of the present day is apparent. 

The states and the federal government must cooperate here. The 
federal government is now gathering and disseminating information on 
important subjects and this work should be done by the federal govern- 
ment because the burden of the work which benefits all of the states 
should not be borne by any single state. Furthermore, if the work should 
be undertaken by individual states there would necessarily be much 
duplication of equipment and of effort, and, consequently increased ex- 
pense. There should also be cooperation with other countries to avoid 
international duplication of effort. There is no possible ground for 
conflict between the federal government and the individual interests of 



HOLMES.] MINE EXPLOSIONS. 311 

the states. The government collects and disseminates information. The 
apjolication of this information by intelligent inspection and supervision 
lies wholly within the province of the states. 

At present the Technologic branch of the U'. S. Geological Survey is 
engaged in collecting statistics in regard to mine explosions. In the 
early days few men were killed in mine explosions as comparatively few 
men were employed in that line of work. At the present time more 
men are employed, greater speed in mining is demanded, dnst, gas and 
other causes contributing to explosions have increased, and consequently 
the number of deaths due to mine explosions have increased greatly. 
Preventive measures have been in general of a twofold character; first, 
a careful inspection of mines; second, a study of the causes of mine ex- 
plosions. Past experience has shown that investigation of causes has 
reduced disaster more than stringent legislation in regard to mine oper- 
ation. In this country on account of the growth of the coal industry and 
the increase in number of men employed the death rate has steadily 
increased. 

Some idea of the rapid growth of the mining industry may be gleaned 
from the fact that the output of the mines from 1895 to 1905 was prac- 
tically equal to the output from 1815 to 1895. It is a fact that the out- 
put of any decade has been approximately equal to the output from 
1815 to the beginning of that period. Owing to this exceedingly rapid 
growth the mining industry is not at present an organized industry. 
Coal operators have been too^ busy for organization. 

The demand for fuel has been so insistent that only the coal which 
could be mined easily could be mined at all. Sufficient labor has been 
difficult to obtain and foreign labor has been largely used. As other 
countries were employing their own skilled labor only the untrained 
and unskilled men were left for the mines of the United States, Many 
can speak no English and it is difficult to convey any information to 
them. This unskilled labor together with the increased speed of trans- 
portation and increased use of explosives makes the death rate in the 
United States 2% times that in European countries. In European 
countries too, the price of coal f. o. b. cars at mine is $1.75 to $2.00 per 
ton. In America it is much lower. Consumers must pay more for their 
fuel in the future and learn to use it more carefully and effectively. 

In the matter of explosives the government has at the present time, 
no effective supervision of their manufacture and use. 'No tests have 
been made as to their effect on the gases in the mine. However, at the 
present time stations are being established, the principal one of which is 
located at Pittsburgh. The following lines of work are being taken up 
there : 

1. A test of all explosives at present on the market; the results of 
which are^to be published later on. (In this Avork the Federal govern- 
ment does not attempt to say that a certain explosive shall or shall not 
be used, but merely to give the information obtained from the tests). 

2. A study of the gases present in mines as to their source and lia- 
bility to ignition and explosion. 

3. An examination of dusts to determine their relative infiammabilitv. 



312 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

4. A study of various types of safety lamps. 

5. The extent to which electricity may be safely used and the con- 
ditions under which a spark will ignite dust and thus cause an explosion. 

6. A study and test of various types of rescue apparatus. 

Field work is being done in the examination of localities where ex- 
plosions have occurred with a view to determining the cause of the ex- 
plosions. As actual mining conditions cannot always be duplicated in 
the laboratory, experiment stations will be established in different mines. 
A small mine will also be devoted exclusively to experimental work. 
Small educational leaflets will be issued from time to time which will 
be especially useful for local inspectors and fire bosses who come to take 
tne training work at the rescue stations. 

In conclusion is should be remembered that the success of all this 
work depends upon the active cooperation of the investigators, operators 
and miners, and on a sympathetic public sentiment in the creation of 
which the State institutions like the University of Illinois can be of the 
greatest assistance." 



COAL FIELDS OF THE UNITED STATES. 813 



Coal Fields of the United States. 

(By Mr. E. W. Parker, Statistician, U. S. Geological SurveJ^) 



INTRODUCTION. 

According to the estimates prepared hj the U. S. Geological Survey, 
the area underlain by workable coal beds in the United States is 496,776 
square miles. Of this total area, 480 square miles contain the entire 
anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania. The bituminous coal fields are 
estimated to be contained in an area of 250,051 square miles. The grade 
of coal between bituminous and lignite, and which is designated by the 
Geological Survey as "sub-bituminous,^^ is estimated to be contained 
within areas aggregating 97,636 square miles, while the areas containing 
lignite aggregate 148,609 square miles. 

During the last few years the Survey geologists have worked in all of 
these coal areas and have also been making careful estimates as to the 
quantity of coal contained in the beds when mining first began. In 
making these estimates care has been taken to ascertain how much of 
the supply is easily available and how much is either not available under 
present mining and market conditions, or is available with extreme diffi- 
culty. According to these estimates the quantity of coal contained within 
the known area of the United States when mining first began was 
3,083,243,000,000 tons. Of this quantity a little less than two-thirds, 
or 1,930,018,000,000 tons, is considered as coal that is easily access- 
ible or minable under present conditions, while slightly more than one- 
third, or 1,153,225,000,000 tons, is considered as non-minable under 
present conditions or accessible with extreme difficulty. It should be 
remembered, however, that the quantity of coal given above as easily 
accessible includes the lignites and "sub-bituminous" coals of the western 
states, of which approximately 530 billion tons, while easily accessible, 
cannot be considered available under present conditions, or those which 
may be anticipated in the near future. This would reduce the original 
supply of easily accessible and available coal to approximatelv 1,400,- 
000,000,000 tons. 

The first mining of coal in a commercial way in the United States 
was in what is known as the Richmond Basin, a small area in the eastern 
part of Virginia. Small quantities of coal had been mined here in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century and it was also in the latter part 
of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries that 
efforts were being made to introduce anthracite coal for fuel purposes. 
The first actual records of the production of A^irgmia coal were in 1822, 



314 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. NO. 1* 

in which it was reported that 54^000 tons were mined. In 1820 (two 
years before) 365 long tons of anthracite coal, or one ton for each day 
of the year, had been shipped to distant markets. From these small 
beginnings of less than a century ago the prodnction of coal has increased 
nntil in 1907 the total ontput of anthracite and bitnminons coal approxi- 
mated half a billion tons. In 1837 the total production of the United 
States reached, for the first time, a total exceeding one million tons, the 
ontpnt being reported from f onr states only : Pennsylvania, Virginia, 
Kentucky and Illinois, although Maryland also was producing a small 
quantity of co-al at that time. In 1840 the production amounted to a 
little over two million tons, the output being reported from thirteen 
states. Ten years later, in 1850, the production amounted to seven mil- 
lion tons; in 1860 it wa,s over fourteen million tons; in 1870 over thirty- 
three million tons; in 1880 over seventy million tons; in 1890 it was 
160 million tons; in 1900 it was nearly 270 million tons, and in 1907 
it was 480 million tons. The aggregate production to the close of 1907 
has amounted to 6,865,097,567 short tons. 

Up to the close of 1845 the total production of coal in the United 
States was 27,700,000 short tons, and since that time the drain on the 
supply has practically doubled with each decade. The total production 
to 1845 and decennially since that time has been as follows : 





Short Tons. 


Up to 1845 .... 


27,677,214 

83,417,827 

173,795,014 

419,425,104 

847,760,319 

1,586,098,641 

2,832,402,746 

894,520,702 


1846 1855 


1856 1865 - - 


1866 1875 


1876 1885 ... . ... 


1886 1895 - .... 


1896 1905 - - - 


1906-1907 






Total 


6,865,097,567 







It is estimated that for every ton of coal mined and sold, half a ton 
is lost or wasted, so that the total production of 6,865,097,567 short tons 
to the close of 1907 represents an exhaustion of 10,200,000,000 tons, or 
0.3 per cent of the total original supply, or 0.7 per cent of the coal 
which is easily accessible and available under the present conditions. 
The total supplv of easily accessible and now available coal left in the 
ground at the close of 1907 was 1,389,800,000,000 short tons. 

Accompanying this statement two charts are presented, one showing 
the production of coal annually from 1846 to 1907, the other illustrating 
the average annual production by progressive ten-year periods for the 
same length of time, the latter chart havinof been prepared in order to 
eliminate minor variations due to abnormal conditions. The average 
annual increase in coal production figured from the average of progress- 



PARKER.] COAL FIELDS OF THE UNITED STATES. 815 

ive decades shown on the second diagram is 7.36 per cent, and for the 
last five progressive decades— 1894— 1903 to 1898— 1907— the rate of 
increase has been above that average. 

DUEATIOX OF SUPPLY. 

The total reserve of easily accessible and now available coal is esti- 
mated at 1^63 billion tons. The assumption that a constant output 
has been reached would be utterly unwarranted. On the other hand, the 
adoption of the flat rate of annual increase of 7.36 per cent would involve 
the improbable assumption that the marvellous record of the past and 
present will be maintained in the future, and the production would con- 
tinue to approximately double every decade. Using the waste alloAvanco, 
on the basis of this constant rate of increase in production, the 1.463 
billion tons available at the close of 1907 would be exhausted in 107 
years, or by 3015 A. D. Against the use of the fiat rate of increase it 
may w^ell be contended that just as the rate of increase in population 
tends to diminish, so this rapid increase in per capita consumption of 
coal cannot persist and a constant annual production will be reached. 
However, the figures set fifty years ago by statisticians for the probable 
constant annual production of coal in England have already been 
exceeded by over 160 per cent. 

Inasmuch as Ajmerica leads the world not only in present production 
of coal but also apparently possesses the greatest reserve and certainly ^'s 
mining coal at much lower cost than any other country, the obvious tend- 
ency will be for European countries to look more and more to the United 
States for their coal supply. Therefore, while our present coal produc- 
tion and consumption are practically equivalent, the export of coal, 
unless prohibited by federal legislation, must eventually become a factor 
and increase the coal production in the United States beyond the 
demands of home consumption. On the other hand, powerful influences 
will come to bear upon coal production, which favor lengthening the life 
of the supply. Thus it is to be hoped that with more improved methods 
in the utilization of coal the increased efficiency per unit may act as a 
factor in reducing coal consumption, and improved mining methods 
should likewise decrease the waste percentage. The increased utilization 
of water-power should also tend to decrease coal consumption. Again, 
as soon as the end appears in sight prices will rise and production 
diminish, and that progressively. This interference wdth the law of 
decreasing increase produced by growing scarcity will, of course, prolong 
the life of our aoal reserves, but at the same time will greatly hamper 
our industries dependent on this fuel. 

With so many indeterminate factors whose importance is realized but 
cannot be measured, prophecy must possess a questionable value. 

WASTE IN COAL MINING. 

The principal loss or waste attending coal-mining operations is that 
represented by the quantity of coal necessarily left in the ground as 
pillars to support the roof. In some cases it is also necessary to leave a 
foot or more of coal as a part of the roof, because of the unstable char- 



316 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

acter of the material overlying the coal, which itself does not make a 
good roof. It has also been frequently the case that^ where portions of 
the coal bed have been of inferior quality, only the high-grade coal has 
been mined and the poorer material left. The coal left as pillars, or as 
portions of the roof, may be considered a necessary loss, but that which 
is left because of its inferior quality cannot be considered unavoidable 
waste |in any sense, and is frequently of hio^her grade than coals mined 
and used in other portions of the country. 

Enormous quantities of coal have been lost beyond recovery from the 
mining , of beds lying below, the caving of which, u-non the withdrawal 
of the pillars, has so broken up the overlying strata as to render it impos- 
sible to recover the coals contained therein. This has been particularly 
the case in some of the coal beds of the western part of Pennsylvania, 
but much improvement has been observed in this regard within later 
years. N'otwithstanding the improvement in this respect it is probable 
that a large amount of coal will be wasted in the western states, where 
a great number of co-al beds are closely associated, and also where the 
intercalated strata are weak, forming poor roofs to the coal mines. 

There are no exact figures as to the actual loss or waste sustained 
through coal left in the mines in conducting the mining operations, but 
it has been estimated that it amounts to 50 per cent of the quantity pro- 
duced and marketed. In some cases, through careful mining and where 
the conditions are ideal for working, practically all of the contents of 
the coal beds are recovered. In other cases, particularly when the beds 
are of enormous thickness, the recovery has not exceeded 30 per cent 
of the contents. During the earlier days of mining in the anthracite 
regions of Pennsylvania it was estimated that only 40 per cent of the 
coal was marketed. This was partly due to uneconomical methods of 
mining, and partly to the large amount of coal for which there was at 
that time no market and which was piled on the ground in unsightly 
mountains. At the time of the Anthracite Coal Waste Commission, 
which made its report in 1893, 40 per cent was still considered a maxi- 
mum recovery. So far as underground workings are concerned, there 
has been no revolution in the methods employed since that time, but 
there has been a considerable improvement in the application of those 
methods, which has resulted in the recovery at the present time of a 
materially larger proportion of the coal in the ground than was the rule 
at that date. The earlier methods of mining consisted in leaving com- 
paratively narrow pillars and in. the mining of large rooms, the result 
being that the pillars were not strong enough to stand the pressure and 
they were crushed beyond recovery. It is now customary to use larger 
pillars between the rooms, which makes it possible to better control the 
roof during "robbing^^ operations and to eventually recover a larger 
proportion of the contents of the bed. 



RICE] FOREIGN MINING EXPLOSION STATIONS. 317 



The Work of the Foreign Mining Explosion Stations. 

(By G. S. Rice, Mming Engineer, U. S. Geological Survey.) 



The founding of the various mine explosion stations abroad did not 
come about until the general recognition of the important part that coal 
dust pla}^ed in the great mine disasters. The study of safety lamps and 
the experiments conducted therewith in an atmosphere of fire-damp, 
has been carried on in various countries since the time of Sir Humphrey 
Davy, but these experiments and studies did not require large stations; 
they could be conducted in laboratories. When it began to be recog- 
nized that coal dust either accompanied by fire-damp or possibly alone 
would ignite from the flame of black powder and other long flame explo- 
siveS; it became apparent that if explosives played so important a part 
in the initiation of great mine disasters, it would be necessary to conduct 
experiments with a view to finding out which of them would ignite coal 
dust and fire-damp. 

In 1880 experiments on a miniature scale were conducted by the Ches- 
terfield and Derbyshire Institute of Engineers. Their experimental 
gallery was 82 feet long but only 18 inches deep and 16 inches wide. 
This gallery was to determine, if possible, the explosibility of coal dust. 
A pair of horse pistols of %-inch bore were used to represent the flame 
from a blown-out shot. Out of 134 individual experiments, in which the 
coal dust alone was tested, ignition was obtained in thirty-six of them. 
In forty-six experiments with dust and gas, ignition was obtained in 
twenty-one cases. It was reported that ^^in no instance — ^even where 6 
per cent of gas was present — anything that could be termed an explo- 
sion was obtained ; the only result was ignition without violence." 

It is evident that the area of this gallery was too small in comparison 
with the surface exposed to obtain the concentration of heat necessary 
to sustain a rapid ignition. The terms ignition and explosion, in refer- 
ring to explosive materials, are those of relative speed. As ordinarily 
interpreted, an explosion is extremely rapid com-bustion which may or 
may not be a "detonation," the latter indicating an almost simultaneous 
disruption throuohout the mass of the explosive. "Ignition of coal dust" 
means the start of a combustion which may attain to extreme speed; if 
the speed is very great it becomes an explosion, and some English authori- 
ties claim that a stage of detonation may be reached. 

In June, 1876, Mr. H. Hall, Inspector of Mines for the West Lanca- 
shire District, England, described, in a paper read before the North of 
England Institute of Mining Engineers, experiments made bv Mr. 
Clark and himself at St. Helens in an adit 45 vards long, and which 



318 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

entered the outcrop of a coal seam. Mr. Hali stated that ^'the flame 
travelled the whole length of the adit, and the blast was fierce and would 
certainly prove fatal to any one struck by its course." 

As a result of the great explosion at the Seaham Colliery, Seahani, 
September 8, 1880, at the request of the holme secretary, Sir Frederick 
Abel experimented with dust from this colliery. These experiments 
were made by Garswood Hall Colliery near Wigan. The x\ccident and 
Mines Commission, as the result of this experimenting, states "the pro- 
portion of fire-damp required in a mine to bring dust readily into opera- 
tion as an explosive material when thickly suspended in the air, borders 
upon and is even sometimes below the smallest amount which can be 
detected in the atmosphere of a mine by the most practiced observer by 
the use of a Davy lamp,'^ and, further, that "such dust particles need 
not be inflammable or combustible to produce the result named." In 
the course of the foregoing tests, a special series of experiments were 
made to ascertain the distances that, in the absence of dust, flame is pro- 
jected from a blown-out shot. It was found that the flame when using 
one and one-half pounds of gunpowder, only occasionally reached a dis- 
tance of twenty feet, and "even in a narrow gallery would not attain 
thirty-five feet." 

In the opinion of the commission, these experiments afforded proof 
that in galleries approximating the size of the experimental gallery, coal 
dust in fairly dry condition will feed the flame projected by a blown-out 
shot. 

From July to December, 1884, a series of experiments were conducted 
by the Prussian Fire Damp Commission at Saarbriicken. The experi- 
mental gallery was built on the surface. It was 167 feet long, elliptical 
in shape and had a sectional area of 17% square feet. A side gallery, 
33 1/2 feet in length was afterwards added. A general conclusion drawn 
from these experiments was, that coal dust causes considerable elongation 
of the flame of a blown-out shot, whether there is a small amount of 
fire damp present or not. Their other conclusion was one that is now 
recognized to be wrong; namely, "in the complete absence of fire damp, 
the elongation or propogation of. the flame is generally of limited extent, 
however far the deposits of dust may extend in the mine-ways." They 
modified this, however, by stating that "there are certain descriptions of 
dust which will carry the flame to distances extending beyond the con- 
fines of the dust deposits." 

In 1890, Mr. Harry Hall made further experiments in a dis-used 
mine shaft near Ormskirk. This shaft was 50 yards deep and 7 feet 
in diameter. A cannon 21/2 feet long with a bore of 2 inches was placed 
in the bottom of the shaft pointing directly upwards. The air in the 
shaft was then saturated with fine coaldust thrown down from the top, 
and the cannon fired by electricity when the dust was in suspension in 
the shaft. Six tests were made and in four of them, explosions were 
more or less violent, accompanied in three cases by a rush of flame in 
the air, was the result. It was especially noted that the dust which failed 
to ignite in one of the experiments, exploded with considerable violence 
when the cannon was fired two hours afterwards, no fresh dust having 
been added in the meantime. 



RICE] FOREIGN MINING EXPLOSION STATIONS. 319 

'A second series of experiments were made on June 26tli at the Sontli- 
port Pit, Haydock. llie deptli of this shaft was 130 yards and the 
diameter 18 feet. The sides were very wet and the lower part full of 
water. Vapor ascending from the shaft could be observed. Naturally 
under these conditions, no ignition of coal dust was obtained in the six 
attemjats.. A third series of experiments were tried on July 30th and 
October 17th and 20th, 1890, at the Big Lady Pit. This shaft was 310 
yards deep and 8 feet in diameter. There were 18 experiments in all, 
using coal dust from different mines. In 10 cases, there was ignition of 
dust. In all the foregoing, experiments, black powder was used. 

In Austria, from 1885 to 1890, a "Commission on Explosions" made a 
series of tests. In all, 353 experiments were made with 345 kinds of 
coal dust, generally without a mixture of fire damp. These experiments 
were conducted in a chamber, the explosive being a cartridge of 100 
grammes of dynamite lying loose. It was found that nearly all kinds 
of coal dust were ignited by the explosion of dynamite; further, that a 
small mixture of fire-damp notably increased the danger and sensitive- 
ness of the coal dust. The fineness of the dust as well as dryness greatly 
increased its sensitiveness and danger. 

In England in 1892-1893, Mr. Henry Hall, at the instance of the 
Home Department, conducted further experiments with coal dust in 
a mine shaft at the White Moss Colliery, Skelsmersdale. The shaft was 
50 yards deep and 7 feet in diameter. The charge was ll^ pounds of or- 
dinary blasting gunpowder, tamped lightly with coal dust, the tamping 
occupied a space of 12 inches. Samples of dust from 45 different col- 
lieries were tested. Practically all of them showed ignition, often ae- 
companied by violence. 

This closes the period of somewhat primitive experimenting in con- 
nection with the use of mine explosives. The experiments at least es- 
tablished that most explosives used at that time were elements of great 
danger in a gassy or dusty mine, from the possibility of initiating a. 
great disaster. In the light obtained by our recent investigations, fully 
three-fourths of the great mine disasters of the past and even the present 
day have been initiated by explosives. 

This preliminary work led later to the establishment of the foreign 
government stations and the private experimental stations maintained 
by manufacturers of explosives. 

In 1896, the English Parliament passed an Act which gave power to 
the Secretary of State to prohibit the use of dangerous explosives. In 
consequence of this, a testing station with necessary apparatus was 
erected at Woolrich. Quoting the words of Captain J. H. Thomson, 
Chief Inspector of Explosives, "Obviously it would be impossible in any 
test to imitate the conditions of use of an explosive in a mine; and it 
was considered of greater importance that the method of testing should 
be as nniform as possible, rather than an impracticable attempt should 
be made to approach actual working conditions. It was decided there- 
fore that a mixture of coal-gas and air should be used rather than a pit- 
gas mixture which would be not only difficult to obtain, but would also 
certainly vary considerably in quality. Also a coal gas mixture is some- 



320 YEAE BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

what more easily ignited than one of "pit-gas and air.'' They consid- 
ered testing with coal-dust bnt at that time^ it was thought that nniform 
results could not be attained^ but the controlling reason appears to have 
been that the gas was more easily obtained and more certainly ignitable. 

"It was therefore decided that the test should consist simply of firing 
a, given number of shots with an explosive into a highly inflammable 
mixture of coal-gas and air, the charges being arranged so as to be of 
standard strength, and being stemmed with a uniform quantity of dry 
clay. If the gas is once ignited during the test, the explosive is rejected/' 

The plant erected in 1896 has been in continuous use until the present. 
A large number of explosives have been tested and a considerable number 
of explosives have passed the test, forming what is termed a list of per- 
mitted explosives. The main feature of the Woolwich plant is the ga& 
gallery. This is a large tube 2% feet in diameter and 28 -feet long, con- 
structed of boiler plate. It is placed horizontally and rests on piers. It 
is fitted with seven safety valves along the top to relieve the strain 
when the gas explodes. These also' serve for observation of the. flame 
if any issues, although the observation is supplemented by a tuft of 
guncotten yarn placed so that an explosion of gas would ignite it. The 
gallery is fitted at the outer end with an arrangement for holding in 
]3lace a diaphragm of paper to confine the gas. At the other end there is 
an iron plate with a hole in the center which is closed when the muzzle 
of a cannon is run up into position. Alongside of the gallery there is a 
gasometer fitted with a gauge also a centrifugal fan. These are con- 
nected by pipes with both ends of the gallery. The cannon is mounted 
on a truck for pushing into position and is 30 inches long. It has a 
1%. inch bore. 

In making a test, the cannon is loaded, run up to' the gas gallery, 
the latter is filled with a measured quantity of gas and air at atmos^ 
pheric pressure, this is circulated round and round to obtain a. uniform 
mixture, the valve then closed to protect the fan and the cannon is 
fired bv electric wires. When a. manufacturer desires to submit a new 
explosive for testing and approval, if successful, the tests are conducted 
under these regulations : 

1. The test will be carried out by H. M. Inspectors of Explosives with 
the testing apparatus at the Home Office Testing Station on Plumstead 
Marshes. 

2. The charge of explosive tO' be fired in the test will be determined 
as follows : 

A charge well tamped with two pounds weight of clay will be fired 
with the muzzle of the gun at a, distance of two inches from the ballistic 
pendulum. From a swing registered on the sliding scale, provided for 
the purpose, the charge which will cause a swing of 3.20 inches will be 
calculated and may be verified at the discretion of the officer in charge 
of the Testing Station. 

3. Each explosive to be subject to the following test: 

(a) Ten shots with charge as determined above, and tamped with 
12 inches of well rammed clay. 



RICE.] FOREIGN MINING EXPLOSION STATIONS. 321 

(b) Ten shots with three-fourths of the charge as in (a) and tamped 
with 9 inches of well rammed clay. 

4. Every shot will be fir^d electrically, and in the case of high ex- 
plosive a detonator of the description recommended by the manufacturer 
or the person submitting the explosive will be used. 

5. All charges will be stemmed with dry clay well rammed. 

6. Each shot will be fired in the case wrapper or covering in which 
it is proposed to be employed in actual use. 

7. Each shot will be fired into a mixture consisting of or equivalent 
to 85 per cent of air and 15 per cent of the coal gas now supplied from 
the Eoyal Arsenal Gas Works. 

8. An explosive will be considered to have passed the test if, in the 
series of twenty shots mentioned above, no single shot has ignited the 
gaseous mixture, or left an appreciable amount of the charge unexploded. 

.9. A shot may be repeated at the discretion of the officer in charge 
of the testing, if, in his opinion, there is reasonable ground to believe 
that a failure was due to any cause unconnected with the explosive." 

The ballistic pendulum mentioned in these regulations is a heavy gun 
swinging from knife edges. A small cannon charged with the explosive 
shoots directly into the bore of the large cannon, causing the latter to 
swing. While this device does not give the force generated by an explo- 
sive in absolute terms, it gives relative values and allows the comparison 
of the energy of a quick explosive with that of a slow burning one. 

There is also at this station a vertical gallery for testing explosives in 
the presence of coal dust, 4 feet 9 inches in diameter, but which is only 
13 feet high. In view of the later developments in experimenting with 
coal dust, this vertical gallery appears entirely inadequate ; however, its 
use at Woolwich is incidental to the testing of explosives in the presence 
of gas. 

In Germany the first official testing station for explosives for coal 
mines was established subsequent to the establishment of the Woolwich 
station. It differs materiallv in design and methods of testing. The 
station is located at Gelsenkirchen near Colos^ne. It is in charge of Herr 
Beyling. There is a gallery 1.85 meters high, 1.40 m,eters wide, and 
2 square meters in section, which is elliptical in shape. The lens^th of 
the gallery is 30 meters. It is constructed of three layers of wood hooped 
with iron bands. There are large safety valves in the top and small 
windows with heavy glass in the sides for observing the length of flame. 
Eor testing with gas, there is an inside flange to which paper is fastened, 
shutting off a space of 10 cubic meters at the inner end of the gallery 
facing the cannon. The latter is set in a recess in a big block of concrete 
and simulates a drill hole in the center of the face of a mine entrv. The 
other end of the gallerv is open. The gallery lies partly imbedded in a 
trench for protective purposes. The observers stand in an observation 
room sixty feet away. The cannon is fired by an electric battery in this 
room. The supply of gas is obtained from a neighboring mine. It is 
pit-gas and largely methane. After passing through scrubbers for clean- 
ing, it is taken into the gallery through a meter. An arrangement of 

—21 G 



322 YEAR-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

pipes and fan circulate the gas and air throngh that part of the gallery 
shnt off by a paper diaphragm. A mixture of 8 per cent methane and 
92 per cent air makes the most explosive fire-damp. 

Besides the testing of explosives in the presence of gas, they are also 
tested in the presence of coal dust. In the latter tests coal dust is intro- 
duced by a funnel, into a small hole in the top of the gallery a little 
in front of the cannon and falls on a mechanically revolved fan which 
distributes the dust and keeps it mixed with the air up to the time of 
firing the cannon. The distinguishing feature from the English method 
in firing the explosive is that it is placed in the cannon loosely without 
tamping material. 

Series of tests are made to determine the maximum amount of explo- 
sive which will ignite gas or coal dust or both. This is called the charge 
limit. In some respects this test is more severe than the English one. 
On the other hand, the English mining authorities claim that this is 
not a mining condition; that while it is true by accident a shot might 
be fired without tamping, that this is so exceptional a condition that it 
need not be guarded against, and on the other hand with certain explo- 
sives, it requires the tamping to develop the highest temperature so that 
in some cases an explosive which might pass the Grerman tests success- 
fully would fail with the English tests. 

The work done by the German station has been of great value and has 
been an incentive for the invention of many new safety explosives. The 
manufacturers have been spurred on to erect private laboratories, some 
of them designing machines of the greatest value, like the Bichel machine 
for testing pressures developed by explosives and duration of same ; also, 
the Bichel machine for testing the rate of detonation of explosives. While 
these special machines have not been employed at any of the several 
government stations abroad, they have been introduced at the Pittsburg 
Testing Station of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

Explosives are also tested at the German station in another way, in 
Tauzl lead bloclcs. These are blocks of certain standard size and drilled 
with a hole of definite size. The explosion of a small quantity of the 
explosive in this block distorts it. The increase in distortion varies 
with the force of the explosive. These blocks are not suitable, however, 
for very slow acting explosives, like gunpowder. 

In addition to the explosive testing apparatus, the station is provided 
with an apparatus for testing safety lamps, in varying percentages of 
fire-damp and at various speeds of current; also in various directions of 
the current, that is, horizontal, vertical, up or down, diagonally descend- 
ing and diagonally ascending. These tests are of the utmost value. 
Some lamps will be entirely safe in a quiet atmosphere containing fire 
damp, but in the air currents which traverse mine entries today, if these 
are heavily charged with Methane, old style lamps qnickly yield. This 
is notably the case with the Davy lamp in a current of fire damp. For 
it blows through the gauze very quickly. Tests are also made of the 
glasses of safety lamps. Breakage of these has been in the past a fre- 



RICE.] FOEEIGN MINING EXPLOSION STATIONS. 323 

quent source of danger. The effect of the tests of safety lamps have 
been very marked in the reduction of the number of accidents arising 
from the ignition of fire damp in the mines. 

It is interesting to note the difference in point of view of the Germans 
from other nationalities regarding designs for safety lamps. They do 
not believe in having the lamps bonnetted^ but they do advocate double 
gauze, although that is not yet required by law. The bonnets they admit 
afford better protection in very strong currents, but they oppose their 
use because of concealing the gauze and so make the presence of fire 
damp less quickly noticeable to the workman. In this respect they differ 
from the Belgians, French and English, whO' generally approve of 
bonnetted lamps. 

The Belgium station is located at Franeries near Mons. This station 
is under the direction of M. Stassart, assisted by M. Bolle, both of whom 
are professors in the neighboring mining school at Mons and are also 
Government mining inspectors. The Belgian Mining Department is 
in charge of M. Watteyne, who, together with Herr Meissner, head of 
the German Mining Department, and Captain Desborough of the En- 
glish Explosives department recently visited the mining districts of this 
country at the invitation of the United States Government. The Belgian 
station is located close to a group of mines and the gas used in the ex- 
plosive gallery is obtained from one of the mines. The gallery was 
patterned after the German gallery and only differs from it in the de- 
tail of having the fans driven by motor instead of by hand. The cannon 
is also similarly mounted in a block of concrete at the inner end of the 
gallery. The bore of the cannon is 5.5 C. M. and has a length of 46 
C. M. It is located at the center of the cross-section and is pointed a 
little upwards so that the axis projected strikes the top of the gallery 
nine meters from the open end. When coal dust is to be tested, it is 
introduced in a way similar to that at the German gallery. In some 
caseSi, dust is placed along the floor beyond the explosion division of the 
gallery. The disruptive force of high explosives are tested in Tauzl 
blocks. There is also a lamp testing gallery at this station identical with 
the German. In addition there is an equipment of mine rescue appar- 
atus and a practice gallery consisting of a large square room with ai 
glass partition, double height gallery, inclined ladders, and the usual 
kinds of practice material. 

The French have no Government Station, but an association of the 
operating companies of the Pas-de-Calais district have established a 
station at Lievin in the central part of the district and close to a mine 
from which they secure the necessary fire damp for testing. M. Taffanel 
is in charge of this station. Some preliminary work had been done prior 
to 1907 in an iron gallery of small dimensions, but last year a new large 
gallery was erected of rectangular cross-section, about the size of a mine 
passage. The explosion end is constructed of reinforced concrete and 
the farther end of heavy timber. The general arrangement is not dis- 
similar to that of the German and Belgian galleries, the chief difference 
being in the method for introducing dust when that is used. It is dis- 
tributed on the floor of the gallery. The cannon is depressed slightly 



324 YEAK-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

SO the axis strikes the floor. The dust is not stirred into^ the air until 
raised by the concussion of the shot. Nevertheless, using plain dyna- 
mite, which is the French standard explosive for testing out coal dusts^ 
they find all the Pas-de^Calais coal dusts> will ignite and explode when 
fired in this way. At this station there are well equipped laboratories 
and a safety lamp testing gallery different in detail from the German. 
This is hinged to allow trial of the lamps in varying positions and with 
various velocities. 

The explosion gallery has been erected primarily for the study of the 
explosibility of coal dust and the possible remedies rather than for a 
study of explosives. The French Government has fixed the require- 
ments for explosives on an entirely different basis than practical tests ;. 
namely, upon the temperature developed by the combustion or detona- 
tion of the explosive. This is determined by estimating from specific 
heat of the component chemicals. An allowance of about 200 degrees 
Centigrade below the temperature which will ignite fire damp, is fixed 
as the limiting temperature which the explosive can develop and still 
be considered permissable. In other words, an explosive must liot de- 
velop a temperature of over 1,500 degrees Centigrade. The other for- 
eign authorities consider that this test is not sufficiently definite; that 
the actual temperatures developed may not agree with the calculated 
theoretical temperatures. Nevertheless, the French consider that their 
figures are entirely on the safe side, and in general their explosives will 
pass the requirements of the other stations. 

I cannot better express the comparison of the different methods used 
abroad than to quote Captain Desborough's classification of the several 
methods as given in his evidence about bobinite in 1907 : First, there 
is' the theoretical or French method; second, the firing of unconfined 
charges, the Austrian method; third, the firing of partially confined 
charges as employed in Belgium and Germany ; and fourth, the firing 
of completely confined charges as used in England. 

In planning the Pittsburgh station. Dr. Holmes and his assistants have 
endeavored to incorporate some of the best features of the foreign 
stations — the gas and dust gallery is patterned somewhat after the 
German plan, but is larger and with additional appliances. The En- 
glish method of using uniform tamping has been adopted, on the other 
hand, the charge limit of each explosive passing the general tests, will 
be determined after the Belgian and German plan. The English ballistie 
pendulum has been adopted to standardize the charges of explosives. 
The Tauzl lead blocks employed in the Belgian and German stations are 
also used. The safety lamp gallery is identical with those at Gelsen- 
kirchen and Frameries. The rescue apparatus room is similar to, and 
somewhat larger than that at Frameries. Besides this equipment, either 
similar or improved over that of existing stations, the Pittsburgh plant 
has a large separate gallery for testing motors, lamps, etc. in fire damp 
and coal dust. In addition there is apparatus similar to that of certain 
German explosives manufacturers — the Bichel pressure testing appar- 
atus — the Bichel rate-of-detonation apparatus used in connection with 



RICE.] FOREIGN MINING EPXLOSION STATIONS. 325 

a large coyered pit in which, the explosive cartridge is placed ; also there 
is a flame photographing apparatus which has a rapidly revolving film 
taking successive negatives of the flames of an explosive, fired from a 
Tertical cannon in an inclosed gallery. 

A most interesting gallery for a specific purpose has recently been 
erected at Altofts in lYorkshire, England, by an association of mine 
owners and the experiments put in charge of Mr. W. E. G-arforth. It 
is for testing the explosibility of a coal dust under varying conditions. 
Among other things the following points are sought for: 

1. The relative explosibility of coal dust under different conditions 
of purity and with various air currents. 

2. To see if there are such phenomena as explosion waves, and if such 
■can be defined to find their length under varying conditions. 

3. The remedy for such explosive conditions of coal dust and the 
"trial of inert or barren zones for arresting the course of an explosion. 
The term inert or barren zones are areas in which coal dust has been 
removed or else rendered by dilution with shaly material instead of 
water. 

The gallery is of unusually large dimensions. It is 7I/2 feet in diam- 
eter and about 960 feet long in all. There are a number of right angle 
turns in it, at which points relief doors are placed. The longest straight 
section is about 650 feet long. This is the explosion chamber and is also 
the "intake'^ for the air. A fan is placed at the other extremity of the 
gallery, and is capable of drawing 40,000 to 50,000 cubic feet of air per 
minute through the gallery. The latter is built of old but sound boiler 
shells of %-inch thickness, riveted together, and the inlet end is strength- 
ened by chain wrapped about same. The bottom is floored with concrete 
on which a mine track is laid. Mine timbers are also erected to further 
simulate a mine passageway. 

In a test coal dust is laid along the bottom of the gallery and also on 
the timbers and lagging. A small cannon loaded with several ounces of 
black powder is fired electrically to stir up the dust and then as soon as 
the experimenter can shift the firing plug, the main cannon containing 
one and one-half pounds of black powder is fired. The latter is stationed 
about 100 feet from the mouth of the intake and pointing outward. 
Invariably an explosion of the coal dust is caused but of varying inten- 
sit}^, depending on the quantity of coal dust, the kind, the purity, etc. 

At the time of the visit of the writer and Dr. J. A. Holmes the gallery 
w^as charged with coal dust for 250 feet from the inlet. The flames 
shot each way and came out of the inlet about 100 feet. Two days before 
this visit, there had been a test when a larger quantity of coal dust was 
used than had previously been tried. It was spread for about 400 feet 
along the gallery. The result was startling. Windows were blown out 
of houses for a mile or so around. The two end sections of the boiler 
plate were torn apart and pieces scattered for a quarter of a mile. We 
^ observed one piece that weighed about half a ton that had been hurled 
four or five hundred feet, landing not far from the bulk head erected 
for the protection of the shot-firer. This demonstration of the latent 



326 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. U 

power stored in coal dust^ the energy displayed, increasing in greater 
ratio than the lineal distance traversed by the combustion was a surprise 
even to those familiar with mine explosions. 

It is to be hoped that the experiments at the Altofts gallery with its 
unnsnal size will give the coal mining world information of nnusnal value 
about the phenomena of coal dust explosions and new and surer methods 
of remedy than those now known. While the use of nonfiashing explo- 
sives may eliminate one of the chief starting causes, we must remember 
that there are other ways of originating great sweeping coal dust disas- 
ters. Small as well as large explosions of fire-damp ; even bare torches, 
and electric arcing under exceptional circumstances ; finally, fires making 
explosible gases. 

In conclusion I venture to point out that a large^ almost overwhelm- 
ing series of problems confront the United States testing station at 
Pittsburg. We have been fortunate in having the pioneer work done by 
the foreign stations and our debt is very great for this and for the valu- 
able information so freely given by the able conductors of these stations 
and the mining officials of England, France, Belgium and Germany. 



TAYLOR.] MINE EXPLOSIONS. 327 



Mine Explosions. 

(By James Taylor, Representing the Mine Inspection Service of Illinois.) 

Mr. President and Gentlemen — In presenting my paper to you on 
Explosions^ I feel somewhat timid because of the educational advantages 
which you gentlemen have received and that have been denied to me. 
But a few weeks of my boyhood were spent in the school and fewer of 
my young manhood were spent in securing an education. The theoret- 
ical knowledge that I may have gathered along lifers path has been simi- 
lar to that of gathering pebbles one by one and piling them up' without 
any idea of symmetrical construction^ and in these latter days of my 
life I am pulling them down pebble by pebble and in so doing may throw 
out today one or two into your theoretical ideas of explosions and disturb 
the quiet brought about by your studies on this question. The thirty- 
four years of practical experience in the mines of this State have taught 
me a "few lessons which I could never have learned in institutions of the 
State similar to this you have here in Urbana. You will find my paper 
thrown together somewhat, as my education has been thrown together 
without system or order, but such as it is I now proceed to give you. 

Too much reliance is often placed by the management of our mines 
on the supposed security of ample ventilation. The most disastrous 
explosions caused by windy, or blown-out shots, in the mines of this Stats 
have occurred when the ventilation was of superior character. This is 
natural, as the oxygen in the good ventilating current aids in the quick 
ignition and combustion of the carbon monoxide gas given off by the 
incomplete combustion of the powder. 

A windy or blown-out shot is one in which the powder blows out the 
tamping in the drill hole, and does not throw the coal. In such a shot 
the sides of the drill hole are instantly converted into small particles of 
coal dust and the force of the powder has been expended on the atmos- 
phere of the mine, creating velocity, the velocity thus created puts in 
motion every particle of fine coal dust within the range of its force, and 
the carbon nonoxide gas generated by the other shots that have been fired 
a moment previous to the blown-out shot are exploded. 

It is well known that the explosive range of a gas is the range of the 
percentage of that gas which is explosive when mixed with air. The 
explosive range of Marsh gas varies from 6 to 14% per cent, the explo- 
sive range of carbon monoxide is much wider than this. The maximum 
explosive mixture of the above gas is one volume CH to 9.5 volume of 
air and one volume of CO to 2.4 volume of air. Carbon monoxide gas i>? 
always found after the firing of shots. This gas has a much greater 
power to elongate a flame than fire-damp has, on account of its wider 
explosive range. Most of our miners can verify the statement that they 



YEAK-BOOK FOR 1908. 



[BULL. NO. U 



have on several occasions returned to the working face after firing a 
shot, applied their lighted lamp to the smoke as it was issuing oiit from 
the coal, or between the coal and roof, from a shot that had failed to 
throw the coal, the result being a flame or small explosion. 

The practice in a majority of the mines of this State in getting (not 
mining) the coal, is that of blasting off the solid, that is, drilling the 
blast holes horizontally into the face of the solid coal, charging them 
heavih^ with powder and tamping with find dnst or clay. The evils 
resulting from this system of getting coal are many and great, and there 
is nothing to recommend it. The excessively heavy shots employed with 
this system of blasting coal are productive of a large proportion of the 
powder and coal dust being consumed in the atmosphere of the mines 
thus endangering the lives of the miners, also the property of the 
company. 

I quote the following from the 1907 Coal Report of the Labor Bureau 
of this State : 

^^The number of machines increased from 962 to 1,105, nearly 15 per 
cent. 

"The use of powder in the mines is still on the increase; this year 
shows that 1,261,910 kegs, twenty-five pounds each, were consumed in 
blasting coal; this is an increase of 234,537 kegs, or 22.83 per cent, more 
than was used last year. 

"Seventy per cent of this powder is used in the sixth, seventh, eighth, 
ninth and tenth districts. 

"There were 165 men killed in the mines during the year, and 636 
were more or less seriously injured. The record last year was, 155 
killed and 480 injured ; the number injured this year is greater than for 
any 3^ear since 1896. 

"The ratio of accidents for the year was, 2.5 killed, 9.7 injured, to 
each 1,000 persons employed. 

Table 64 — Consumption of Powder in Shipping Mines — Hand Mining 
Exdiisivelif, hy Districts. 



Districts. 


Number 

of 

tons. 


Number 
of tons 
per keg. 


First 




1,027,342 
886,946 
1,165,497 
2,151,090 
2,663,033 
4,887,635 
2,305,908 
3,158,044 
3,480,597 
4,139,195 


69 94 




22.07 


Third 


19.92 




19.10 


Fifth 


22.87 


Sixth 


20.37 


Seventh . 


53.51 


Eightli - - 


29.46 


Ninth 


26.27 


Tenth 




30.06 








Totals 


25,865,287 


25.78 







TAYLOR.] 



MINE EXPLOSIONS. 



329 



Table 65- 


— Consumption of Powder 
ing Exclusively, 


in 
by 


Shipping Mines, Maclmie Min- 
Districts. 


Distriets. 


Number 
of tons. 


Number of 
tons per keg. 


Third 


12,945 

529,012 

4,036,737 

3,223,075 

927,209 

1,697,482 


25.81 (long wall mine) 


Sixth 


92.34 


Seventh 


129.34 


Eighth 


108.66 


Ninth . 


58.69 


Tenth - 


64.95 














10,426,460 


96.02 



During 1907^ 1,338,018 tons of coal were wasted as slack and dust. 
Such a system of mining suggested by these figures should be condemned 
by all those interested in the prevention of accidents, and loss of life. 
Within the last few months disastrous explosions resulting in great loss 
of life have occurred with such frequent regularity that an investigation 
of the causes bringing about such accidents in our mines should be made 
by a commission appointed by the Legislature of this State, so that, if 
possible, more successful efforts may be made toward safe-guarding the 
lives of those employed in our coal mines. 

As one who is in constant touch with the practical management of 
mines, I would advocate the abolition of our present system of blasting 
coal as the most effective preventive of mine explosions in this State, 
and, while I realize that it is useless at this time to advocate the return 
to the lump coal system of mining, nevertheless I believe this to be the 
surest cure for the reckless use of powder and the lack of proper prepa- 
ration of shots. 

Opportunity has been afforded me of investigating explosions which 
have occurred in mines where fire-damp had never been seen and where 
it has never been found since. It is universally admitted that coal dust 
is a "greater enemy'^ than fire-damp, yet it is a fact that sufficient atten- 
tion is not always paid to the prevention of its production and accumu- 
lation, and, in my opinion, this can only be done by a proper system of 
mining and a constant and efficient cleaning of roadways. We find 
ample proof that it is the desire of almost every mine manager to repose 
comfortably under some form of watering the dust, generally the sprink- 
ling systelm. Prof. Dixon, a writer, experimenter and authority on the 
rate of explosion in gases, has shoAvn that if the maximum force of an 
i3xplosion is to be developed, it is necessary to add 5 per cent of water 
vapor to mixtures of air and gas and that this volume of vapor can only 
he added by using steam. Therefore, it is quite clear that theoretically 
it is impossible to sufficiently saturate the air of a mine with water to 
limit the extent of an explosion. This subject has been tested in a prac- 
tical way by German engineers and by actual experiment proved that 
very little more than 3 per cent of vapor could be added to mine air, 
and spraying as a protective agent was abandoned ; they also proved that 
when certain coal dust was (mixed with air, water had no restrictive 
-action on the flame from a shot. 



330 YEAE-BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

We have had several explosions in our mines by the lack of forethought 
on the part of the mine management. A violation of the mining law, 
which provided to enter a mine, and the lack of forethought in per- 
mitting the men to enter the mine while the fan was stopped, caused the 
explosion, which killed fifty men at the Zeigler Coal Company's mine 
April 3, 1905. 

A few weeks ago twenty-eight men lost their lives in this same mine 
by lack of forethought on the part of the management in not making 
a thorough examination of all the working places in the mine with 
helmets before allowing the men to work therein. 

Many of our explosions are clearly due to ignorance on the part of 
some miners, who only appear to know that powder placed in a drill 
hole and tamped will produce an explosion that will break the coal. 
They are entirely ignorant of the expansive force of powder, or of the 
resistance of a solid body of coal, and, in fact, of the simplest principles 
of mining. Instead of being miners they are, what the secretary of the 
Bureau of Labor calls them, in his 1904 report, coal "butchers"; they 
are nothing more than unskilled laborers, and many of our disasters are 
a convincing proof of the claim, so frequently made, that the successful 
and intelligent miner is a skilled mechanic. It is unfortunate that such 
unskilled labor is gaining a footing in the coal mines of our State, but 
the fact that this is so is before us, and a remedy is needed. What this 
remedy shall be is hard to say ; the principle applied in other industries 
ought to be at least tried in the mines, and this principle is to make 
every man that desires a place as a miner show that he has served an 
apprenticeship loading coal and learned his trade before he is allowed 
to handle powder and prepare shots. Experience is fully demonstrating 
that neither life nor property is safe when in the keeping of densely 
ignorant and unexperienced men. The cause of explosions of all kinds 
should receive greater attention and consideration for the reason that 
no matter how intelligent, careful or circumspect a miner or a number 
of miners may be, they are always liable to be the victims of some foolish 
or overt act that would cost them their lives, and, as the strength of the 
weakest link in a chain measures the strength of the whole chain, so 
then safety is measured by the probable misconduct of some ignorant 
or vicious person who cannot realize the awful consequence of his mis- 
behavior. 

Too much is expected of our State inspectors of mines, and too little 
authority is granted to them by law. If the inspectors are to use all 
possible means for the prevention of accidents and to see that necessary 
appliances are provided for safety of those working in and about coal 
mines, they should receive the cooperation of the operators, superintend- 
ents, mine managers, and the miners themselves. Thev should have the 
power to discharge, and police power to arrest, those violating the law. 
Having such power they could compel obedience to all rules and law, and 
establish such discipline as to greatly lessen the danger of accident. In 
ray opinion the majority of the explosions and other accidents may be 
traced to a violation of the mining law, which is the usual result of a 
lack of discipline. 



VERNER.] CAUSES OF MINE EXPLOSIONS. 331 



Some Causes op Mine Explosions. 

(By Mr. Joan Verner, State Mine Inspector of Iowa.) 



There is not a person in this audience more pleased over the establish- 
ment of the Pittsburg experiment station than I. For a number of 
years I have realized the pressing need of the assistance of the national 
government in the investigations of mine explosions and the advisability 
of the creation of a central source of reliable and useful information 
regarding them^ and I am pleased, indeed, that the help of the national 
government has been finally secured. I believe the work is in thoroughly 
competent hands, and I fully expect that the results obtained will be of 
material benefit to the coal mining industry of the United States. 

There are two reasons why, in my judgment, we have not made more 
satisfactory progress in the solution of the problem of dust explosions. 
The first reason may be ascribed to the fact that there has been an appar- 
ent and persistent effort to befuddle the situation by dragging in non- 
essential, extraneous matter and by the belief expressed in some quarters 
that these explosions are due to mysterious agencies. We can excuse the 
miner for his belief in the supernatural, but it is disappointing, to say 
the least, to have a mining journal editorially endorse the idea that 
earthquakes and tidal waves may exert an influence in causing mine 
explosions. 

The second reason is that the value of the factors entering into du.^t 
explosion and their correct relation to each other have not yet been 
definitely established. It is generally assumed that coal dust is the 
prime factor in a dust explosion. In my judgment, this assumption 
and belief has been largely responsible for the long continued delay in 
finding the proper solution of the dust explosion, for, as I see it, of the 
three factors entering into the problem, it is the least important. Of 
course, there must be an initial flame and the development of consider- 
able heat, but aside from that the status and manner of flow of the mine 
air constitute the prime and determinina: factors in the starting of a 
dust explosion. To a certain extent the dust is merelv a passive factor. 

The air question in an explosion has been viewed so far onty from the 
chemical standpoint, yet, important as the chemical function of air is in 
the explosion, its mechanical function is the deciding feature, and I 
shall attempt to show that mine air, under proper conditions, becomes 
the most effective and powerful mechanical stoker in existence. 

I believe the dust is thrown into the flame by an inrush of air along 
the mine floor and I question the entire correctness of the claim that the 
flame is injected into the dust. 



382 YEAK-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

In an article read before the Mine Inspectors' Institute of America 
last June, I stated the following : 

The theory that the flame of an explosion projects itself into the dust 
ahead of it, and thus extends the explosion^s scope, appears to be 
extremely faulty. It suggests a sort of stationary condition of the sus- 
pended dust, or otherwise its acceptance must be based on the assump- 
tion that the explosion's flame moves faster than the dust, or, in other 
words, faster than its own explosive force. It would seem that argument 
is not required to show the apparent impossibility of this. If it is 
assumed that dust and flame move with about equal velocity, and that 
there is no inrush of air and dust, what chance will there be for the 
extension of the explosion, with the fuel and the air to burn it receding 
with a speed commensurate to that of the advancing flame ? As a proof, 
consider Peckham's experiments ; mechanical and physical properties of 
the air shown by Sir Frederick Abel ; the dust-fired furnace. 

The claim that a dust explosion's force extends from the top of the coal 
down to the bottom and in that condition moves in one direction only 
through the mine passages is unbelievable, because the force would be 
so tremendous as to destroy any mine, in which it was developed, beyond 
recovery. 

As to the question of saturation, it is claimed that coal dust explo- 
sions are most frequent in the coldest months of the year, because of 
undersaturation. I am not prepared to say that this is not the case, but 
I can say that, judging from the results of the Altoft's experiments and 
actual explosions in this country, that neither natural or artificially pro- 
duced saturation have proved reliable preventives of dust explosions in 
the past. 

Mr. Prank Haas in his splendid paper on coal dust expresses the belief 
that undersaturation presents a very dangerous feature. He cites the 
fact that September, 1907, was a very dry month, and he estimates that 
during this period the return air current carried out fully 20 per cent 
more water than was furnished by the atmosphere in the intake, which 
in an ordinary mine, so he says, would represent about 3,000 gallons of 
water per day. Yet, under this, claimed highly dangerous condition, 
there were no explosions of any magnitude during the month of Sep- 
tember, 1907, at least I have failed to hear of any. The question arises 
what prevented dust explosions under such circumstances, when appar- 
ently, according to Mr. Haas' view, the condition was so favorable for 
their occurrence. Mr. Haas favors pre-h eating the air in the winter on 
its entrance to the mine, and, I believe, he is on the right track in this 
respect, and, considering that September is generally a warm month, it 
is somewhat surprising that he puts so much weight on undersaturation 
and neglects entirely the possible effect of the prevailing temperature. 
The work of prevention of dust explosions must commence at the work- 
ing face. 



EVANS.] SMOKE PREVENTION. 833 



Smoke Prevention. 

(By Dr. W. A. Evans, Commissioner of Health, Chicago, 111.) 



I am not competent to discuss the technical side of smoke prevention 
in such a way as to add to your enlightenment. I will discuss smoke, 
therefore, as a factor in air pollution and particularly in regard to air 
pollution and disease. 

In 1907 Chicago had 32,000 deaths. Of these 9,000 were due to what 
we term bad air diseases : consumption^ pneumonia, bronchitis and influ- 
enza. In 1908 there were 30,000 deaths and 8,000 deaths from this 
group of diseases. In order that you may understand the importance 
of these figures, compare the 4,900 deaths from pneumonia with the 
376 from typhoid; the 3,700 from tuberculosis with the 500 from diph- 
theria. Splitting the decennial period 1898-1907 in two and comparing 
the last half with the first, and, speaking in terms of deaths per 100,000 
living, we find that deaths from all causes improved 36.2. A part of 
this was due to the following items : Improvement in acute contagious 
diseases, 13.2; impure water diseases, 11.7; impure food diseases, 10.8. 
But in the impure air diseases there is a loss of 21.7. All of the effort 
had been exerted on contagious disease, impure water and impure food. 
The related groups improved. The pollution of the air goes unchecked. 
The deaths resulting increase. 

In 1908 war was waged on the impure air diseases. Comparing 1908 
with the whole of the ten-year period just cited, and still speaking in 
deaths per 100,000 living, we find an improvement in the general death 
rate of forty-six; an improveiment in the bad air disease of forty-six. 
Most of that was in pneumonia. The consumption improvement was 
slight. But the people who died of consumption in 1908 got it, in the 
main, in 1907 and 1906. The consumption death rate of 1909 will be 
a better index of etiologic conditions in 1908 than was the consumption 
death rate of 1908. 

As you see, a little effort is doing a lot of good. Some of this effort 
is being put forth by the smoke commission, sotae by the health depart- 
ment, some by the manufacturers, some by the doctors, but, most of it 
is the effort of the people themselves. 

You will note that I am, talking about air pollution and bad air dis- 
eases and not specifically about smoke. Now, what are the air factors 
in these bad air diseases ? 

As I treat the subject from the disease standpoint, I must maintain 
my perspective, though I realize that you who work in fuel stand closer 
to smoke and therefore with you it looms larger than I indicate. The 



334 YEAK-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. U 

most important item of air pollution is the bacterial flora thereof; the 
tubercle bacilli, pnenmococci, diphtheria, scarlet fever and measles 
germs, pink eye, influenza and other bacteria of occasional interest. 

I wish to make qualifying statements : 

First, Pathogenesis does not persist more than a few minutes when 
the germs are brought in contact with sunlight and a good grade of air. 
Therefore not all of the germs or bacteria which get into the air are 
capable of spreading disease. Much of the dust is quite harmless. I 
rode with the First Cavalry from Chicago to Fox Lake and back last 
July. My usual station was at the rear of the column. There were 
600 men and more horses ; at times the dust made it impossible to see 
objects forty feet away. There were no colds. The same exposure. to 
the infected dust of Chicago streets would have caused colds and pink 
eye to be nearly universal. 

Second, Carriers are not of the consequence sometimes thought. The 
entirely well man whose mouth harbors pneumococci or diphtheria bacilli 
is usually doing no harm. In the process of habituation the host changes 
the bacillus about as much as the bacillus changes the host. The spreader 
is the convalescent and the man actively sick. 

The second factor is trade dust. This dust is composed of fractured 
particles with sharp edges. The workman usually works just before a 
dust making machine or tool, therefore he is the point of maximum con- 
centration. The dust of the more dangerous trades has no sulphurous 
acid to stifle and no odors to offend, therefore it is tolerated. For all 
of these reasons trade dust ranks second to bacterial flora. 

In the whole population, bad air diseases cause 30 per cent of the total 
deaths. In metal polishers and stone cutters actively working, they cause 
90 per cent of the total mortality. 

The third factor is excretory air. It has been difficult to decide just 
v/hat is the harmful factor in expired air. N'o specific poison has been 
demonstrated. No extraction has been accepted. CO2 is held to be of 
minor consequence. Pflugge^s opinion that is due to temperature acting 
en the peripheral nerve endings of the body is the most popular view 
at the present time. No one had been able to demonstrate just the 
poisonous agent in the other excreta. This is true of the urine and the 
faeces. With excretory air, urine and faeces the position is the same. 
The product is poisonous — efforts at further analysis have been fruitless: 
The opinions other than Pflugge's are moderately harmful. Pflugge's 
is positively harmful in that it leads entirely awav from the one known 
fact, that the product is poisonous. It has one element of truth — cold 
air environment is beneficent, warm air environment is harmful. The 
reason is, that waste air expired into an environment of cold air, being 
hot, will at once rise out of the breathing zone and thereby become 
harmless, unless engineers, calling themselves ventilating experts, put 
outlets at the floor and inlets at the ceiling. Whenever the laws of men 
run counter to the laws of God, man suffers. 

Fourth, I mention odors out of order to get the subject of the way — 
odors serving as warnings have helped health rather than hindered it. 



EVANS.] SMOKE PREVENTION. 335 

The little health harm which they do, causing nausea, worry and hys- 
teria in those who get excited about them, is offset by their efficacy in 
keeping people away from bad places. 

Fifth, Smoke. How does smoke do harm? It fills the air with car- 
bon particles, with CO2, CO, SOs and with volatile oils. Most smoke 
ordinances are based on the density of smoke. I have been greatly inter- 
ested in the London effort to rid their laws of the dense smoke provi- 
sions. This discussion is to be found in the Journal of the Royal Sani- 
tary Institute for 1907. It is beginning to appear with us. For 
example : A few weeks ago I was visited by the agent of one skyscraper 
complaining of a neighboring building. Brother Bird had forced a 
proper firebox into the building complained of. There was no smoke. 
But there was a colorless gas which stifled those into whose office win- 
dows it blew. 

Smoke carbon is probably as little harmful as any solid which can 
be taken into the human body. It is quite inert chemically. Physically 
it irritates but little. The harm that it does is that it transports bacteria 
and secure entrance for them where alone they would be repulsed. In 
bacteriology we have an illustration of this principle in tetanus, which 
affects much more uniformly in mixtures than it does alone. In physics 
we have the sludge filtration methods of water purification. 

Sulphur compounds are very objectionable and probably more harm- 
ful. Probably before long our dense smoke ordinances will be changed 
so as to add to the carbon control other provisions which will control 
sulphur compounds. Possibly, also, combustion experiments will like- 
wise be directed more to the solution of the sulphur problem. 

Markel suggests that sulphur has something like a ferment action in 
the air in that in tends to be automatically renewable. He says sulphur- 
ous acid falls on iron and is at once oxidized into sulphuric acid. It 
corrodes the iron and makes ferrous sulphate. This picks up oxygen 
from the air and makes basic ferric sulphate. This picks up iron and 
makes ferrous sulphate and iron oxide. The rust drops off, and a 
new sulphur cycle is started. 

Eideal found that whitewashed walls were of great service where gas 
was burned, as the lime took up the sulphur from the air. 

Amounts of sulphur found in the air at different analyses are : Lon- 
don (Eideal) .015 to 0.77 grams per 100 cubic feet. The same at 
Manchester. At Kew an analysis of dust from an exposed surface showed 
2 per cent sulphur. 

Other figures for sulphur are : Cohen and Heffort say that for 100 
pounds of sulphur in coal 71.78 pounds will go off as sulphur gases; 
14.51 pounds will be absorbed by the soot and escape with it and 13.71 
pounds will remain in the ash. In London each day 981,792 poimds 
of sulphur is poured into the air from coal consumption; from gas, 893 
pounds; from mineral oils, 743 pounds. 

In Glasgow and Manchester twenty tons of sulphur escape daily in 
the smoke. 



336 YEAE-BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

Fats and oils are of increasing importance from the standpoint of air 
jDollntion. In this the antomohile is a bad offender. Indirectly the 
oiling of the streets which has come about through the infinence of the 
automobile has added to the proportion of oils and fats in the air. 

Cohen says that in Leeds 15 per cent of the soot is mineral oil. This 
is less than the Chicago figures. Fats and oils probably harm health in 
the same indirect way as does carbon^ but in a lesser measure. This may 
not be true of gasoline and the products of incomplete gasoline pro- 
duction. 

CO2 and CO : The present tendencv is to believe that we can stand 
much higher percentages of CO2 than are ever found in the outside air. 
That the devastating waves that follow volcanic eruptions are due to 
CO, to sulphur gases, and to other gases and not to CO2. GO is directly 
toxic. CO2 is depressent and remotely toxic and therefore for both of 
these reasons it is harmful. It does not kill in one whiff in any con- 
centration, ^'either does a child get a complete education in five minutes- 
in a grammar school. Some figures are : Schafer says that London 
pours 100,000 tons of CO2 into the air each day as smoke. Every ton 
of completely consumed coal pours about three tons of CO2 and CO 
into the air. 

The volume of .dirt which will deposit from the air ranges from one 
to six tons per acre per year, according to the location, with regard to 
smoke and dust producers. It ranges broadly in quality. Near a boule- 
vard it is rich in oils ; near a brick kiln or a factory or locomotive yards 
it is rich in sulphur and in carbonic monoxide. Near an elevated road 
it is rich in iron. 

How else does it do harm? 

First, It kills vegetation. Eough equilibrium between animal and 
vegetable life is required to maintain atmospheric chemical equilibrium/ 
Our two and one-quarter million people huddled on a few square miles — 
at places living 300 to the acre — need trees and^ grass. Our 
soil is eandy and poor; it is drained dry. It is covered by 
roofs and paving. Vegetation at best has a hard time. Smoke stops up 
its pores with carbon and with oil. The oil picks up other dirt. The 
SO2 poisons when it passes one part in one million. Manv kinds of 
vegetation will not live at all without washing, and grooming trees is 
expensive. 

Second, It decreases sunlis:ht. Sunlight is needed to kill bacteria 
and to purify the air. It adds to the cost of lighting. The St. James 
Gazette sa^^s that smoke costs London $73,000.00 a day for extra lighting 
bills. Such figures are little better than guesses. Aside from the money, 
these extra lights add to the harm of smoke to health. 

Third, F'ogs. The air heavy with suspended solids becomes sur- 
charged with moisture and this is fog.. Fogs are disease breeders. 

Fourth, There are wastes aside from, direct health matters which ai'e 
of consequences: 

(a) The loss of fuel values; the large economics of this you are 
engaged in working out. 

(b) The laundry cost of smoke is enormous. 

((') The loss to nonwashing clothes, in stores and out, is very great. 



EVANS.] SMOKE SUPPRESSION. 887 

(d) The increased painting and whitewashing expense is very great; 
paint is made dingy and is renewed, whitwash becomes gypsum and no 
longer looks white. In coal districts it is cheaper to let the weather 
destroy the wood than to try to protect it with paint or whitewash. 

(e) Metal structures are corroded by the sulphur gases and other 
gases with free bonds. 

(f) Wooden work is less durable as well less sightly. 

(g) Property values of adjacent properties are lowered often times 
to a nonproductive- basis. 

(h) It serves to lower the general tone of a community. 

A spotless town is more apt to be moral than a dirty town. It is 
useless to try to get a spotless town and leave the smoke. If the air 
is dirty it is very hard to get the streets, the yards, the clothes, the 
people clean. 



-22 G 



338 YEAE BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 



Smoke Suppression. 

(By A. Bement, Consulting Engineer, Chicago, 111.) 



The subject of smoke suppression and smokeless furnaces is one about 
which very much has been said and written. It has, however, in my 
opinion, simplified itself ver}^ much, so that all I am able to profitably 
say may be presented in a few words. 

Every type of stoker and furnace apparatus regularly manufactured 
and on the market as a standard article of commerce, has produced 
smoke in great volume. Likewise each at times has run smokelessl}^, due 
more or less to efficient or inefficient operation and manual assistance 
given the combustion process, and, when manipulated with sufficient 
care, it has usually been possible to secure a satisfactory result. But, 
strictly speaking, there is no furnace apparatus on the market offered 
regularly for sale as a standard manu.factured article which can be 
depended upon to burn coal without smoke. I realize that this is a 
rather sweeping statement; it is a fact, nevertheless. Therefore, to 
insure the desired result, a better type of apparatus must be employed; 
not at all a difficult "matter, as the essentials are quite simple. The two 
requirements for perfect performance are as follows : 

1. That coal shall be introduced to the fire at a uniform rate, which 
must be done automatically by machinery, such as a stoker, as introduc- 
tion by hand is too uncertain and unreliable ; 

2. That a sufficiently large combustion chamber be afforded, so that 
the gases are burned before they escape. 

An apparatus filling such requirements was devised in Chicago some 
seven or eight years ago by Mr. W. L. Abbott President of the Board of 
Trustees of this University, and a, copy thereof is now located in the engi- 
neering laboratory, where it may be observed in operation. 

The great difficulty that confronts us is that so much money is 
invested in the manufacture and so many people engaged in the sale' 
of this great mass of inefficient apparatus, that improvement must neces- 
sarily be slow. These manufacturers do not want to discard their pat- 
terns and abandon the machine upon which they have built their business. 
In this course they are supported by their friends, among whom are 
coQsulting engineers who have specified such apparatus, and do not feel 
cafe in laking chances with something they do not understand, notwith- 
standins: the fact that they are credited with ability to discriminate. 

The :.-Diall plant, concerning which Mr. Bird has spoken, is a genuine 
problem. Personally, I believe that stokers are justifiable in very small 



BEMENT.J 8MOKE SUPPRESSION. 889 

installations, very mnch smaller, in fact, than has nsually been con- 
sidered profitable. However, there is a class of service so small that it 
will not pay the owner to install a stoker. In snch plants the presence 
of a man is required, and stoking the fire is a small problem. The 
owner wonld find it cheaper to engage a competent fireman who wonld 
render efficient service, than to purchase an expensive apparatus. In 
these cases enforcement of smoke ordinances will insure that there will 
be no smoke, provided a good hand-fired apparatus is employed. 

The sulphur dioxide from chimneys which show no evidence of 
smoke as referred to by Dr. Evans, is a serious matter, and it is probable 
that in cities, it will be necessary to carry chimneys to a greater height 
than is at present the custom, so that gases may be carried up above the 
buildings, thus minimizing the harmful effect. 



340 , YEAE BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 



The College of Engineering and the Mining Interests of the 

State. 

Abstract of address delivered by W. F. M. Goss, Dean of the College of Engineering, University of Illiy 

nois.) 



The service of first importance^ which the college of engineering of 
the University of Illinois renders the State^ is that of training yonng 
men for its industries. The extent to which this service is today being 
rendered by the college is to be judged by the fact that the enrollment 
of students during the present year exceeds 1,200. Nearly every county 
in the State has its representatives in the student body, and many indus- 
trial establishments of this and other states have graduates or former 
students of the college upon their staff. In the departments of civil, 
mechanical and electrical engineering are many courses which contribu.te 
directly to the different phases of the general problem involved in the 
production, transportation and utilization of fuels, and hence it appears 
that the college is already doing much of direct benefit to the fuel min- 
ing interests of the State. 

In addition to its work of training students^ the college of engineer- 
ing stands before the industries of the State as an independent, scientific 
agency^ prepared at all times^ so far as it may be able, to give to any who 
may ask for it, accurate information concerning the principles of science 
and their application to specific industries. The developments of modern 
science and technology never cease, and each new fact has its effect 
directly or indirectly in modifying practice in the arts. Progress in one 
direction may open the way for movements in many different directions, 
and it is the province of the college to make the connection between 
facts, which, in themselves, may be strongly scientific or technical, and 
the every-day affairs of the shop and the factory. In steam engineering, 
in the mechanics of machinery, in the art of building, in the domains 
of hydraulics and materials of construction^ and in the utilization of 
electric power, much is already being done, and more, we hope, will soon 
be accomplished. I believe that the presence of the faculty of the college 
of engineering, serving the State as an organized staff of experts repre- 
senting many different fields, constitutes a possession of the industries 
of the State of such value as amply to justify the expense of its mainte- 
nance, even if there were not hundreds of students to receive instruction. 

I regret that the College of Engineering of the University of Illinois 
is not yet making its contribution to the mining industries of the State 
complete. It is caring for the interests of civil engineering, mechanical 



GOSS.J COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 341 

engineering, electrical engineering, architectural engineering, arcliitec-- 
tnre, and for the varions material interests of the railroad; but, as yet, 
it offers no courses in mining engineering and its staff does not include 
men who are experts in the technique of this great industry. This will 
not always be so. There is no fundamental reason why the college of 
engineering should not give the same attention to the training of mining 
engineers as it now gives to the training of mechanical engineers. 
Indeed, fundamentally there is every reason why it should give attention 
to the mining interests, for it stands as a representative not of selected 
industries, but of all the industries of a great State, and one of the 
.greatest industries of this State is that involved in its production of coal. 
But the College of Engineering cannot itself dictate what it shall do. As 
a public institution it can but give expression to the public will. 
Throughout the organization of the university, those departments have 
been strongest for which the public has made and is making imperative 
demands. 

The matter of securing at the ITniversity the establishment of a Depart- 
ment of Mining Eiigineering is one which rests largely with the mining 
interests of the State. The fact that Illinois produces annually more 
than 50,000,000 tons of coal and has a mineral industry amounting in 
value to .more than $150,000,000.00 should enable the representatives of 
this industry to speak in no uncertain tone. There is in the State at 
present no center to which parties interested in mining may appear for 
certain kinds of scientific information, and there is no place where 
young men are being instructed in the problems of mining and smelting. 
If Illinois is to offer young men, in addition to the fundamental lines of 
instruction common to all engineering courses, specialized work bearing 
upon the location and planning of coal mines and upon problems affect- 
ing the economic production of coals and the avoidance of mine wastes, 
and if it is to train men effectively in problems affecting the handling, 
working and deliver}^ of coal, the initial step must be taken by those 
most vitally interested in the outcome. The matter is one which must 
rest largely with the mine owner, the mine operator, the mine expert, the 
mine inspector, and with you, gentlemen of this conference, as repre- 
sentatives of these interests, I must for the present leave the matter. T 
shall hope that in proper time a movement may be started which ulti- 
mately will result in the establishment here at the university, under 
your inspiration, of an organization of men who know the problems of 
the mine. I feel sure that a department thus directed and inspired 
would have an important part in promoting economy and increased effi- 
ciency in the process of mining, and would ultimately prove helpful to 
pvery infprpQt of the ?^tate. 



342 YEAK BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 



The Engiiteering Experiment Station of the University of 

Illinois. 

(By L. P. Breckenridge, Director.) 



DATE OF ORGANIZATION. 

The Engineering Experiment Station of the University of Illinois was 
established by action of the board of trnstees, December 8, 1903, in 
connection with the College of Engineering. 

There were two influences which led to its establishment; first, a 
continnal demand from the indnstrial interests of the State for scientific 
experimentation relating to manufacturing processes, fuel economies 
and transportation problems; secondly, the very great success attending 
the work of the Agricultural Experiment Station at the University, which 
made it evident that a similarly successful career ought to be possible 
for an Engineering Experiment Station. It is very evident from the work 
which has now been accomplished by the station, and the many helpful 
things it has done for the industries of the State, that no mistake was 
made in establishing such a station. 

ORGANIZATION. 

The control of the Engineering Experiment Station is vested in the 
heads of the several departments of the College of Engineering. These 
constitute the station staff, and, with the Director, determine the charac- 
ter of the investigations to be undertaken. The investigations are car- 
ried on by the members of the staff directly, by fellows as graduate 
work, by members of the instructional force of the college, and by spe- 
cial investigators belonging to the station corps. 

PLAN AND SCOPE. 

It is the purpose of the station to carry on investigations along vari- 
ous lines of engineering, andt to make studies of problems O'f im- 
portance to professional engineers, and to the manu.facturing, mining, 
railway, constructional and industrial interests of the State. It is 
believed that this experimental work will result in contributions of value 
to engineering science and to the industries of the State and that the 
pursuit of such investigations will give inspiration to students and add 
to tlie value of the instructional work in the College of Engineering. 



BRECKENRIDGE.] ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION. ' 84B 

REPORTS PUBLISHED. 

The results of the investigations made are published in the form of 
bulletins^ which record mostly the experiments of the station^s own staff 
of investigators. There are also issued, from time to time, circulars 
and compilations giving the results of the experiments of engineers, 
industrial works, technical institutions and governmental testing depart- 
ments. The bulletins of the station are distributed among the engi- 
neers and manufacturing interests of the State of Illinois, to libraries 
and the technical press of the country and to such special organizations 
as are particularly interested in the subject-matter discussed by individ- 
ual bulletins. Already there have been published twenty-five of these 
bulletins and from five to twenty thousand copies of each one have been 
distributed. 

FUNDS ANNUALLY AVAILABLE. 

In carrying on the activities of the Engineering Experiment Station, 
there is necessary a large amount of equipment of various kinds suit- 
able for investigational purposes. The regular equipment provided for 
instruction in the College of Engineering has always been used for these 
investigations, supplemented by the purchase of special apparatus neces- 
sary for special researches in the Engineering Experiment Station. After 
an investigation has been concluded, this apparatus becomes a part of 
the equipment of the department to which it most naturally belongs. 
The item of expense for equipment, therefore, does not enter into the 
general expenses of the Engineering Experiment Station. (The value 
of this total equipment in the College of Engineering is now about 
$225,000.00.) 

The funds expended in carrying on the investigations, already com- 
pleted and now in progress, have been during the last five years a little 
over $100,000.00, making an annual expenditure of about $30,000.00. 

The existence of the Engineering Experiment Station at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois makes it possible to utilize : 

(1) The library facilities of the university. 

(2) The continual extension of the equipment of the various depart- 
ments of the College of Engineering. 

(3) The helpful suggestions and cooperation of other scientific 
departments at the University outside of the College of Engineering. 

With these three aids the expenditure of our funds is bound to result 
in much larger returns than would be possible otherwise. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK. 

In determining the character of the work which the station shall 
undertake, the most careful consideration will be given first to the needs 
and .the interests of the State of Illinois. F'ortunately, Illinois is 
singularly favored in all the conditions requisite for a rapid and perma- 
nent industrial development, and its interests cover very wide fields of 
engineering activity. In view of its cheap and abundant fuel, its great 



344 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. U 

agricultural wealth and its unexcelled facilities for the transportation of 
raw material and finished products, it is not surprising that Illinois is 
the second state in the Union in agriculture and third in manufactures. 
"With these great resources devolves upon us great responsibility in 
developing and husbanding them. The testing of its materials of con- 
stniction will always be a matter of importance for any state. The 
prevention of the waste of material growing more and more expensive, 
as wood, and the correct factors of strength of new materials, as con- 
crete, are always subjects for the most careful investigation. To this 
work we are giving considerable attention, and the demand for the 
results of our tests on reinforced concrete, which are being carried on 
under the supervision of Prof. A. N. Talbot, indicates the interest which 
is taken in this work and the necessity felt by architects, constructors 
and builders for the most exact information alon^ these lines. 

The work of the station will also extend into some fresh fields, seeking 
to discover new ways and means for economizing energy and materials, 
for the prevention of waste, for the perfection of labor-saving machinery, 
for safer methods of travel, and for surer sanitary methods of water 
supply and sewage disposal. 

Fuel supply is of such prime importance in our industrial develop- 
ment that no effect will be spared in the introduction and promulgation 
of improved methods and processes in the mining, preparation and con- 
sumption of coal. From broad economical considerations wasteful 
methods of using coal, or the rejection of anv combustible part as waste, 
are to be discountenanced. Exhaustive and careful experiments will be 
required before the best conditions can be attained. These experiments 
must include analyses of coals from all parts of the State, a determina- 
tion of the best kinds of coal for specific purposes, best methods of 
burning Illinois coals, effects of various methods of preparations, expe- 
riments on various kinds of furnace construction, etc. 

Along the line of power production there is opportunity for much 
investigation. N"ew problems are confronting both the builders and 
users of steam and gas motors. There is at present a noteworthy change 
from the reciprocating engine of large size to the steam turbine. Gas 
engines of large power have recently been installed, and the development 
of this type of motor bids fair to be more rapid in the near future. Still 
newer types of motors are being proposed from time to time, the gas 
turbine being one that at present occupies much attention as an attrac- 
tive possibility. 

For the user of power, the station can investigate questions relative 
to the economy of various types of power installations with given condi- 
tions of service. For the builders of motors it can investigate the new 
and perplexing problems that have arisen. The properties of the various 
fluids used in heat motors need careful study. Superheated steam is 
essential to the proper working of a steam turbine, yet many of its prop- 
erties remain to be investigated. The properties of ammonia and other 
fluids used in refrigeration are not known accurately, and even the prop- 
erties of saturatecl steam are based 'on Eegnault's experiments made 
nearly seventy years ago. A careful investigation of the properties of 



BRECKENRIDGE ] ENGINEEEING EXPEEIMENT STATION. 345 

heat media of all kindS;, extending^ if necessary, over a series of years, 
would furnish data of the greatest value to engineers, and would in 
addition be a noteworthy contribution to science. 

Considerable work for the railroad interests has already been done by 
the Eailway Engineering Department of the University. This depart- 
ment owns jointly with the Illinois Central Railroad a dynamometer 
car equipped for steam road experimental work. With this car there have 
been made numerous road tests for the establishment of tonnage ratings. 
The department also owns, a 200-horsepower electric car of the inter- 
urban type, especially designed and thoroughly equipped for electric 
traction work. Eailway work with both these cars will be prosecuted 
vigorously under the direction of the new school of railway engineering 
and administration recently organized. 

It is expected that the experiment station will prove helpful to the 
manufacturing and building interests. In the first place, it will supply 
accurate data regarding the properties of the materials used in engi- 
neering structures and buildings. The laboratory of applied mechanics 
with its extensive field needs much greater facilities for this line of 
work, as the reinforced concrete tests now in progress show great possi- 
bilities. In the near future, an extensive series of tests on cast-iron 
columns, and on various forms of steel and iron members is contem- 
plated. Secondly, the experiment station will investigate manufacturing 
processes. As an example of this line of work the high-speed steel tests 
are cited. Thirdly, problems relating to design and construction will be 
studied, and all useful results will be published for the benefit of those 
engaged in design or construction. 

As a rule the experiment station will undertake only such investiga- 
tions as will lead to results of fundamental importance, results that will 
be helpful to a large class of engineers or manufacturers. It will not, 
in general, undertake work of importance to individuals only, e. g., the 
testing of a device or invention for the sole benefit of the inventor. 

The station is now planning to make a more systematic study of the 
industrial and engineering interests of the State of Illinois, more par- 
ticularly with the thought in mind that these industries should be 
advised as to the work already accomplished by the station, and also 
that more exact knowledge may be obtained concerning the needs of the 
various industrial interests throughout the State. Kenneth Gr. Smith, 
Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, has been appointed in 
charge of this work. 

Prof. Smith, in the capacity of Industrial Yisitor, will visit the 
manufacturing centers of Illinois in order to become acquainted with 
the problems confronting these various interests, so that such funda- 
mental problems as affect a large number of our industries can be taken 
up and such study of these problems made as facilities and funds permit. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK. 

1. (a) The determination of the strength of materials used in con- 
structive engineering work. 

(b) A study of municipal water supply and sewage disposal as affecting 
public health. 



346 YEAR BOOK FOR 1908. [bull. no. 14 

2. Fuel Investigations. 

(a) A study of the best methods of using economically the fuels of the 
State, not only for the production of power, but for the heating of buildings,, 
metallurgical purposes, etc. 

(b) Economic production and use of steam. 

(c) Use of Illinois coal in the gas-producer and gas engine. 

(d) Utilization of oil products for economical and industrial purposes. 

(e) A study of the development and economical use of the machinery 
used in mining operations. 

(f) A study of the development and economic production of manufactured 
products. 

3. (a) A study of the economic construction and maintenance of roads, 
(b) A study of the properties and strength of fabricated articles, such as 

bridges and frame work of important engineering machines and structures. 

4. (a) Generation, transmission and utilization of electrical energy, 
(b) A study and investigation of the economic and satisfactory methods 

of telephony. 

5. A study of the problems of economic transportation of materials by 
rail and water. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THEI ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION. 

The demand for our publications has, in some cases, entirely exhausted 
the supply. We regret, therefore, that, we cannot comply with your 
request. The following list shows which of the bulletins are still avail-, 
able. We shall be glad to mail any of these to you upon request. 

Bulletins Out of Print. 

Bulletin No. 1. Tests of Reinforced Concrete Beams, by Arthur N. Tal- 
bot. 1904. 

Circular No. 2. Drainage of Earth Roads, by Ira O. Baker. 1906. 

Bulletin No. 3. The Engineering Experiment Station of the University 
of Illinois, by L. P. Breckenridge. 1906. 

Bulletin No. 5. Resistance of Tubes to Collapse, by Albert P. Carman. 
1906. 

Bulletin No. 6. Holding Power of Railroad Spikes, by Roy I. Webber. 1906. 

Bulletin No. 8. Tests of Concrete: I. Shear; II. Bond, by Arthur N. 
Talbot. 1906. 

Bulletin No. 10. Tests of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Columns, 
Series of 1906, by Arthur N. Talbot. 1907. 

Bulletin No. 11. The Effect of Scale on the Transmission of Heat through 
Locomotive Boiler Tubes, by Edward C. Schmidt and John ML Snodgrass. 
1907. 

Bulletin No. 12. Tests of Reinforced Concrete T-beams, Series of 1906, 
by Arthur N. Talbot. 1907. 

Bulletin No. 14. Tests of Reinforced Concrete Beams, Series of 1906, by 
Arthur N. Talbot. 1907. 

Bulletin No. 17. The Weathering of Coal, by S. W. Parr, N. D. Hamilton 
and W. F. Wheeler. 1908. 

Bulletins Available. 

Circular No. 1. High Speed Tool Steels, by L. P. Breckenridge. 1905. 

Bulletin No. 2. Tests of High Speed Tool Steels on Cast Iron, by L. P. 
Breckenridge and Henry B. Dirks. 1905. 

Bulletin No. 4. Tests of Reinforced Concrete Beams, Series of 1905, by 
Arthur N. Talbot. 1906. 



BRECKENRiDGE.] ENGINEEEING EXPERIMENT STATION. Ml 

Bulletin No. 7. Fuel Tests with Illinois Coals, by L. P. Breckenridge, S. 
W. Parr and Henry B. Dirks. 1906. 

Bulletin No. 9. An Extension of the Dewey Decimal System of Classifi- 
cation Applied to the Engineering Industries, by L. P. Breckenridge and 
G. A. Goodenough. 1906. 

Bulletin No. 13. An Extension of the Dewey Decimal System of Classifi- 
cation Applied to Architecture and Building, by N. Clifford Ricker. 1907. 

Bulletin No. 15. How to Burn Illinois Coal without Smoke, by L. P. Breck- 
enridge. 1908. 

Bulletin No. 16. A Study of Roof Trusses, by N. Clifford Ricker. 1908. 

Bulletin No. 18. The Strength of Chain Links, by G. A. Goodenough and 
L. E. Moore. 1908. 

Bulletin No. 19. Comparative Tests of Carbon, Metalized Carbon and Tan- 
talum Filament Lamps, by T. H. Amrine. 1908. 

Bulletin No. 20. Tests of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Columns, 
Series of 1907, by Arthur N. Talbot. 1908. 

Bulletin No. 21. Tests of a Liquid Air Plant, by C. S. Hudson and C. M. 
Garland. 1908. 

Bulletin No. 22. Tests of Cast-Iron and Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe, 
by Arthur N. Talbot. 1908. 

Bulletin No. 23. Voids, Settlement and Weight of Crushed Stone, by Ira 
0. Baker. 1908. 

Bulletin No. 24. The Modification of Illinois Coal by Low Temperature 
Distillation, by S. W. Parr and C. K. Francis. 1908. 

Bulletin No. 25. Lighting Country Homes by Private Electric Plants, by 
T. H. Amrine. 1908. 

Bulletin No. 26. High Steam Pressures in Locomotive Service, by W. P. 
M. Goss. 1909. 

Bulletin No. 27. Test of Brick and Terra Cotta Block Columns, by Arthur 
N. Talbot. 1909. (In press.) 

Bulletin No. 28. A Test of Three Large Reinforced Concrete Beams, by 
Arthur N. Talbot. 1909. (In press.) 

Address all requests and changes of addresses to the Director, Engineering 
Experiment Station, Urbana, Illinois. 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION IN PROGRESS MARCH 1^ 1909. 
I. Architecture. 

1. Study of plain base and bearing plates for columns N. C. Ricker 

2. Study of ribbed base plates for columns C. E. Noerenberg 

3. Economical design of steel roof trusses C. E. Noerenberg 

4. Economical design of wooden roof trusses N. W. Overstreet 

5. Description of specialties and conveniences adapted for isolated 

country dwellings J. M. White 

II. Civil Engineering. 

6. Tests on the action of rolling loads on ordinary highway 

bridges J. P. Brooks, F. O. Dufour 

7. Standardization of the rattler test for paving brick L. G. Parker 

8. Use of concrete on the farm J. J. Richey 

III. Electical Engineering. 

9. Tests on tungsten lamps T. H. Amrine 

10. Interference between high potential and telephone lines A. Guell 

11. Tests of household electric appliances W. C. Maddox 

12. Experiments upon the utility and limitations in the use of electric 

andirons W. C. Maddox 

13. Electric drives for machine tools J. M. Bryant 

14. Investigation of the clays of Illinois with a view to the possibility 

of the manufacture of insulators for high potential lines. J. M. Bryant 



348 YEAR BOOK FOE 1908. [bull. no. 14 

IV. Mechanical Engineeeing. 

(a) GENERAL. 

15. The flow of steam through nozzles G. A. Goodenough, K. G. Smith 

16. Transmission of heat through tubes under varying velocities of 

water flow C. M. Garland 

17. Tests on constant pressure generator C. M. Garland 

18. Gas producer tests at varying capacities A. P. Kratz 

19. Explosive mixtures of gases or the study of premature ignition 

in internal combustion engines R. E. Robinson 

20. Problems in steam heating by central station system W. D. Scott 

21. The cost of power J. C. Thorpe 

(b) FUEL. 

22. Fuel tests with house-heating boilers J. M. Snodgrass, F. L. Busey 

23. Experiments on a smokeless furnace J. M. Snodgrass 

24. Fuel tests with hot air furnaces J. M. Snodgrass 

25. Fuel tests with Illinois coal in power plant boilers .... C. S. McGovney